Pulp and paper industry
The industry is dominated by North American (United States and Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden, and North-West Russia) and East Asian countries (such as East Siberian Russia, China, Japan, and South Korea). Australasia and Brazil also have significant pulp and paper enterprises. The United States had been the world's leading producer of paper until it was overtaken by China in 2009.
The industry is criticized by environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council for unsustainable deforestation and clearcutting of old-growth forest. The industry trend is to expand globally to countries like Russia, China and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental oversight. According to Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest for cattle and soybean production without any consequences, and companies who buy timber from private land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest.
- 1 The manufacturing process
- 2 Paper
- 3 Pulp
- 4 History of the paper industry
- 5 Environmental effects
- 6 Current production volumes and sales
- 7 Manufacturers and suppliers for the industry
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The manufacturing process
The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying.
Pressing the sheet removes the water by force; once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water; whereas when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead.
Drying involves using air and/or heat to remove water from the paper sheets; in the earliest days of paper making this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry; in more modern times various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine the most common is the steam heated can dryer. These can reach temperatures above 200 °F (93 °C) and are used in long sequences of more than 40 cans; where the heat produced by these can easily dry the paper to less than 6% moisture.
History of the paper industry
Current production volumes and sales
List of main countries by production quantity
|Country||Production in 2011
|Production in 2010
List of main company groups by production quantity
The world's main paper and paperboard company groups are as follows. (Some figures are estimates.):
|Rank||Company Group||Country||Production in 2015
|Rank by Sales|
|1||International Paper||United States||23315||1|
|2||Nine Dragon Paper Holdings||China||12630||18|
|6||Oji Paper Company||Japan||9115||3|
|8||Smurfit Kappa Group||Ireland||7000||9|
|9||DS Smith||United Kingdom||6802||13|
List by net sales
|Rank||Company||Country||2008 Net Sales
|2008 Net Income (Loss)
|1||International Paper||United States||24,829||(1,282)|
|10||Mondi Group||UK/ South Africa||9,466||(310)|
Manufacturers and suppliers for the industry
Leading manufacturers of capital equipment with over $1 billion in annual revenue for the pulp and paper industry include:
- American Forest & Paper Association
- List of paper mills
- Converters (industry)
- Paper pollution
- Pulp and Paper
- Roll hardness tester
- Wood industry
- Forestry industry
- Environmental impact of paper
- De Sisti, Mike (12 December 2012). "China's Paper Operation". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- "NRDC: Paper Industry Laying Waste to North American Forests". www.nrdc.org. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- "A crumpling paper industry". Oregon Local News. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- "Amazon draught speeds up destruction The WE News Archives". www.thewe.cc. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- Phillips, Tom (2011-05-20). "Brazil forms 'crisis cabinet' following unexpected deforestation surge". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- Pira International Ltd. Nanotechnology in Paper Production. iSmithers Rapra Publishing. ISBN 184735811X.
- Hubbe, M.A. (2006). "Does production of the world's highest-tonnage manufactured item often involve nanotechnology?". Nanotechnology Perceptions. 2 (3): 263–265. ISSN 1660-6795.
- Hills, Richard, "Papermaking in Britain 1488–1988", Athlone Press, 1988.
- "The Paper Trail at Frogmore Mill". Apsley Paper Trail charity. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- "Japan in the World (according to the figure in Annual Review of Global Pulp and Paper Statistics by RISI)" (in Japanese). Japan Paper Association. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
- "The PPI Top 100". RISI. Retrieved 2017-02-02.
- "Global Forest, Paper & Packaging Industry Survey: 2009 Edition - Survey of 2008 Results" (pdf). PricewaterhouseCoopers. p. 12. Retrieved 2011-02-24.