|Predecessor||Split from Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory|
|François Pinault (Partner & President) |
Robyn Rihanna Fenty (Partner & Fashion Designer)
Shawn JAY-Z Carter (Partner, President of Basketball & Sports Designer)
Bjørn Gulden (CEO)
Hubert Hinterseher (CFO)
Lars Sorensen (COO)
Bob Philion (President of North America)
|Revenue||€5.50 billion (2019)|
|€440 million (2019)|
|€262 million (2019)|
|Total assets||€4.37 billion (2019)|
|Total equity||€1.92 billion (2019)|
Number of employees
Puma SE, branded as Puma, is a German multinational corporation that designs and manufactures athletic and casual footwear, apparel and accessories, which is headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany. Puma is the third largest sportswear manufacturer in the world. The company was founded in 1948 by Rudolf Dassler. In 1924, Rudolf and his brother Adolf "Adi" Dassler had jointly formed the company Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik (Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory). The relationship between the two brothers deteriorated until the two agreed to split in 1948, forming two separate entities, Adidas and Puma. Both companies are currently based in Herzogenaurach, Germany.
Puma has been a public company since 1986, listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. French luxury group Kering (formerly known as Pinault-Printemps-Redoute or PPR) holds 16%, Kering's largest shareholder Artemis SA owns 29% of the share capital. Since 1 July 2013, the company has been led by former football professional Bjørn Gulden (chief executive officer).
Following the split from his brother, Rudolf originally registered the newly established company as Ruda (derived from Rudolf Dassler, as Adidas was based on Adi Dassler), but later changed the name to Puma. Puma's earliest logo consisted of a square and beast jumping through a D, which was registered, along with the company's name, in 1948. Puma's shoe and clothing designs feature the Puma logo and the distinctive "Formstrip" which was introduced in 1958.
Puma offers products for Football, Basketball, Running, Training and Fitness, Golf, Motorsports and Sportstyle. It has sponsored a number of legendary athletes, including Pelé, Eusébio, Johan Cruyff, Diego Maradona, Lothar Matthaus, Clyde Frazier, Jim Hines, Boris Becker, Martina Navratilova, Tommie Smith, Joe Namath, Linford Christie, Colin Jackson, Heike Drechsler and Michael Schumacher among others.
Currently, international footballers, including Neymar, Gianluigi Buffon, Sergio Agüero, Antoine Griezmann, Marco Reus, Raphael Varane, Luis Suárez, David Silva, Vincent Kompany, Christian Pulisic and many more are sporting Puma football boots.
In terms of football clubs, Puma sponsors Borussia Dortmund, Manchester City F.C., Olympique de Marseille, Fenerbahçe S.K., Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Crystal Palace F.C., Valencia CF, AC Milan, US Sassuolo, Club de Fútbol Monterrey, Bengaluru FC, Mumbai City FC and many others. National football teams include Italy, Iceland, Switzerland, Austria, Morocco, Egypt and Uruguay.
In athletics (track and field), Puma sponsors several athletic associations such as the Jamaica, Cuba, Bahamas, Grenada, Trinidad & Tobago, Dominican, Barbados, Portugal, Switzerland and Norway. It also has the world's fastest man and Jamaican track athlete Usain Bolt under contract along with other track and field athletes like Andre Degrasse, Karsten Warholm and Gianmarco Tamberi. Over the past decades, several world records were achieved by athletes wearing Puma shoes, such as Heinz Futterer (1954), Armin Hary (1960), Jim Hines (1976), Tommie Smith (1968), Asafa Powell (2005), and Usain Bolt (2009).
In 2018 Puma announced its entrance back into basketball after a break of almost 20 years. The brand appointed Jay-Z as creative director of Puma basketball. Marvin Bagley, Deandre Ayton, Zhaire Smith, and Michael Porter Jr. are the first players to join Puma's basketball roster and play in performance Puma basketball shoes.
From 2018 Puma became the official apparel sponsor of New Zealand's national netball team, the Silver Ferns.
The firm sponsors Indian cricketer Virat Kohli the captain of the India cricket team. Golfers such as Rickie Fowler, Bryson DeChambeau and Lexi Thompson are equipped by Puma's golf brand Cobra Puma Golf.
In Formula 1, Puma equips the teams of Mercedes AMG Petronas, Scuderia Ferrari and Red Bull Racing. In addition, Puma also sponsors BMW and Porsche in all of their Motorsports activities. In NASCAR Puma equips Team Penske with fire suits, gloves, and shoes.
Puma is also the main sponsor of the Israel Football Association (IFA) and is currently a focus of the Palestinian Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement's international campaign to end culture-washing of the system of apartheid  against Palestinians in Israel and the Occupied Territories. The IFA, with sponsorship from Puma and other companies, operates from settlements built on land illegally stolen from Palestinians, as does Puma itself via its past and present licensees in Israel. Every settlement is a war crime under international law – pushing indigenous Palestinian families off their land, robbing natural resources, and denying Palestinians their right of movement. By sponsoring the IFA, Puma is complicit in supporting these crimes.
In July 2021 there were anti-sweatshop protests outside Puma’s offices in Manchester, UK, as well as at 30 UK Puma stores.
The company has a few dozen small corporate offices around the world, and four "international hubs": Boston, Massachusetts (moving to Assembly Row, Somerville, Massachusetts); Hong Kong; Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; and global headquarters in Herzogenaurach, Germany.
Christoph von Wilhelm Dassler was a worker in a shoe factory, while his wife Pauline ran a small laundry in the Franconian town of Herzogenaurach, 20 km (12.4 mi) from the city of Nuremberg. After leaving school, their son, Rudolf Dassler, joined his father at the shoe factory. When he returned from fighting in World War I, Rudolf was trained as a salesman at a porcelain factory, and later in a leather trading business in Nuremberg.
In 1924, Rudolf and his younger brother, Adolf, nicknamed "Adi", founded a shoe factory. They named the new business "Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik" (Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory) which was the only business at the time that manufactured sports shoes. The pair started their venture in their mother's laundry. At the time, electricity supplies in the town were unreliable, and the brothers sometimes had to use pedal power from a stationary bicycle to run their equipment. In 1927, they moved into a separate building.
The brothers drove from Bavaria to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin with a suitcase full of spikes and persuaded United States sprinter Jesse Owens to use them, the first sponsorship for an African American. Owens won four gold medals. Business boomed; the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes annually before World War II.
Both brothers joined the Nazi Party, but Rudolf was slightly closer to the party. A growing rift between the brothers reached a breaking point during a 1943 Allied bomb attack. Adi and his wife climbed into a bomb shelter that Rudolf and his family were already in. "Here are the bloody bastards again," Adi remarked, apparently referring to the Allied war planes, but Rudolf, due to his apparent insecurity, was convinced his brother meant him and his family. When Rudolf was later picked up by American soldiers and accused of being a member of the Waffen SS, he was convinced that his brother had turned him in.
After increasingly different views of how to run the business, the brothers split the business in 1948. Rudolf moved to the other side of the Aurach River to start his own company. Adolf started his own company using a name he formed using his nickname—Adi—and the first three letters of his last name—Das—to establish Adidas. Rudolf created a new firm that he called "Ruda", from "Ru" in Rudolf and "Da" in Dassler. A few months later, Rudolf's company changed its name to Puma Schuhfabrik Rudolf Dassler in 1948.
Puma and Adidas entered a fierce and bitter rivalry after the split. The town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, leading to the nickname "the town of bent necks"—people looked down to see which shoes strangers wore.
In 1948, the first football match after World War II, several members of the West German national football team wore Puma boots, including the scorer of West Germany's first post-war goal, Herbert Burdenski.
At the 1960 Summer Olympics Puma paid German sprinter Armin Hary to wear Pumas in the 100-metre sprint final. Hary had worn Adidas before and asked Adolf for payment, but Adidas rejected this request. The German won gold in Pumas but then laced up Adidas for the medals ceremony, to the shock of the two Dassler brothers. Hary hoped to cash in from both, but Adi was so enraged he banned the Olympic champion.
During the 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute, Puma sponsored African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos, after having won gold and bronze in the 200 meters respectively, took to the podium with their Puma Suedes in hand and bowed their heads and raised their black-gloved fists in silent protest during the playing of the national anthem, an act meant to stand up for human rights and to stand up for black Americans.
Puma became a public company in 1986, and thereafter was listed on the Börse München and Frankfurt Stock Exchange. It also introduced the RS Computer shoe, with "RS" standing for "running system," an integrated device that measured runner's speed, pace, and caloric use. It sold poorly.
In May 1989, Rudolf's sons Armin and Gerd Dassler agreed to sell their 72 percent stake in Puma to Swiss business Cosa Liebermann SA.
For the fiscal year 2003, the company had revenue of €1.274 billion. Puma was the commercial sponsor for the 2002 anime series Hungry Heart: Wild Striker, with the jerseys and clothing sporting the Puma brand. Puma ranks as one of the top shoe brands with Adidas and Nike.
In February 2007 Puma reported that its profits had fallen by 26% to €32.8 million ($43 million; £22 million) during the final three months of 2006. Most of the decline in profits was due to higher costs linked to its expansion; sales rose by more than a third to €480.6 million.
In early April 2007 Puma's shares rose €29.25 per share, or about 10.2%, to €315.24 per share.
On 10 April 2007 French retailer and owner of Gucci brand Pinault-Printemps-Redoute (PPR) announced that it had bought a 27% stake in Puma, clearing the way for a full takeover. The deal valued Puma at €5.3 billion. PPR said that it would launch a "friendly" takeover for Puma, worth €330 a share, once the acquisition of the smaller stake was completed. The board of Puma welcomed the move, saying it was fair and in the firm's best interests.
As of July 2007, PPR owned over 60% of Puma stock.
In July 2011 the company completed a conversion from an Aktiengesellschaft (German public limited company) to a Societas Europaea, the European Union-wide equivalent, changing its name from Puma AG Rudolf Dassler Sport to Puma SE. At the same time, Franz Koch replaced the long-serving Jochen Zeitz as the firm's chief executive officer, with Zeitz becoming chairman.
Puma holds a 5% stake at German sports club Borussia Dortmund, whose supplier has been the company since 2012.
The company has been led by former football professional Bjørn Gulden (chief executive officer) since 1 July 2013.
Puma is the main producer of enthusiast driving shoes and race suits. They are the primary producer for Formula One and NASCAR clothing. They won the rights to sponsor the 2006 FIFA World Cup champions, the Italian national football team, making and sponsoring the clothing worn by the team. They entered a partnership with BMW, Ducati and Ferrari to make Puma-Ferrari, Puma-Ducati and Puma-BMW shoes.
In 2014, Puma and Arsenal Football Club entered a 5-year merchandising partnership. The commercial partnership represents the biggest deal in Puma and Arsenal's history. The partnership ended in 2019.
In March 2018, Puma launched its venture with its ambassador Selena Gomez called "Phenom Lux''. In 2018, Puma re-entered the basketball sneaker market for the first time in 20 years and announced Jay-Z will be the creative director for Puma Basketball. Puma last sponsored Vince Carter in 1998. They signed young basketball players Marvin Bagley III and Deandre Ayton, both of whom became the Top 2 picks of the 2018 NBA Draft.
In December 2018, Puma reintroduced the RS Computer, with "RS" standing for "running system." The shoe contains technologies such as an accelerometer and Bluetooth.
In July 2021, Puma signed with 18 athletes in India to represent the country in national and international events across sports such as hockey, shooting etc. 
Labor practices and factory conditions
In 2000, Puma began auditing all of its suppliers on a yearly basis, and makes the results available in its sustainability reports. Since 2005, it has publicly provided a list of its suppliers.
In August 2004, a joint report from the National Labor Committee and China Labor Watch stated that workers at some of Puma's Chinese factories were enduring sweatshop conditions, working up to 16.5 hours per day for about US$0.31 an hour. Puma said they would investigate the claims.
In February 2012, a woman who worked for one of Puma's suppliers in Cambodia was shot during a protest over factory working conditions. Puma acknowledged the poor working conditions and said they would work to improve the situation.
According to a joint report from Labour Behind the Label and Community Legal Education Centre, 30 workers fainted in November 2012 while producing clothing for Puma in China. The faintings were caused by excessive heat and alleged forced overtime. In 2014, almost 120 workers fainted in two Cambodian clothing factories where sportswear was being produced for Puma and Adidas, due to temperatures above 100 degrees. In March 2017, 150 workers assembling Puma products in Cambodia fainted due to thick smoke.
Puma has obtained the Ethical Clothing Australia accreditation for its Australian-made products. This labour-friendly accreditation applies to only a small percentage of Puma's total production.
In May 2011, English newspaper The Guardian released an article saying that Puma was the "world's first major company to put a value on its environmental impact". According to the article the company "has made a commitment that within four years, half its international collections will be manufactured according to its internal sustainability standard, by using more sustainable materials such as recycled polyester, as well as ensuring its suppliers develop more sustainable materials and products."
Puma is also known for boosting positive environmental practices in its supply chain through financial incentives. The innovative Supply Chain Finance scheme implemented links the sustainability performance of key suppliers to the costs at which they can access finance. Such scheme won the company an "Innovation Award" in Supply Chain Finance in 2016.
- 1920: Rudolf Dassler and his brother Adolf start making sports shoes.
- 1924: Foundation of Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik, Herzogenaurach, Germany.
- 1930s: With the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s, both Dassler brothers joined the Nazi Party, with Rudolf reputed as being the more ardent National Socialist. They produced boots for the Wehrmacht.
- 1948: The brothers split, forming Puma (at first, Ruda) and Adidas. In the same year, Puma's first football boot, the "Atom", was launched.
- 1952: Rudolf Dassler developed the "Super Atom", a football boot with screw-in studs.
- 1953: Development of Atom's successor: the Brasil.
- 1958: Puma introduced its trademark formstrip logo.
- 1959: The company is transformed into a limited partnership named Puma-Sportschuhfabriken Rudolf Dassler KG.
- 1960: Puma is the first sports shoe manufacturer to use vulcanization.
- 1970: A few months prior to the 1970 FIFA World Cup, Armin Dassler (Rudolf's son) and his cousin, Horst Dassler (Adi's son), sealed an agreement which was dubbed "The Pelé pact". This agreement dictated that soccer player Pelé would be out of bounds for both Adidas and Puma. However, Pelé complied with a request by Puma's representative Hans Henningsen to increase the awareness and profile of Puma after he received $120,000 to wear the Formstrips. At the opening whistle of a 1970 World Cup finals match, Pelé stopped the referee with a last-second request to tie his shoelaces before kneeling down to give millions of television viewers a close-up of his Puma shoes. This outraged Horst and future peace agreements were called off.
- 1972: Two years later, during the 1972 Summer Olympics, Puma provided shoes for the Ugandan 400 metres hurdles champion, John Akii-Bua. After Akii-Bua was forced out of Uganda by its military government, Puma employed him in Germany. Eventually Akii-Bua returned to Uganda.
- 1973: Launch of the Clyde. Designed for basketball player Walt "Clyde" Frazier, this model gained wide popularity.
- 1974: Rudolf Dassler died on 27 October. Both his sons Armin and Gerd inherited the company and after a legal dispute between the two, Armin Dassler took over the company.
- 1976: Introduction of the S.P.A.-Technology.
- 1985: Boris Becker helps develop the shoe that bears his name. Martina Navratilova is under contract with Puma from 1984 to 1987.
- 1986: Transformation into a stock corporation. The company went public as "Puma AG" was listed on the Munich and Frankfurt stock exchanges.
- 1989: Launch of the Trinomic sport shoe system.
- 1989: Rudolf's sons Armin and Gerd Dassler agreed to sell their 72 percent stake in Puma to Swiss business Cosa Liebermann SA.
- 1990: Introduction of Inspector, a growth control system for children's shoes.
- 1991: Launch of the Disc System sports shoe.
- 1992: Capital increase by DM 20 million, share capital reaches DM 70 million.
- 1993: Jochen Zeitz was appointed chief executive officer.
- 1994: The first profit since the company's initial public offering in 1986 is registered.
- 1996: Puma is listed in the German M-DAX index; introduction of the CELL technology, the first foam-free midsole.
- 1997: Launch of the Cellerator.
- 1998: Puma signs Serena Williams.
- 1999: Puma becomes an official on-field supplier of the NFL, a legacy reflected in the numeral font of the Tennessee Titans jersey which still uses the original Puma design. Puma is the uniform manufacturer for both Super Bowl teams that year.
- 2000: Production of fireproof footwear in partnership with Porsche and Sparco.
- 2001: Acquisition of the Scandinavian Tretorn Group. The Puma Speedcat is launched.
- 2002: Puma ends tenure as an on-field supplier for the NFL, when Reebok is announced as the league's sole official uniform and apparel sponsor for 10 years (2002-2011). Puma and Serena Williams unveiled the "Serena Williams Tennis Collection".
- 2003: Majority shareholder Monarchy/Regency sells its shareholdings to a broad base of institutional investors.
- 2004: Collaborative partnership with designer Philippe Starck.
- 2005: Mayfair Vermögensverwaltungsgesellschaft mbh acquires a total of 16.91% shareholding.
- 2006: The company is listed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index; Introduction of the S.A.F.E. concept, a specific tool developed to continuously improve social and environmental standards. Shoe collection in cooperation with Alexander McQueen.
- 2007: On 10 April, French retailer and owner of Gucci brand Pinault-Printemps-Redoute (PPR) announced that it had bought a 27% stake in Puma clearing the way for a full takeover. The deal valued Puma at €5.3 billion. PPR said that it would launch a "friendly" takeover for Puma, worth €330 a share, once the acquisition of the smaller stake was completed. The board of Puma welcomed the move, saying it was fair and in the firm's best interests. Prolongation of the contract with Jochen Zeitz by five years.
- 2008: Melody Harris-Jensbach is appointed deputy chief executive officer; cesigner and artist Hussein Chalayan becomes creative director, Puma also acquires a majority stake in Chalayan's business and Hussein Chalayan.
- 2010: Puma acquired Cobra Golf, which was renamed Cobra Puma Golf. Puma became a carbon neutral company.
- 2011: Puma becomes a European corporation under the name of Puma SE. Franz Koch is named chief executive officer. Puma took over Bodywear and Socks company Dobotex. The company released the first Environmental Profit and Loss Account which valued Puma's environmental impact at 145 million euros.
- 2012: Signs an eight-year deal to make kits for Borussia Dortmund, starting from the 2012–13 season.
- 2013: Bjørn Gulden is named chief executive officer.
- 2014: Puma announced a long-term deal with Club de Fútbol Monterrey.
- 2014: Puma and Arsenal Football Club entered a long-term merchandising partnership. The commercial partnership represents the biggest deal in Puma and Arsenal's history.
- 2015: Rihanna became Puma's global ambassador for women's training as well as Puma Women's creative director. She directly influences product collections, designs and customizes classic Puma styles as well as creates new product lines.
- 2016: Puma became the official licensed partner and official supplier of team and racewear to Red Bull Racing. Puma partnered with The Weeknd as a new Global Brand ambassador and creative collaborator.
- 2016: Puma endorses its casual wear deal with Virat Kohli as a new Cricket Brand ambassador and creative collaborator in India of worth ₨.110 crores.
- 2017: Puma released sneakers known as "Money in the Bank", in relation to WWE's annual pay-per-view, of the same name.
- 2017: Puma signs a five-year deal to make kits for Olympique de Marseille, starting from the 2018–19 season.
- 2018: Kering announces it will spin off a 70% stake in Puma to its shareholders while retaining directly 16%.
- 2018: Puma collaborates with Hello Kitty to launch the Puma X Hello Kitty For All Time collection.
- 2018: Puma & A.C. Milan announced an official long-term partnership, effective on 1 July 2018.
- 2018: BTS became Puma's global ambassadors.
- 2018: Puma signs a three-year deal to make kits for Palmeiras, starting from the 2019 season.
- 2018: Puma re-entry into the basketball sneaker category for the first time in 20 years and announced Jay-Z will be the creative director of Puma Basketball.
- 2019: Puma and City Football Group signed a global long-term partnership, the deal is the largest deal both organisations have signed, the deal will see Puma supply Manchester City F.C., Melbourne City FC, Girona FC, Club Atlético Torque, Mumbai City FC and Sichuan Jiuniu F.C.
- 2019: Puma released a line called Puma X SG in collaboration with actress and singer Selena Gomez.
- 2019: Puma signs a three-year deal to make kits for Valencia CF, starting from the 2019–20 season.
- 2020: Puma announced a long-term deal with Dutch football club PSV Eindhoven.
- 2020: Puma signed a long-term deal with Brazilian football superstar Neymar.
- 2020: Puma announced a long-term deal with Ukrainian football club FC Shakhtar Donetsk.
- 2020: Puma announced a long-term deal with New Zealand MMA fighter Israel Adesanya.
- 2021: Puma signs a long-term deal to dress Maccabi Tel Aviv BC, making the Israeli powerhouse the first EuroLeague team to wear Puma.
- "Puma FY 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 5 December 2019.
- Puma company profile craft.co. Retrieved 5 September 2021
- "The Top 3 Brands in Sportswear". sportsleisurewear. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "Puma welcomes planned Change in Ownership Structure". about.puma.com. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
- "Puma at a Glance". Puma. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Smit 2009, p. 31.
- Smit 2009, p. 33.
- "11 Puma Football Players revealed playlists they are listening to prior to a match". Puma Catch up. 27 June 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- Dhyani, Kunal (1 March 2019). "Puma inks Premier League's second highest sponsorship deal". InsideSport. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "The 20 Most Iconic Sneakers in Olympic History". Complex. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "A Culture of "Firsts"". Puma Catch up. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "Puma Relaunches Basketball Division With Multiple Signings, Jay-Z Joins as Creative Consultant". Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Puma Has Signed Deandre Ayton And Marvin Bagley To Sneaker Deals". Uproxx. 18 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Zhaire Smith signs shoe deal with Puma". Viva The Matadors. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Puma set to take to the court with Vixens partnership". Melbourne Vixens. Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Rickie Fowler Signs a Long-Term Extension with Puma Cobra Golf | Success Series". Success Series. 2 February 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "DeChambeau Turns Pro, Signs Deals With Cobra Puma, Bridgestone". Golf.com. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "Lexi Thompson signs extension with Cobra Puma". Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "Red Bull Formula One Investment Accelerates Four-Fold To $55 Million". www.forbes.com. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- "All Six BMW M4 DTM Liveries Revealed Before 2018 Season Kick Off". BMW Blog. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Schlemmer, Zack (17 May 2018). "Cara Delevingne Helps Puma Introduce Cut-Out Sneaker Perfect for Summer". Footwear News. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- "Selena Gomez Debuts Puma's New Training Shoe". Sole Collector. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- "This Is Apartheid". www.btselem.org. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "Why Are Palestinians Threatening to Boycott Puma?". www.albawaba.com. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "Puma swaps one complicit Israeli distributor for another". https://bdsmovement.net. Retrieved 2 September 2021. External link in
- "BDS Global Campaign - Boycott Puma". https://bdsmovement.net. Retrieved 2 September 2021. External link in
- Puma is moving its headquarters to Assembly Row
- "Puma Locations". Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "The Town that Sibling Rivalry Built, and Divided". Deutsche Welle – dw-world.de. 7 March 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
- "How Adidas and Puma were born - Rediff Sports". Rediff.com. 8 November 2005. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- Smit 2009, p. 18.
- "Puma AG Rudolf Dassler Sport". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
- initclock() (19 August 2011). "The Top Ten Shoe Companies in the World| Top Tens List| World Tens". World Tenz. Archived from the original on 29 December 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- "Puma Pays Homage to Tommie Smith and the Black Power Salute in New "BHM" Collection". complex. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Matthews, Peter (22 March 2012). Historical Dictionary of Track and Field. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810879850.
- "Puma – History". about.puma.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- As it Happens, Fitness-tracking shoe was considered 'useless' in 1986 - now Puma is bringing it back, CB C Radio, 12 December 2018.
- Thomas, Rob (7 January 2015). Big Data Revolution: What Farmers, Doctors, and Insurance Agents Can Teach Us about Patterns in Big Data. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118943717.
- "Puma sees sharp fall in profit". BBC News. 19 February 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Puma's shares surge on bid rumour". BBC News. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Gucci-firm PPR buys stake in Puma". BBC News. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Koch ist neuer Puma-Chef". Focus (in German). 25 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Passariello, Christina. "Puma Names New CEO". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Lauren Milligan (16 December 2014). "Rihanna Named Creative Director of Puma". Vogue.
- "Puma and Arsenal announce partnership". Arsenal. 27 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Minton, Melissa. "Selena Gomez Designed a Pair of Sneakers—and Socks!—for Puma". Glamour. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "After 20 years, Puma returns to basketball". CNBC. 19 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- "Puma reissues its nerdiest shoe ever, the RS-Computer". TechCrunch. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Laghate, Gaurav. "PUMA signs 18 athletes in India ahead of Tokyo Olympics". The Economic Times.
- Puma, Puma releases 2007–2008 Sustainability Report, 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "GERMANY: Puma Accused of Chinese Sweatshop Exploitation". just-style. 20 August 2004. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Puma officials go to Cambodia after factory shooting". Reuters. 23 February 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- Anna McMullen. Shop 'til they drop: Fainting and Malnutrition in Garment Workers in Cambodia (PDF) (Report). Labour Behind the Label. p. 5. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- McCoy, Terrence (10 April 2014). "Mass faintings in Cambodia: What's the reason?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
- "Hundreds of Cambodian garment workers faint". Al Jazeera. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- McVeigh, Karen (24 June 2017). "Cambodian female workers in Nike, Asics and Puma factories suffer mass faintings". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
- Ethical Clothing Australia, Accredited sports brands. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Jo Confino (16 May 2011). "Puma world's first major company to put a value on its environmental impact". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
- "The 2016 Innovation Award: Puma". Supply Chain Finance Briefing. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "The History of Adidas and Puma". 13 April 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- Kirschbaum, Erik (8 November 2005). "How Adidas and Puma were born". The Journal. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- Kuhn, Von Robert; Thiel, Thomas (3 April 2009). "Shoes and Nazi Bazookas – The Prehistory of Adidas and Puma". spiegel.de. Translated by Paul Cohen. Spiegel Gruppe. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- Aneculaesei, Calin (13 April 2020). "The Nazi Origins of Adidas and Puma". medium.com. Medium. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- "Puma rewriting football history". about.puma.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Puma Football and Basketball Uniforms". Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "History of Puma AG Rudolf Dassler Sport – FundingUniverse". www.fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Smit 2009, p. 82.
- "The John Akii Bua Story: An African Tragedy". SpeedEndurance.com. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "20 Sneakers That Have Lived Double Lives - Puma Clyde". Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Puma is a European Corporation". about.puma.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Killing It In Running Science For Over 80 Years - 1989: The Trinomic Sole: Puma's Most Advanced Tech Yet". Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Jochen Zeitz | Kering". www.kering.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- O'brien, Kevin J. (12 March 2004). "Focusing on Armchair Athletes, Puma Becomes a Leader". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- "Quaker City Mercantile: News & Press - Puma Launches New Marketing Strategy". independent.ie. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "tretorn-acquired-authentic-brands-group". Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- "Reebok, NFL try fresh start". m.sportsbusinessdaily.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Monarchy Regency sells its stake in Puma - New Europe". Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Puma Announces Collaboration with Philippe Starck". about.puma.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Mayfair acquires a stake in Puma". about.puma.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Puma becomes Industry Leader in Dow Jones Sustainability Index". about.puma.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Puma (31 May 2006). "Puma Announces Collaboration with Alexander McQueen". www.prnewswire.co.uk. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Puma welcomes PPR as its new strategic shareholder and its voluntary take-over offer". about.puma.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Contract with Puma's CEO Jochen Zeitz extended ahead of schedule". about.puma.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Energy, We Are. "Jack Wolfskin Appoints Melody Harris-Jensbach Chief Executive". snowindustrynews.com. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Hussein Chalayan Appointed Creative Director of Puma". www.adweek.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Puma acquires Cobra Golf". 10 March 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- Bäumer, Matthias (26 August 2012). "Borussia Dortmund agree an eight-year deal with Puma in a lucrative deal with the German club". London: Football Shirt Maker. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "Hello kitty! Arsenal agree £170m kit deal with Puma the biggest in English football". Daily Mirror. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- David Siders. "Rhianna Gamechanger". UK Puma. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Puma clinch Marseille deal". Soccerex. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- "Kering to spin off Puma to its shareholders". 12 January 2018.
- https://plus.google.com/+travelandleisure/posts. "Puma Is Collaborating With Hello Kitty to Launch the Cutest Sneakers Ever". Travel + Leisure. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "Puma and AC Milan Announce Long-Term Partnership". A.C. Milan. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- "BTS Are Puma's New Ambassadors And We Will Buy All The Athletic Gear". HuffPost Canada. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Palmeiras acerta com a Puma para fornecer material esportivo a partir de 2019". Palmeiras.com.br. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
- "Jay-Z named president of Puma Basketball". ESPN. 19 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- "Puma and CFG sign global long-term strategic deal". mancity.com. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- Colon, Ana (15 May 2019). "Selena Gomez's New Puma Collection Is Full of Hidden Messages". Glamour. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Valencia confirm '€4m a year' Puma deal". SportsPro.com. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "The King Is Back": Puma Signs Long-Term Partnership With Football Star Neymar JR". Puma. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- "Maccabi and Puma signed a multi-year partnership". maccabi.co.il. 5 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Puma AG.|