|• Mayor||Mukta Tilak (BJP)|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Mr. Kunal Kumar|
|• Member of Parliament||Anil Shirole (BJP, Lok Sabha)|
|• Metropolis||479 km2 (185 sq mi)|
|Elevation||560 m (1,840 ft)|
|• Rank||2nd: Maharashtra|
|• Density||6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro rank||9th|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Postal Index Number||411001 – 411062|
Pune (IPA: [puɳe] English pronunciation: //; spelt Poona during British rule) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra and the ninth most populous city in the country. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of Pune district and was once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire established by Shivaji Maharaj. In the 18th century, Pune was the political centre of the Indian subcontinent, as the seat of the Peshwas who were the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire.
Considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra, Pune is known as "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions in the city. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Since the 1950s and 1960s, Pune has had a traditional old-economic base as most of the old industries continue to grow. The city is known for its manufacturing and automobile industries, as well as for research institutes of information technology (IT), education, management and training, which attracts students, and professionals from India, South East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. A few college in the Europe have also actively engaged in Student-exchange programs with several colleges in Pune.
Pune is also one of the fastest growing cities in the Asia-Pacific region. The ‘Mercer 2017 Quality of Living rankings’ evaluated local living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world where Pune ranked at 145, second in India after Hyderabad (144). It also highlights Pune among evolving business centres and emerging nine cities around the world with citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies".
- 1 Toponymy
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Administration
- 8 Education and research
- 9 Culture
- 10 Cuisine
- 11 Architecture
- 12 Museums, parks and zoos
- 13 Sports and recreation
- 14 Transport
- 15 International Relations
- 16 Notable people
- 17 Places of interest
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 External links
By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi (पुनवडी).
Early and medieval
Copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era.
Pune was part of the territory ruled by Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327. In 1595, Maloji Raje Bhosale was granted the jagirdari (Fiefdom) of Pune by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century.
Pune was part of the Jagir (fiefdom) granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar. His grandson, Shivaji, the founder of Maratha Empire, was born in Shivneri fort not far from Pune. Shivaji was brought up by his mother in Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period between 1660 and 1705. When Chhatrapati Shahu succeeded to the Maratha throne in 1707, he wanted to declare Satara the capital but his chief administrators, the Peshwa who were the real power behind the throne, decided Pune was to be their headquarters.
Bhosale Jagir era
After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 AD and again between 1636 AD and 1647 AD, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town. He stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of areas around Pune and in neighbouring area of the Maval region. In addition, he developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order. Construction on the Lal Mahal began in 1631 AD. The Lal Mahal was completed in 1640 AD. Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity (gramadevata) of the city.
Shivaji encouraged the development of dams in the Parvati and Kondhwa regions of Pune for agricultural purposes. Pune and its surrounding villages were the major recruitment areas for Shivaji's army between 1645 AD and 1680 AD. Between 1660 AD and 1670 AD the town was captured by Mughal General Shahista Khan, but was recaptured by the Marathas in 1670 AD after the Battle of Sinhagad. Shivaji often used Pune as his transit base during his major campaigns such as Varhad-Karanja (1673), AhemadaNagar District (1675), Karnataka (1677), and Jalna (1679). During the 27-year-long conflict between the Marathas and the Mughals, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb from 1703 to 1705; during this time, the name of the town was changed to "Muhiyabad". Two years later, once again the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort and later Pune from the Mughals.
In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu. He moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728 and, in the process, laid the foundation for turning what was a Kasbah into a large city., Bajirao also started construction of Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in great expansion of Pune with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill. Many of the Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh temples were built during this era. The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period.,
Bajirao Peshwa constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada. The aqueduct is still operational. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading, and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed in this era. The Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces in the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802, Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818.
British rule (1818–1947)
The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then spelt Kirkee) on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army).
The city was known as Poona during British rule. The Poona Municipality was established in 1858. Railway line from Bombay and run by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) also reached the city in 1858,. Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed during the British Raj.
Pune was an important centre in the social and religious reform movements of the late 19th century. Prominent social reformers and freedom fighters lived here, including Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Vitthal Ramji Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve, Mahatma Jyotirao Phule and Dr. Raghunath Karve. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar resided in Pune when he enrolled in Fergusson College in 1902.
In late 1896, Pune was hit by bubonic plague. By the end of February 1897, the epidemic was raging with a mortality rate twice the norm and half the city's population fled. A Special Plague Committee was formed under the chairmanship of W.C. Rand, an Indian Civil Services officer. He brought troops to deal with the emergency. Although these measures were unpopular, the epidemic was under control by May. On 22 June 1897, during the Diamond Jubilee celebration of the coronation of Queen Victoria, Rand and his military escort were killed by the Chapekar brothers. A memorial to the Chapekar brothers exists at the spot on Ganeshkhind Road (University Road) between the Reserve Bank and the Agricultural College.
Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence. In the period between 1875 and 1910, the city was a major centre of agitation led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The city was also a centre for social reform led by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, feminist Tarabai Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Pandita Ramabai. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the Hindu and Muslim communities, and better schools for the poor. Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace in 1942–44, where both his wife and aide Mahadev Desai died.
Pune since Indian independence
After Indian independence in 1947 from Britain, Pune saw a lot of development, such as the establishment of the National Defence Academy at Khadakwasla and the National Chemical Laboratory at Pashan. Pune serves as the headquarters of the Southern Command of the Indian Army. Industrial development started in the 1950s and '60s in Hadapsar, Bhosari, Pimpri and Parvati. Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector.
In 1990, Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries. New businesses like floriculture, food processing, and wineries started to take root in and around the city. In 1998, work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began, and was completed in 2001. IT Parks were established in Aundh, Hinjawadi and Wagholi. In 2008, the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged additional development in the northwest region of the city.
On 13 February 2010, a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood on the east side of Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60. The explosion is now suspected to be an IED using an ammonium nitrate fuel oil mix. The blast was a first in what was until then the relatively safe environment of Pune.
During the first week of June 2013, heavy rainfall caused casualties and landslide near Katraj Ghat, very near to the city limit believed to be the "Modern South Gate" of the city. Generally endowed wit peaceful and healthy living conditions, Pune is now faced with challenges of any other regular cosmopolitan like rising population, weak infrastructure and pollution.
Pune is 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It is on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea. It is a hilly city, with its highest hill, Vetal Hill, rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. Just outside the city, the Sinhagad fort is at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 feet). It lies between 18° 32" North latitude and 73° 51" East longitude. Pune is 1,533 kilometres (953 mi) south of Delhi, 844 kilometres (524 mi) north of Bangalore, and 149 kilometres (93 mi) south-east of Mumbai by road.
Pune lies very close to the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam, about 100 km (62 mi) south of the city, and has been rated in Zone 3 (on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes) by the India Meteorological Department. Pune has experienced some moderate- and many low-intensity earthquakes in its history.
Parts of Pune city
The city of Pune can be divided into the following zones:
|Old City||The 17 Peths (burroughs, formerly markets or settlements) of Pune||These were established and developed during the Maratha rule and Peshwa administration, and are referred to as the old city.|
|New City – Inner District||Shivajinagar, Deccan Gymkhana, Erandawane, Kothrud, Prabhat Road, and Law College Road in the west; Camp, Bund Garden, and Koregaon Park in the east; Swargate, Parvati Hill, Sahakarnagar, Bibvewadi, Mukund Nagar, Maharshi Nagar, Gultekdi, and Salisbury Park to the south.||Bounded on the north by the Mula-Mutha river.|
|New City – Outer District||Khadki, Aundh and Ganeshkhind in the northwest; and Paud Road in the west; Dattawadi, Anandnagar, and Sahakarnagar in the southwest; Lullanagar in the southeast; Yerwada, Wadgaon Sheri, Chandan Nagar, Kalyani Nagar, and Shastri Nagar, in the northeast; Vishrantwadi in the north; Ghorpadi, Fatimanagar, Wanowrie, and Hadapsar South to the east.||Several educational institutes are located in the Kothrud, Nagar Road, Bund Garden Road neighbourhoods.|
|Inner Suburbs||Baner, Balewadi, and Pashan in the northwest; Bavdhan, Karve-Nagar, and Warje in the west; Wadgaon Budrukh in the southwest; Katraj, Khed Shivapur, Wanawadi, NIBM, Lullanagar, Kondhwa, Undri, and Mohammadwadi in the southeast; Wagholi, Kharadi, Vimannagar, and Mundhwa in the east; Dhanori and Kalas to the north.||Kharadi and Hadapsar are home to large IT parks.|
|Proposed Expansion||Mahalunge, Sus, Bavdhan Budrukh, Kirkatwadi, Pisoli, Lohegaon, Kondhwe Dhavde, Kopare, Nande, Uttam Nagar, Khadakwasla, Sadesatra Nali, Manjri, Narhe, Shivane, Ambegaon Khurd, Undri, Dhayari, Ambegaon Budruk, Urali Devachi, Mantarwadi, Holkarwadi, Authade (Handewadi), Wadachiwadi, Shiwalewadi, Phursungi, and Yeolewadi||28 new villages are to be merged in PMC limits|
North western suburbs (administered by PCMC).
|Pimpri and its surroundings||Pimpri industrial area, Pimprigaon, Chikhli, Kalewadi, Kasarwadi, Phugewadi, and Pimple Saudagar||Pimpri industrial area, and other residential areas, are included in this zone. Pimple Saudagar has become a new hub of residential areas because of its proximity to Hinjawadi IT Park.|
|Chinchwad and its surroundings||Chinchwadgaon, Thergaon, Tathawade||Industrial and residential area|
|Dapodi and its surroundings||Old Sangvi, Wakad, Hinjawadi, Pimple Nilakh, Pimple Gurav, and New Sangvi||IT Industrial area in Hinjawadi; other areas are residential. The Rajiv Gandhi Information technology (IT) park is in the Hinjawadi area.|
|Bhosari and its surroundings||Bhosari, Moshi, Dighi, Dudulgaon and Charholi Budruk||Industrial areas are at Moshi and Dighi; others are residential areas|
|Nigdi, Akurdi and its surroundings||Akurdi, Nigdi, Ravet, Talawade||Residential area. IT parks are in the Talawade area|
Pune has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) bordering with tropical wet and dry (Aw) with average temperatures ranging between 19 to 33 °C (66 to 91 °F). Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to June often extending till 15 June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching 42 °C (108 °F). The warmest month in Pune is May; although summer doesn't end until mid-June. The city often receives heavy dusty winds in May (and humidity remains high). Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature ever recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 30 April 1897.
The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.43 in) of annual rainfall in the city falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are not unheard of in this region.
Winter traditionally begins in November; November in particular is referred to as the Rosy Cold (literal translation) (Marathi: गुलाबी थंडी) which can be experienced typically during the festive season of Diwali. The daytime temperature hovers around 26 °C (79 °F) while night temperature is below 9 °C (48 °F) for most of December and January, often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was 1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17 January 1935. The climate of Pune has changed during the past 3 decades, especially since the rapid expansion of the industrial belts.
|Climate data for Pune|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.3
|Average high °C (°F)||30.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||20.5
|Average low °C (°F)||11.4
|Record low °C (°F)||1.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0
|Average precipitation days||0.0||0.1||0.6||1.1||2.8||7.5||12.8||10.6||7.4||4.6||2.0||0.4||49.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||56||46||36||36||48||70||79||82||78||64||58||58||59.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||291.4||282.8||300.7||303.0||316.2||186.0||120.9||111.6||177.0||248.0||270.0||288.3||2,895.9|
|Source #1: Temperature and Precipitation: IMD (1951–1980)|
|Source #2: Sun hours and Humidity: NOAA (1971–1990)|
|Source: Census of India|
The population of the Pune city is 3,124,458 and Pune Urban Agglomeration (Pune Metropolitan Area) is 5,057,709 as of the 2011 census[update]. The same was about 4,485,000 in 2005. The migrating population rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. The estimated population in 2016 for the Pune metro region is 6,226,959. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation, 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001. The sharp increase in censorial decade of 1991–2001 can be attributed to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. The average literacy rate of Pune was 86.15 in 2011 compared to 80.45 in 2001. Marathi is the official and most widely spoken language, while English and Hindi are understood by a significant part of the population. Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it has attracted migrants from all parts of India to come and settle here. The top five areas of migration are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after the partition of India in 1947.
Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Major communities by religion include Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, and Christians. Many Temples, Churches, Mosque, Gurudwaras, Buddhist Viharas, Jewish synagogues, Jain temples, and other religious buildings are found throughout the city. The most prominent Hindu temple in Pune is the Parvati Temple, located on Parvati hill and visible from most of the inner suburbs. The most visited temple is likely the Dagadusheth Halwai Ganapati temple, located in old city area of Pune. Also a popular temple is the Chaturshrungi Temple, located on Senapati Bapat road in the north west area of Pune. During Navratri, there is a large fair at the temple and worshippers gather from around the country to pray here. The presiding Deity of the city is the Kasba Ganapati this temple has be first redeveloped by Rajmata Jijau, whose temple is located in Kasba Peth in central Pune. Sarasbaug Ganpati is also a prominent landmark in Pune.
Islam is the second largest religion in Pune. Pune has a large number of Mosques, the most prominent of which are Chand Tara Masjid, Jaama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tablighi Jamaat. The Eid-gah Maidan located near Golibar Maidan on Shankar Sheth Road witnesses a large gathering of people for Eid namaz on Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras. Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar, Camp and Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha, Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city. Sikhism is one of the major religions of Pune and Sikhs have become an integral part of the society. In the past a Sikh has been elected mayor of Pune. The community also runs 2 schools. The Sikh community in Pune celebrates Gurpurabs with a lot of enthusiasm. They also organise Kirtan Darbars yearly which are attended by many important religious figures of the Sikh community as well as other communities. They serve Langar to all irrespective of the caste, creed or race of a person.
Other important religious places of other religions in Pune are the Ohel David Synagogue, The St Peter's Cathedral, Dapodi Church, JJ Agiary.
The Shrutisagar Ashram, located at Phulgaon off the Nagar road, houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy, located near the confluence of the Bhima, Bhama, and Indrayani rivers. It was established in 1989 by Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati. Here one can find detailed explanations of śruti and smriti (including the Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads and Puranas) in Marathi and English. As of the 2011 census, the population of Pune is as follows.
Pune has been associated with several significant spiritual teachers. Osho lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in the Koregaon Park area. It has visitors from over a hundred countries. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five Perfect Masters, lived the final 25 years of her life in Pune. She was an Afghan Muslim noted for her great age and outdoor existence. She established her final residence first under an Azadirachta indica tree near Bukhari Shah's mosque in Rasta Peth and later under another A. indica tree in the then-dilapidated section of Pune called Char Bawdi, where she remained for the rest of her life. There is a shrine erected in her honour in Pune, around the tree under which she made her final home.[better source needed]
Pune is also home to the temples of some other saints who had a large inter-religious following. The Shankar Maharaj Math on Satara road is the place where the great spiritual master 'Shri Shankar Maharaj' rests. The Jangli Maharaj Mandir is the final resting place of Jangli Maharaj. The Mali Maharaj Mandir in Somwar Peth is a very important place of worship of the Nath Pai Sect of Hinduism. The Ramkrishna Mission Ashram at the start of Sinhgad Road is famous for its teachings of Vedanta. The ISKCON temple in the Camp area and the Hare Rama Hare Krishna Mission in the Model Colony Area.
There is a significant Sikh population in Pune. There are a number of Gurudwaras (Sikh Temples) for Sikhs. Gurudwaras in Camp, Kharki, Aundh, Pimpri, Akrudi, and Budhwar Peth are the prominent ones. The Camp Gurudwara is one of the main gurudwaras, with hundreds of people visiting it every day. It is named as "Guru Nanak Darbar" and some people also call it "Hollywood Gurudwara". This complex includes a charitable hospital, community kitchen for Langar and Sarai for refugees.
As one of the largest cities of India and major centre of learning with several colleges and universities, Pune is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing. Pune has the eighth largest metropolitan economy  and the sixth highest per capita income in the country.
Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto,Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors (Firodia-Group), Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to cite Pune as India's "Motor City".
The Kirloskar Group, was the first to bring industry to Pune by setting up Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. in 1945 at Kirkee in Pune. The Group was originally set up in Kirloskarwadi. Kirloskar Brothers Limited (India's largest manufacturer and exporter of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia), Kirloskar Oil Engines (India's largest diesel engine company), Kirloskar Pneumatics Co. Ltd., and other Kirloskar companies are based in Pune.
The Hinjawadi IT Park (officially called the Rajeev Gandhi IT Park) is a project being started by MIDC to house the IT sector in Pune. When completed, the Hinjawadi IT Park is expected to encompass an area of about 2,800 acres (11 km2). The estimated investment in the project is ₹600 billion (US$9.3 billion). To facilitate economic growth, the government made liberal incentives in its IT and ITES Policy, 2003 and leased properties on MIDC land. The IT sector employs more than 70,000 people. Software giant Microsoft intends to set up a ₹7 billion (US$110 million) project in Hinjawadi.
Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of SIDBI, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.
Pune has also emerged as a new startup hub in India with tech startups like Pubmatic, Firstcry.com, Storypick.com, TripHobo, TastyKhana.com (acquired by Foodpanda), Swipe setting up base in Pune. NASSCOM in association with MIDC have started a co-working space for city based startups under its '10,000 startup' initiative at Kharadi MIDC. It will incubate startup such as Kandawale from OhMyDealer in first batch.
The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to get a boost once the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) completes in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC will boast a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of 13,000 m2 (139,931 sq ft). It will have seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls, and residences. The US$115 million project is developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority. Nowadays a growing number of automotive dealerships are springing up all over the city. They include luxury car makers like Jaguar Land Rover, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Audi, and motorcycle manufacturers like Kawasaki, KTM, and Harley Davidson.
The emergence of industrial Pune began in the early 1960s, with mechanical engineering industries arriving. Pune's proximity to Mumbai, good climate, and availability of talent made it a destination for large firms like Tata Motors (TELCO then), Thermax, Buckau Wolf (ThyssenKrupp now), Kirloskar Group, KSB Pumps, Cummins, Hindustan Antibiotics, and several others. Serum Institute of India, the world's fifth largest vaccine producer by volume has a manufacturing plant located in Pune.
Pune is the largest hub in India for German companies. According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses here.
The city of Pune is managed by the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) (पुणे महानगरपालिका). The Corporation consists of 149 directly elected councillors, who are led by the Mayor of Pune, a titular position mainly acting as an ambassador and representative of the city. Actual executive power is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service who is appointed by the Government of Maharashtra.
Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA) formed in 2015 is responsible for the integrated development of the metro region. Currently its jurisdiction extends over 3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi).
Apart from the PMC, four other administrative bodies are active within the Pune metropolitan region:
- Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC), responsible for Pimpri-Chinchwad and its surroundings
- Khadki Cantonment Board (KCB), responsible for Khadki
- Pune Cantonment Board (PCB), responsible for Pune Cantonment
- Dehu Road Cantonment Board, responsible for the Dehu Road area
A plan to establish a single Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA), consisting of the combined municipal councils, corporations, and other local governments of Pune, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Lonavala, Talegaon Dabhade, Bhor, Shirur, Saswad, the three cantonments and hundred villages near the city, has been considered since 1997, but has still not been put into place. This body would be the executing authority which would acquire and develop reserve land to improve the infrastructure of the Pune metropolitan area.
Pune was the largest military camp for the British forces during the Raj era, and the architecture in the Cantonment area is reminiscent of that era. The majority of the old Cantonment land in the city is now occupied by the Indian Army for housing its garrisons and officers. The Southern Command, a World War II Indian Army formation, has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city is home to Lohegaon Aerodrome (previously RAF Station Pune), the city's airport and Indian Air Force airfield. Due to its strategic location and close proximity to Mumbai, it houses advanced fighter aircraft of the Indian Air Force such as the Sukhoi-30MKI multi-role strike fighters.
The National Defence Academy (NDA) is an integrated military training centre that provides education up to the graduation level and joint training for cadets of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. The NDA estate is spread over 8,028 acres (3,249 ha) of land in Khadakwasla near Pune and contains apart from NDA facilities, a mini sanctuary and Peacock Bay, a thumb-shaped inlet into the VIP residential area of the Faculty at the Academy, where the NDA sailing/boating facilities are housed. The lake itself is now known as Khadakvasla Lake, earlier known as Lake Fife in the British era, and is one of the lakes that provide water to Pune city.
Pune hosts the College of Military Engineering, commonly referred to as CME, which trains students in Engineering subjects related to the military. It has the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC), Pune, for medical study with nursing courses for the Indian army.
Education and research
Pune has over a hundred educational institutes and more than nine deemed universities apart from the University of Pune, which is the second largest University in the country (based on total number of colleges), students from all over the world studying at the colleges of the University of Pune.
Basic and special education
Public schools (known locally as "municipality schools") are run by the Pune Municipal Corporation, and are affiliated with the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Private schools are run by educational trusts or individuals. Popular schools include, Jnana Prabodhini Prashala, Ramanbagh Prashala, New English School etc.
Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India. Other languages, including German, which is taught at the Goethe-Institut, and French, which is taught at Alliance Française, are popular in the city.
The College of Engineering Pune, now an autonomous institute of the government of Maharashtra, founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by several local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and was responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. This society maintains and operates 32 institutes in Pune including Institute of Management Development and Research, the oldest business school in Pune.
Symbiosis International University, which operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, includes colleges such as Symbiosis Institute of Business Management (SIBM, Pune), Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies (SIMS), Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development (SCMHRD),Symbiosis Law School (SLS) and Symbiosis Institute of International Business (SIIB) which are ranked among the top management and law institutes in the country, and Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research (SICSR) which is one of the few colleges in India that promotes open source technology. Pune is also home to Symbiosis Institute of Technology of the Symbiosis family. The Bharati Vidyapeeth University Pune is a deemed university and offers a variety of courses related to engineering, medical and other fields as well. The bharati vidyapeeth Katraj campus is well known due to its cross cultural students relations. ILS Law College, established by the Indian Law Society, is one of the top ten law schools in India. Established medical schools such as the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College train students from all over Maharashtra and India and are among the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India. The Film and Television Institute of India, one of only three Indian institutions in the global CILECT film school network, is located on Law College Road.
The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the Savitribai Phule Pune University campus that has been operational since 1987. This department features a combination of Gurukul and formal education systems. A.I.C.C.S.(ALL INDIA CENTRE OF CORRESPONDENCE STUDIES) Located on Nagar Highway, Kharadi is a prestigious Inst. for School or College Dropouts & working people of any Age who want to complete their Basic or Higher Education(Any Medium)from anywhere & can give exams from any place throughout India.
Pune is home to some of India's important research institutes. Some of the major research centres are:
- Agharkar Research Institute (ARI)
- Armament Research Development Establishment (ARDE)
- Army Institute of Technology (AIT)
- Army Institute of Physical Training (AIPT)
- Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)
- Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI)
- Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
- Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (CMET)
- College of Engineering, Pune (COEP)
- Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
- Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT)
- National Defense Academy (NDA)
- Electronics Test and Development Centre (ETDC) – under the STQC directorate, it is a leading testing and certification centre.
- Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics
- High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL)
- Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune (IISER, Pune)
- Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) – scientists at IITM has made significant achievements in tropical weather
- Inter-university Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA)
- National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS)
- National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA)
- National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) – one of the leading chemical research establishments in India
- National Aids Research Center ( NARI)
- National Informatics Centre (NIC)
- National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM)
- National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR) – India's most reputed institute for Construction Management
- National Institute of Virology (NIV)
- National School of Leadership (NSL)
- All India Institute of Local Self-Government (AIILSG)
- Industrial Training Institute ( ITI)
Pune is said to be the cultural capital of the state of Maharashtra. It epitomises Marathi culture, which places emphasis on education, arts and crafts, music, and theatre. Pune culture reflects a blend of traditions with modernity, along with hosting classical shows.
Auditoriums like the Balgandharva Ranga Mandir, Tilak Smarak Mandir and the Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagruha have been at the service of Punekars and are famous for playing host to many commercial theatre acts. Smaller auditorims like the Sudarshan Rangamanch and Bharat Natya Sanshodhan Mandir are the favourite places for many intercollegiate competitions and also are the focal point of the city's experimental and amateur theatre movement.
Pune hosts the most prestigious festival for Hindusthani classical music, viz. Sawai Gandharva Bhimsen Mahotsav (Populerly known as 'Sawai'). Besides 'Sawai', many festivals like Swarazankar, Vasantotsav are organised in Pune.
Sorghum and Pearl millet are the main ingredients of traditional Pune food. Specialties include Misal Pav, Puran Poli (a dessert bread), Pithla bhakri, Panipuri, Bhelpuri, and Pav Bhaji. Mastani, a thick milkshake containing dried fruit, is a speciality of the city. Another speciality is Bakarvadi, a crispy snack item. Vada Pav, Misal Pav, Poha, Dabeli, and Bhelpuri are popular street food items. Being a Metropolitan city, Pune also boasts a wide variety of restaurants, serving cuisines from all over the world.
In addition to its temples, historical attractions in and around Pune include the rock-cut Pataleshwar cave temple, Aga Khan Palace, Shaniwarwada, Lal Mahal, and Sinhagad fort. Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the Great Maratha Sardar, Maharaja Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia) who was instrumental in establishing the Maratha supremacy over North India.
Museums, parks and zoos
Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Museum of Indian History, Mahatma Phule Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum which has a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train.
Pune has public gardens such as the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Garden, Taljai Hills, and Bund Garden. The Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan.
The Aga Khan Palace was built in 1892 by Sultan Muhammed Shah Aga Khan III in Pune.
The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999. Besides this, certain spots in Pune such as Hanuman Tekdi, Vetal Tekdi, and Taljai forest are popular haunts for nature lovers.
As the agro-pharmaceutical business has dwindled in recent decades, immigration from erstwhile tribal peoples now accounts for seventy percent of population growth and education syllabi have not adjusted in accordance with other industrialised regions. This has created what has become an exclusive environment in the government's expansion of education infrastructure, and Marathi literati have received a number of grants in areas that were previously ignored. Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city.
The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Pt. Sawai Gandharva. The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.
Sports and recreation
Popular games and sports in Pune include Athletics, Cricket, Basketball, Badminton, Field Hockey, Football, Tennis, Kabaddi, Paragliding, Kho-Kho, Rowing, and Chess. The Pune International Marathon is an annual Marathon conducted in Pune. The 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in Pune.
Cricket is played between clubs affiliated with the Maharashtra Cricket Association, which maintains a domestic cricket team (the Maharashtra cricket team). This team, one of three based in the state of Maharashtra, competes in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy. Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is the venue for National and One Day International matches. This stadium is named after the First Prime Minister of Independent India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
An Indian Premier League cricket team based in Pune began play in 2011. The team, named Pune Warriors India was bought for ₹17.02 billion or $370 million. It was the most expensive team in the Indian Premier League, and was owned by the Sahara Group. This team was later expelled from the league before the 7th season of the IPL started due to financial issues between Sahara Group and IPL. As a home ground for the Pune Warriors, the Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium (with a seating capacity of 55,000) was built in Gahunje on the Mumbai – Pune express way and was inaugurated on 1 April 2012. Called the Subrata Roy Sahara Stadium earlier (after the founder of Sahara Group), it was renamed to Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium in 2013. The stadium has since been used by the Maharashtra state team and also hosted an ODI between India and England on 15 January 2017.
FC Pune City is an Indian Super League football franchise in Pune, Maharashtra, that will begin play in September 2014 during the inaugural season of the Indian Super League. The club is owned and operated by Bollywood actor Hrithik Roshan, Wadhawan Group and Italian football club ACF Fiorentina. FC Pune City is well known for signing the best football players in India and big names from overseas.
DSK Shivajians Football Club is an Indian football club based in Pune, Maharashtra. DSK Shivajians was founded in 1987 and in 2013 they played their first ever national season in the 2013 I-League 2nd Division, their intention was to place the team in the top tier of Indian football (the I-League). English club Liverpool announced a partnership with DSK Shivajians in India. The partnership is pertinent in the academy setup, with academy players trained by coaches representing Liverpool playing for DSK Shivajians U19.
Poona District Football Association (PDFA) is established in year 1972 with motive to create a platform for youths for developing, nurturing and to promote the game at grass root level. PDFA is successful in nurturing and producing many young aspirants. At present there are 4 divisions under the PDFA with the total of about more than 100 teams registered.
The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is normally a two- or three-day event with activities like cycling, trekking, river-crossing, and rifle shooting. The city has been host to the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.
Pune Race Course, located in Pune Cantonment, was built in 1830 over 118.5 acres (0.480 km2) of land. The land is controlled by the Indian Army. The racing season is from July to October every year. The Royal Western India Turf Club manages the racecourse. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. Major racing events include the Pune Derby, RWITC Invitational, Independence Cup, and the Southern Command Cup.
Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in the Sahakarnagar area, consisting of an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground. It is the first skatepark in India built by the government with approximately seventy lakhs spent on the project.
Prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the Deccan Gymkhana, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, The Poona Golf Club, The Poona Cricket Club, and the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex at Balewadi. The Nehru Stadium is the home ground of the Maharashtra cricket team, and has hosted many prominent cricket events, including one of the matches in the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The facility at Balewadi hosted the National Games in 1994 as well as the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. A new cricket stadium, Pune International Cricket Centre renamed as Subroto Roy Cricket Stadium, is under construction in Gahunje on the Mumbai-Pune Expressway near Pune. This stadium will be the headquarters for the Maharashtra Cricket Association and home for the Maharashtra cricket team. It will be a state-of-the-art stadium, and will host the home matches of Sahara Pune Warriors, IPL team of Pune.
Prominent sportspersons hailing from Pune include cricketer D. B. Deodhar, Chandu Borde, father-son cricketing duo Hemant and Hrishikesh Kanitkar, tennis players Radhika Tulpule, Gaurav Natekar and Nitin Kirtane, and table-tennis player Sujay Ghorpade. Abhijit Kunte, Isar Qureshi, and Pravin Thipsay are chess grandmasters and national champions. Dhanraj Pillay is ex-captain of the Indian national field hockey team.
When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Pune was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season, although the team's games will be played in Balewadi. All 56 games of EFLI's opening season will be played at the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex, which will be retrofitted to host the sport. Named the Pune Marathas, it will be Pune's first professional American football franchise.
Pune International Airport is an international Airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base. In addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, this airport serves international direct flights to Dubai (operated by Air India Express) and to Frankfurt (operated by Lufthansa).
The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation is responsible for the design and construction of a New Pune International Airport. The area between Chakan and Rajgurunagar, around the villages of Chandus and Shiroli, is being considered as a construction site. If constructed here, it will be at a distance of 40 km (25 mi) from central Pune. With the construction of this new International Airport, Pune city will be connected to many important international destinations such as London, New York, Singapore, Hong Kong and Tokyo. They have passed tender for Pune International Airport at Chakan Pune. This project will be complete by December 2017.
Local trains (EMUs) connect Pune to the industrial town of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala, while daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi, Nagpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Coimbatore, Chennai, Bangalore, Allahabad, Kanpur, Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Darbhanga, Goa, Gwalior, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Patna, and Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is a diesel locomotive shed and an electric trip shed.
The Pune Railway Station is administered by the Pune Railway Division of the Central Railways. All the railway lines to Pune are broad gauge. The city also has a Motive power depot located at Ghorpadi. It is operated for Diesel Locomotives.
A mass transit system called Pune Metro has been proposed for the city. and is being planned in consultation with Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, the corporation which built and operates the Delhi Metro. It will be a combination of elevated and underground sections, with initial routes being planned between Pimpri-Swargate and Vanaz-Ramwadi. However, construction of the socalled "Pune Metro" has not been heard of as of May 2016. Also, Pune Metro will not be having services like that of Mumbai Metro has.
Both public and private transport are popular in Pune. Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). The PMPML operates the Rainbow BRTS system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. In reality the project has turned out to be a failure, receiving little to no patronage from the local citizenry. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from its main stations in Shivajinagar, Pune station, and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies also run buses to major cities throughout India.
Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian highways and state highways. National Highway 4 (NH 4) connects it to Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolhapur. NH 9 to Hyderabad, and NH 50 to Nashik. State highways connect it to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, and Alandi.
The Mumbai-Pune Expressway is India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, and it was built in 2002. This expressway has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to almost two hours. A ring road is being planned for the convenience of heavy traffic. On the express highway only four wheelers are allowed, thus only private cars, buses and taxis can travel on this route.
Pune is served by two intra-city highways: Old Pune-Mumbai Highway and Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass, a part of National Highway 4. The Nashik City-Pune Highway NH 50 will be part of the golden triangle (Nashik-Pune-Mumbai).
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- Twin Towns and Sister Cities
- San José, CA, United States (1992) 
- Vacoas-Phoenix, Mauritius
- Sargodha, Pakistan
- "Informal" relationship
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This includes people who had a lifelong association with the place, or made their significant contribution during their residency here.
- Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj – He spent part of his childhood here in the 1630s
- Bajirao I – responsible for moving the seat of his administration to Pune in 1720s
- Gopal Krishna Gokhale – founder of Servants of India Society
- Savitribai Phule – social reformer
- Mahatma Jyotiba Phule – social reformer
- Dhondo Keshav Karve
- Chapekar brothers – Indian revolutionaries
- Meher Baba, spiritual leader
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856–1920) – Indian Nationalist leader
- V.K. Rajwade – historian
- Nathuram Godse, Hindu nationalist
- Ajaypal Singh Banga – USA based corporate executive and Political advisor to the US President
- Dimple Yadav – Member of Parliament from Kannauj. Wife of Akhilesh Yadav.
- Anu Aga – industrialist
- Arun Nigavekar – educationist
- Baba Kalyani – industrialis
- Bhimsen Joshi – Hindustani classical vocalist
- B. K. S. Iyengar – Yoga guru
- Shantanurao Laxmanrao Kirloskar – industrialist
- Cyrus Poonawala – businessman
- Shanta Shelke – poet
- Suhas Shirvalkar – popular marathi author
- Deepika Samson – actress
- Dhanraj Pillay – hockey player
- Hrishikesh Kanitkar – former Indian cricketeer
- Ivan Menezes – CEO Diageo
- Milind Date – flutist and composer
- Nilu Phule – actor
- Shriram Lagoo – actor
- P. A. Inamdar – educationalist
- Pankaj Advani – billiards and snooker player
- Parth Samthaan – television actor and Bollywood aspirant
- Raghunath Mashelkar – scientist
- Rahul Bajaj – industrialist
- Roopesh Kumar – film actor
- Sanjeev Abhyankar – singer
- Shaiju Mathew – author, film maker
- Sharad Talwalkar – comedian
- Suresh Tendulkar – economist
- Vijay P. Bhatkar – Indian computer scientist
- Rahul Deshpande-Hindustani classical vocalist
- Gangubai Nivrutti Bhambure, Sarpanch of Bhamburwadi,
- Vasantrao Deshpande – Hindustani classical vocalist
- P. L. Deshpande – popular marathi author, actor, music composer, singer
- Vasant Gowarikar – Indian Scientist
- Jayant Vishnu Narlikar – Indian astrophysicist
Places of interest
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This includes must see places in Pune and surrounding areas.
- Aga Khan Palace – Built in 1892, national monument of India's freedom movement. The palace is surrounded by a sprawling garden. The famous movie 'Gandhi' was shot here.
- BAPS Swaminarayan Mandir (Pune) – a beautiful Mandir (temple) situated on the Pune – Bengaluru Express way. A visit to this temple claims to give you inner peace.
- Bhigwan – Famous for Migratory Birds from Siberia.
- Lavasa – First man-made hill station near Pune.
- Lonavla – A beautiful hill station on the Pune – Mumbai highway, just 65 kilometres (40 miles) from Pune. Offers great views of the Western Ghats and has lots of trekking spots nearby.
- Mahabaleshwar – 120 kilometres (75 miles) from Pune. Famous twin hill stations of Mahabaleshwar and Panchgani in Satara district in Maharashtra, India offering scenic views of the Western Ghats.
- Osho International Meditation Resort- It attracts a large number of meditators and spiritual seekers from all across the globe every year. Following the philosophy of its iconic founder Rajneesh Osho, the centre is known for its activities and meditation sessions. Tours of the centre are no longer permitted and the only way you can visit the ashram is by paying an initial registration fee.
- Shaniwar Wada – Shaniwarwada is an 18th-century fort built in 1732 by Peshwa rulers of the Maratha Empire. The walls in the palace were painted with scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharata. A sixteen petal lotus-shaped fountain stands reminiscent of the exquisite work of those times. A light and sound show set up at a cost of Rs 1.25 crore is the main attraction.
- Shivneri fort – It is famous as the birthplace of Maratha King Chattrapati Shivaji. It is located near Junnar town in the Pune district about 95 kilometres (59 miles) north of Pune. The fort attracts a large number of tourists, history buffs and trekkers.
- Sinhgad – This historical fort closely associated with Shivaji is the closest fort to the city. Apart from visitors interested in the Maratha history, it attracts trekkers throughout the year and others during the monsoon rain.
- Khadakwasla Dam – This dam is located on the way to Sinhgad Fort and now a popular tourist spot. One can see the remains of dam wall around the area, which had broken in July 1961 and gushed the city under water.
- Make In Maharashtra
- Peths in Pune
- Roads of Pune
- Pune Neighborhoods
- New Pune International Airport
- Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited
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