Pomegranate ellagitannin

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Pomegranate fruit, opened.

The pomegranate ellagitannins, which include punicalagin isomers, are ellagitannins found in the fruit, rind (peel), bark or heartwood of pomegranates (Punica granatum).


As the chemistry of punicalagins became known it was found to be not unique to pomegranate. Punicalagins are present in numerous species of the genus Terminalia, species chebula Retz. (“Fructus Chebulae”), myriocarpa, catappa and citrina (tropical flowering trees historically used in African traditional medicine for antibiotic and antifungal purposes). They have also been isolated from Cistus salvifolius[1][2] (a Mediterranean shrub) and Combretum molle (an African shrub).[3]

Pomegranate fruits natural phenols can be extracted with ethyl acetate and fractionation can afford the ellagitannin punicalagins.[4]

Dietary supplementation[edit]

A few dietary supplements and nutritional ingredients are available that contain extracts of whole pomegranate and/or are standardized to punicalagins, the marker compound of pomegranate. Extracts of pomegranate are also 'Generally Recognized As Safe' (GRAS) by the United States.[citation needed]

List of compounds[edit]

other phenolics

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Roldán, Cristina; Guillén, Emilio; Saura, Domingo; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Micol, Vicente (2011). "A systematic study of the polyphenolic composition of aqueous extracts deriving from several Cistus genus species: Evolutionary relationship". Phytochemical Analysis. 22 (4): 303–12. doi:10.1002/pca.1281. PMID 21259376.
  2. ^ Saracini, E.; Tattini, M.; Traversi, M. L.; Vincieri, F. F.; Pinelli, P. (2005). "Simultaneous LC-DAD and LC-MS Determination of Ellagitannins, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Acyl-Glycosyl Flavonoids in Cistus salvifolius L. Leaves". Chromatographia. 62 (5–6): 245. doi:10.1365/s10337-005-0623-7.
  3. ^ Asres, K.; Bucar, F.; Knauder, E.; Yardley, V.; Kendrick, H.; Croft, S. L. (2001). "In vitro antiprotozoal activity of extract and compounds from the stem bark of Combretum molle". Phytotherapy Research. 15 (7): 613–7. doi:10.1002/ptr.897. PMID 11746844.
  4. ^ Machado, Thelma de B.; Leal, Ivana C. R.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Santos, Kátia R. N. dos; Silva, Marlei G. da; Kuster, Ricardo M. (2002). "Antimicrobial Ellagitannin of Punica granatum Fruits". Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 13 (5): 606. doi:10.1590/S0103-50532002000500010.
  5. ^ a b c Satomi, H.; Umemura, K.; Ueno, A.; Hatano, T.; Okuda, T.; Noro, T. (1993). "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (8): 787–790. doi:10.1248/bpb.16.787. PMID 8220326.
  6. ^ a b c El-Toumy, Sayed A.A; Rauwald, Hans W (2002). "Two ellagitannins from Punica granatum heartwood". Phytochemistry. 61 (8): 971–4. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00435-1. PMID 12453528.
  7. ^ a b c Tanaka, Takashi; Nonaka, Gen-Ichiro; Nishioka, Itsuo (1985). "Punicafolin, an ellagitannin from the leaves of Punica granatum". Phytochemistry. 24 (9): 2075. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83125-8.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Nawwar, Mahmoud A.M.; Hussein, Sahar A.M.; Merfort, Irmgard (1994). "NMR spectral analysis of polyphenols from Punica granatum". Phytochemistry. 36 (3): 793. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89820-9.