Puning

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Puning
普宁市 / 普寧市
Skyline of Urban of Puning in Jan 2011.jpg
Location of Puning within Guangdong
Location of Puning within Guangdong
Puning is located in Guangdong
Puning
Puning
Location of the city center in Guangdong
Coordinates: 23°17′53″N 116°09′58″E / 23.298°N 116.166°E / 23.298; 116.166Coordinates: 23°17′53″N 116°09′58″E / 23.298°N 116.166°E / 23.298; 116.166
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceGuangdong
Prefecture-level cityJieyang
Area
 • Total1,620 km2 (630 sq mi)
Elevation
10.5 m (34.4 ft)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total2,054,703
 • Density1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
5153**
Area code(0)663
Licence plates粤V (Yuè V)
WebsitePuning Government Website

Puning (Chinese: 普宁 / 普寧; Mandarin: Pǔníng; Teochew: Pou2 leng5), officially Puning City, is a county-level city located in Eastern Guangdong, China, under the administration of the city Jieyang. Nevertheless, its administrative power in economic matters is comparable to that of prefecture-level cities.[ref 1] Puning is geographically situated on the west rim of Chaoshan Plain, leaning against the stretching branch of Lianhua Mountains at its southwest border, and 90 per cent of its territory sits on the south of the Tropic of Cancer. The city has a population of 2.5089 million under its household registration system hukou,[ref 2], marking the largest in all county-level cities in China.[ref 3] Puning's downtown residents amount to 581,900, behind Yiwu[ref 4], while the entire city's resident population of 1.9986 million is second to cities Kunshan and Jinjiang.[ref 5] It is concurrently the ancestral hometown of 1.95 million overseas Chinese people and 1.4 million 'returned overseas Chinese people' (overseas Chinese who 'returned' to China and/or regained Chinese citizenship) and family members of overseas Chinese people.

Puning, having been a key trade hub in eastern Guangdong, was upgraded from county to city status in 1993;[ref 6] it is one of the first 'Chinese textile cities'[ref 7] and where the project 'Chinese TCM Cities' was first launched.[ref 8] Textile and apparel and medicine industries are local pillars,[ref 9] topping or coming second in Guangdong county economies since 2003; it also entered the list of the One Hundred Best Counties and Cities for Health Industry in 2020 by Xiaokang series of Qiushi magazine.[ref 10]

Historically, Puning was one of the eight counties of Chaozhou (Teochew) Prefecture. In the mid-1900s, the Hakka region, which was historically part of the Huizhou Prefecture, was incorporated into Puning's territory. Subsequently, the city also welcomed back 'returned overseas Chinese' and 'family members of overseas Chinese' due to the political situation in Southeast Asia. The cultures of the various clans formed the multilingual, multicultural landscape of Puning, where customs and traditions differ across the towns and villages. It is recognised as a Chinese Folk Cuture Art Village by the Ministry of Culture, China.

Etymology[edit]

'Puning' is the pinyin transliteration of the city in Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin or putonghua. It is also known as 'Pou Leng', Poh Leng or Pho Leng in the Chaoshan language, also known as Chaozhou or Teochew. It was named after the historical county of the same name, which dates back to the Ming dynasty of China. According to Puning Xian Zhilue (A Brief Account of Puning County), Guangdong Tongzhi (Comprehensive Records of Guangdong), Ming Shi (History of Ming)[ref 11] and Chao Zhong Zaji (Micellaneous Accounts of Chaozhou),[ref 12] the name 'Puning' was given in 1563, after the phrase pubian ningmi, meaning universally serene. Versions mentioned the county's original name as Pu'an[ref 13] or Anpu,[ref 14] but this was refuted by an inscription on the external walls of a Lords of the Three Mountains temple in Guiyu, Chaoyang, discovered in 1986.[ref 15]

In 1949, the seat of Puning County was administered as Puning City. The City's territory was split in 1950. In 1993, Puning County upgraded to become Puning City, while the original 'Puning City' became its city centre.

History[edit]

Before its founding[edit]

Reproduction of scene of early humans making pottery at Hutou Pu Old Kilns Site

The inhabitation of humans in the territory of Puning dates back to the New Stone Age, evident in archaeological findings, such as the Hutou Pu Old Kilns Site (虎头埔古窑址) in Mianyuan Village, Guangtai Town discovered in 1982. The tomb of a Sinicised Baiyue person, discovered in Songbaiwei Village, Lihu Town, illustrates that by the end of Eastern Han period, Central Plains (Zhongyuan) culture had been introduced into Puning.[ref 16]

During the Pre-Qin era, the succeeding political regimes on Zhongyuan did not have any de facto administration of Puning and its surrounding regions. It was incorporated into Zhongyuan territories during the Qin and Han dynasties, but there had never been any clear administrative borders in the regions.

Ming and Qing[edit]

Founding[edit]

In 1558, Zhang Lian started a rebellion in Raoping and Dabu of eastern Chaozhou (Teochew) Prefecture and subsequently declared himself Emperor of the Feilong Empire. It was suppressed by the Ming Government in 1562.

Republic of China[edit]

People's Republic of China[edit]

Economy[edit]

Puning's main industries include: citrus, Plum, clothing, traditional Chinese medicine and so on. The specialties there are Puning miso (in Hong xiangyangzhen producing the most authentic) and Puning dried tofu (also known as Puning tofu).

Fruit[edit]

As the city is located in the south of the Tropic of Cancer, there is plenty of sunshine and abundant rainfall, spring-fertile land and the development of fruit production with a unique natural and geographical conditions. Puning is the famous "Shuiguozhixiang", the city's existing base of high-value high-quality fruit, 35.3 thousand hectares, gross output value of fruit production among the national fruit hundred counties (cities). A long history of fruit cultivation, fruit cultivation experienced and fruit varieties are excellent, rare, valuable resources, particularly a wide variety.

Merlin Panlong Court[edit]

Panlong Temple (formerly Panlong House, Panlong Pavilion Temple) is located in Puning quicksand Merlin, about 20 kilometers southwest of the town area, the radius of 4 square kilometers. It is one of eastern Guangdong 10 square temples, but also major tourist scenic spots. 2002年10月17日 17 October 2002 (lunar 12 September) Reconstruction of the completion of set off.

Textiles[edit]

China's textile and apparel industry, Puning has become a big name, the reform and opening up, Puning Li with overseas Chinese and market advantages, the development of textile and garment industry, particularly in recent years the development of T-shirt production scale.

Medicine[edit]

Puning has a long history of traditional Chinese medicine and is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine base. At the beginning of this year following the reform and opening up trend, Puning committed to expanding the traditional Chinese medicine market, which enables the rapid development of Chinese herbal medicine industry is to build the United States as a leader Kang a large number of medicine production base.

In the news[edit]

The city's family planning excesses attracted first national then international attention in 2010 April due to the Iron Fist Campaign.[1]

Notable people from Puning[edit]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Puning (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.3
(84.7)
31.5
(88.7)
32.0
(89.6)
34.0
(93.2)
35.4
(95.7)
37.6
(99.7)
38.1
(100.6)
37.4
(99.3)
37.2
(99.0)
34.5
(94.1)
33.0
(91.4)
29.5
(85.1)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F) 19.2
(66.6)
20.5
(68.9)
22.4
(72.3)
25.8
(78.4)
29.1
(84.4)
30.9
(87.6)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
31.5
(88.7)
28.7
(83.7)
24.9
(76.8)
21.1
(70.0)
26.7
(80.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
15.8
(60.4)
17.8
(64.0)
21.6
(70.9)
25.1
(77.2)
27.0
(80.6)
28.8
(83.8)
28.3
(82.9)
27.2
(81.0)
24.3
(75.7)
20.2
(68.4)
16.1
(61.0)
22.2
(72.0)
Average low °C (°F) 11.1
(52.0)
12.9
(55.2)
14.6
(58.3)
18.6
(65.5)
22.1
(71.8)
24.3
(75.7)
25.5
(77.9)
25.2
(77.4)
24.1
(75.4)
21.2
(70.2)
16.7
(62.1)
12.6
(54.7)
19.1
(66.4)
Record low °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
4.8
(40.6)
5.0
(41.0)
11.6
(52.9)
15.9
(60.6)
17.6
(63.7)
22.6
(72.7)
22.8
(73.0)
19.9
(67.8)
11.9
(53.4)
6.5
(43.7)
0.7
(33.3)
0.4
(32.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 35.5
(1.40)
75.4
(2.97)
127.1
(5.00)
199.4
(7.85)
275.4
(10.84)
395.5
(15.57)
335.8
(13.22)
335.8
(13.22)
241.5
(9.51)
40.5
(1.59)
35.2
(1.39)
38.4
(1.51)
2,135.5
(84.07)
Average relative humidity (%) 74 78 76 79 79 83 79 81 78 73 72 72 77
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Puning City People's Government: 发展概况 Archived 2009-08-29 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ 普宁市统计局、国家统计局普宁调查队 (29 April 2021). "2020 年普宁市国民经济和社会发展统计公报" (PDF). Puning City People's Government. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 September 2021.
  3. ^ "中国县域人口图鉴:河南百万人口大县最多 近百县市人口不足5万" (in Simplified Chinese). Sina Finance. 19 May 2021. Archived from the original on 13 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  4. ^ "这22个县级市城区人口规模堪比地级市,义乌最大普宁第二" (in Simplified Chinese). 第一财经. 21 May 2017. Archived from the original on 13 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  5. ^ "百万人口大县达91个:昆山居首,江苏浙江均占10席以上" (in Simplified Chinese). 第一财经. 5 July 2021. Archived from the original on 13 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  6. ^ 陈朝辉、蔡人群、许自策:《潮汕平原经济》广东人民出版社,1994年
  7. ^ "今日往事" (in Simplified Chinese). 江门日报. 24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014.
  8. ^ ""中国中药名城"试点首选普宁" (in Simplified Chinese). 南方日报. 17 November 2007. Archived from the original on 13 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  9. ^ "普寧市兩大支柱產業 :紡織服裝、醫藥產業" (in Traditional Chinese). 香港文汇报. 5 July 2006. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2010. {{cite web}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  10. ^ 谁在引领健康产业走向下一个高地——“2020中国健康产业百佳县市”出炉.小康,2020年10期
  11. ^ 《明史》卷四十五
  12. ^ [明] 郭子章:《潮中杂纪》卷1《郡县释名》
  13. ^ [清] 乾隆《大清一统志》广东卷
  14. ^ [清] 顾祖禹:《读史方舆纪要》卷103《广东四·潮州府》
  15. ^ 陈竞飞:《去思碑与普宁县名》,1988年
  16. ^ 黄挺:《潮汕史简编》暨南大学出版社 2017年12月
  1. ^ "Chinese state holds parents hostage in sterilisation drive". 22 October 2011.
  2. ^ 中国地面气候标准值月值(1981-2010) (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Data Service Center. Retrieved 7 November 2022.