Punjab

Coordinates: 31°N 74°E / 31°N 74°E / 31; 74
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Punjab
پنجاب • Panjāb • ਪੰਜਾਬ
Region
Nickname: 
Land of the Five Rivers
Location of Punjab in South Asia
Location of Punjab in South Asia
Coordinates: 31°N 74°E / 31°N 74°E / 31; 74
Countries Pakistan
 India
Largest cityLahore
Area
 • Total458,354.5 km2 (176,971.7 sq mi)
Population
 (2011 India & 2017 Pakistan)
 • Totalc. 190 million[a]
DemonymPunjabi
Demographics
 • Ethnic groupsPunjabis
Minor: Saraikis, Hindkowans, Haryanvis, Pashtuns, Himachalis, Dogras, Muhajirs, Kashmiris, Biharis[1]
 • LanguagesPunjabi, its dialects and varieties and others
 • ReligionsIslam (60%)
Hinduism (29%)
Sikhism (10%)
Christianity (1%)
Others (<1%)
Time zonesUTC+05:30 (IST in India)
UTC+05:00 (PKT in Pakistan)
Demographics based on British Punjab's colonial borders

Punjab (/pʌnˈɑːb, -ˈæb, ˈpʊn-/; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Punjabi: [pə̞ɲˈdʒäːb] ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb)[b] is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia. It is specifically located in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of modern-day eastern-Pakistan and northwestern-India. Punjab's major cities are Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Sialkot, Chandigarh, Shimla, Jalandhar, Patiala, Gurugram, and Bahawalpur.

Punjab grew out of the settlements along the five rivers, which served as an important route to the Near East as early as the ancient Indus Valley civilization, dating back to 3000 BCE,[3] followed by migrations of the Indo-Aryan peoples. Agriculture has been the major economic feature of the Punjab and has therefore formed the foundation of Punjabi culture.[3] The Punjab emerged as an important agricultural region, especially following the Green Revolution during the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, and has been described as the "breadbasket of both India and Pakistan."[3]

Punjab's history is a tapestry of conflict, marked by the rise of indigenous dynasties and empires. Following Alexander the Great's invasion in the 4th century BCE, Chandragupta Maurya allied with Punjabi republics to establish the Maurya Empire.[4] Successive reigns of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, Kushan Empire, and Indo-Scythians followed, but were ultimately defeated by Eastern Punjab Janapadas such as the Yaudheya, Trigarta Kingdom, Audumbaras, Arjunayanas, and Kuninda Kingdom.[5][6] In the 5th and 6th centuries CE, Punjab faced devastating Hunnic invasions, yet the Vardhana dynasty emerged triumphant, ruling over Northern India.[7] The 8th century CE witnessed the Hindu Shahis rise, known for defeating the Saffarid dynasty and the Samanid Empire. Concurrently, the Tomara dynasty and Katoch Dynasty controlled eastern Punjab, resisting Ghaznavid invasions.[8] Islam took hold in Western Punjab under Ghaznavid rule. The Delhi Sultanate then succeeded the Ghaznavids in which the Tughlaq dynasty and Sayyid dynasty Sultans are described as Punjabi origin.[9][10] The 15th century saw the emergence of the Langah Sultanate in south Punjab, acclaimed for its victory over the Lodi dynasty.[11] After the Mughal Empire's decline in the 18th century, Punjab experienced a period of anarchy. In 1799 CE, the Sikh Empire established its rule, undertaking conquests into Kashmir and Durrani Empire held territories, shaping the diverse and complex history of Punjab.

The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts and thus the geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century Mughal Empire the Punjab region was divided into three, with the Lahore Subah in the west, the Delhi Subah in the east and the Multan Subah in the south. In British India, until the Partition of India in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi, and the Pakistani regions of Punjab, and Islamabad Capital Territory.

The predominant ethnolinguistic group of the Punjab region are the Punjabi people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Punjabi language. Punjabi Muslims are the majority in West Punjab (Pakistan), while Punjabi Sikhs are the majority in East Punjab (India). Other religious groups include Hinduism, Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia.

Etymology[edit]

The name Punjab is of Persian origin, with its two parts (پنج, panj, 'five' and آب, āb, 'water') being cognates of the Sanskrit words पञ्‍च, pañca, 'five' and अप्, áp, 'water', of the same meaning.[2][12] The word pañjāb is thus calque of Indo-Aryan "pañca-áp" and means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.[13] All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Sutlej being the largest. References to a land of five rivers may be found in the Mahabharata, in which one of the regions is named as Panchanada (Sanskrit: पञ्चनद, romanizedpañca-nada, lit.'five rivers').[14][15] Earlier, the Punjab was known as Sapta Sindhu or Hapta Hendu in Avesta, translating into "The Land of Seven Rivers", with the other two being Indus and Kabul.[16] The ancient Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamía (Greek: Πενταποταμία), which has the same meaning as that of Punjab.[17][18][19]

History[edit]

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site.

Ancient period[edit]

The Punjab region is noted as the site of one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished from about 3000 BCE and declined rapidly 1,000 years later, following the Indo-Aryan migrations that overran the region in waves between 1500 BCE and 500 BCE.[20] Frequent intertribal wars stimulated the growth of larger groupings ruled by chieftains and kings, who ruled local kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas.[20] The rise of kingdoms and dynasties in the Punjab is chronicled in the ancient Hindu epics, particularly the Mahabharata.[20] The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are chronicled as being fought in what is now the state of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas, and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.[21] According to Fauja Singh and L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas, and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab."[22]

Invasions of Alexander the Great (c. 4th century BCE)[edit]

One of the first known kings of ancient Punjab, King Porus, fought against Alexander the Great. His surrender is depicted in this 1865 engraving by Alonzo Chappel.

The earliest known notable local king of this region was known as King Porus, who fought the famous Battle of the Hydaspes against Alexander the Great. His kingdom spanned between rivers Hydaspes (Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab); Strabo had held the territory to contain almost 300 cities.[23] He (alongside Abisares) had a hostile relationship with the Kingdom of Taxila which was ruled by his extended family.[23] When the armies of Alexander crossed Indus in its eastward migration, probably in Udabhandapura, he was greeted by the-then ruler of Taxila, Omphis.[23] Omphis had hoped to force both Porus and Abisares into submission leveraging the might of Alexander's forces and diplomatic missions were mounted, but while Abisares accepted the submission, Porus refused.[23] This led Alexander to seek for a face-off with Porus.[23] Thus began the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC; the exact site remains unknown.[23] The battle is thought to be resulted in a decisive Greek victory; however, A. B. Bosworth warns against an uncritical reading of Greek sources who were obviously exaggerative.[23]

Alexander later founded two cities—Nicaea at the site of victory and Bucephalous at the battle-ground, in memory of his horse, who died soon after the battle.[23][c] Later, tetradrachms would be minted depicting Alexander on horseback, armed with a sarissa and attacking a pair of Indians on an elephant.[23][24] Porus refused to surrender and wandered about atop an elephant, until he was wounded and his force routed.[23] When asked by Alexander how he wished to be treated, Porus replied "Treat me as a king would treat another king".[25] Despite the apparently one-sided results, Alexander was impressed by Porus and chose to not depose him.[26][27][28] Not only was his territory reinstated but also expanded with Alexander's forces annexing the territories of Glausaes, who ruled to the northeast of Porus' kingdom.[26]

After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, Perdiccas became the regent of his empire, and after Perdiccas's murder in 321 BCE, Antipater became the new regent.[29] According to Diodorus, Antipater recognized Porus's authority over the territories along the Indus River. However, Eudemus, who had served as Alexander's satrap in the Punjab region, treacherously killed Porus.[30]

Mauryan Empire (c. 320–180 BCE)[edit]

Chandragupta Maurya, with the aid of Kautilya, had established his empire around 320 BCE. The early life of Chandragupta Maurya is not clear. Kautilya enrolled the young Chandragupta in the university at Taxila to educate him in the arts, sciences, logic, mathematics, warfare, and administration. Megasthenes' account, as it has survived in Greek texts that quote him, states that Alexander the Great and Chandragupta met, which if true would mean his rule started earlier than 321 BCE. As Alexander never crossed the Beas river, so his territory probably lied in Punjab region.[citation needed] He has also been variously identified with Shashigupta (who has same etymology as of Chandragupta) of Paropamisadae (western Punjab) on the account of same life events.[31] With the help of the small Janapadas of Punjab, he had gone on to conquer much of the North West Indian subcontinent.[32] He then defeated the Nanda rulers in Pataliputra to capture the throne. Chandragupta Maurya fought Alexander's successor in the east, Seleucus when the latter invaded. In a peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all territories west of the Indus and offered a marriage, including a portion of Bactria, while Chandragupta granted Seleucus 500 elephants.[citation needed] The chief of the Mauryan military was also always a Yaudheyan warrior according to the Bijaygadh Pillar inscription, which states that the Yaudheyas elected their own chief who also served as the general for the Mauryans.[33][34] The Mauryan military was also made up vastly of men from the Punjab Janapadas.[35]

Chandragupta's rule was very well organised. The Mauryans had an autocratic and centralised administration system, aided by a council of ministers, and also a well-established espionage system. Much of Chandragupta's success is attributed to Chanakya, the author of the Arthashastra. According to Buddhist sources Chanakya was native of the Punjab who resided in Taxila. Much of the Mauryan rule had a strong bureaucracy that had regulated tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial activities, mining, statistics and data, maintenance of public places, and upkeep of temples.[citation needed]

Medieval period[edit]

Hindu Shahis (c. 820–1030 CE)[edit]

In the 9th century, the Hindu Shahi dynasty originating from the region of Oddiyana,[36][37][38] replaced the Taank kingdom, ruling Western Punjab along with eastern Afghanistan.[20] The tribe of the Gakhars/Khokhars, formed a large part of the Hindu Shahi army according to the Persian historian Firishta.[39] The most notable rulers of the empire were Lalliya, Bhimadeva and Jayapala who were accredited for military victories.

Lalliya had reclaimed the territory at and around Kabul between 879 and 901 CE after it had been lost under his predecessor to the Saffarid dynasty.[38][page needed] He was described as a fearsome Shahi. Two of his ministers reconstructed by Rahman as Toramana and Asata are said to of have taken advantage of Amr al-Layth's preoccupation with rebellions in Khorasan, by successfully raiding Ghazna around 900 CE.[38][page needed]

After a defeat in Eastern Afghanistan suffered on the Shahi ally Lawik, Bhimadeva mounted a combined attack around 963 CE.[38][page needed] Abu Ishaq Ibrahim was expelled from Ghazna and Shahi-Lawik strongholds were restored in Kabul and adjacent areas.[38][page needed] This victory appears to have been commemorated in the Hund Slab Inscription (HSI).[38][page needed]

Turkic rule (c. 1030–1320 CE)[edit]

Silver copper coin of Khizr Khan, founder of the Sayyid dynasty[40]

The Turkic Ghaznavids in the tenth century overthrew the Hindu Shahis and consequently ruled for 157 years in Western Punjab, gradually declining as a power until the Ghurid conquest of Lahore by Muhammad of Ghor in 1186, deposing the last Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau Malik.[41] Following the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206 by Punjabi assassins near the Jhelum river, the Ghurid state fragmented and was replaced in northern India by the Delhi Sultanate.

Tughlaq dynasty (c. 1320–1410 CE)[edit]

The Tughlaq dynasty's reign formally started in 1320 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq after defeating Khusrau Khan at the Battle of Lahrawat.

During Ghazi Malik's reign, in 1321 he sent his eldest son Jauna Khan, later known as Muhammad bin Tughlaq, to Deogir to plunder the Hindu kingdoms of Arangal and Tilang (now part of Telangana). His first attempt was a failure.[42] Four months later, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq sent large army reinforcements for his son asking him to attempt plundering Arangal and Tilang again.[43] This time Jauna Khan succeeded and Arangal fell, it was renamed to Sultanpur, and all plundered wealth, state treasury and captives were transferred from the captured kingdom to the Delhi Sultanate.The Muslim aristocracy in Lukhnauti (Bengal) invited Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq to extend his coup and expand eastwards into Bengal by attacking Shamsuddin Firoz Shah, which he did over 1324–1325 AD,[42] after placing Delhi under control of his son Ulugh Khan, and then leading his army to Lukhnauti. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq succeeded in this campaign.

After his father's death in 1325 CE, Muhammad bin Tughlaq assumed power and his rule saw the empire expand to most of the Indian subcontinent, its peak in terms of geographical reach.[44] He attacked and plundered Malwa, Gujarat, Lakhnauti, Chittagong, Mithila and many other regions in India.[45] His distant campaigns were expensive, although each raid and attack on non-Muslim kingdoms brought new looted wealth and ransom payments from captured people. The extended empire was difficult to retain, and rebellions became commonplace all over the Indian subcontinent.[46] Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in March 1351[47][page needed] while trying to chase and punish people for rebellion and their refusal to pay taxes in Sindh and Gujarat.[48]

After Muhammad bin Tughlaq's death, the Tughlaq empire was in a state of disarray with many regions assuming independence; it was at this point that Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Ghazi Malik's nephew, took reign. His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik) who had the title Sipahsalar. His mother Naila was a Punjabi Bhatti princess (daughter of Rana Mal) from Dipalpur and Abohar according to the historian William Crooke.[49][50] The southern states had drifted away from the Sultanate and there were rebellions in Gujarat and Sindh, while "Bengal asserted its independence." He led expeditions against Bengal in 1353 and 1358. He captured Cuttack, desecrated the Jagannath Temple, Puri, and forced Raja Gajpati of Jajnagar in Orissa to pay tribute.[51][52] He also laid siege to the Kangra Fort and forced Nagarkot to pay tribute.[53] During this time, Tatar Khan of Greater Khorasan attacked Punjab, but he was defeated and his face slashed by the sword given by Feroz Shah Tughlaq to Raja Kailas Pal who ruled the Nagarkot region in Punjab.[54]

Sayyid dynasty (c. 1410–1450 CE)[edit]

Khizr Khan established the Sayyid dynasty, the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate after the fall of the Tughlaqs.[55]

Following Timur's 1398 sack of Delhi,[56] he appointed Khizr Khan as deputy of Multan (Punjab).[57] He held Lahore, Dipalpur, Multan and Upper Sindh.[58][59] Khizr Khan captured Delhi on 28 May 1414 thereby establishing the Sayyid dynasty.[57] Khizr Khan did not take up the title of sultan, but continued the fiction of his allegiance to Timur as Rayat-i-Ala(vassal) of the Timurids - initially that of Timur, and later his son Shah Rukh.[60][61] After the accession of Khizr Khan, the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Sindh were reunited under the Delhi Sultanate, where he spent his time subduing rebellions.[62] Punjab was the powerbase of Khizr Khan and his successors as the bulk of the Delhi army during their reigns came from Multan and Dipalpur.[63]

Khizr Khan was succeeded by his son Mubarak Shah after his death on 20 May 1421. Mubarak Shah referred to himself as Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah on his coins, removing the Timurid name with the name of the Caliph, and declared himself a Shah.[64][65] He defeated the advancing Hoshang Shah Ghori, ruler of Malwa Sultanate and forced him to pay heavy tribute early in his reign.[66] Mubarak Shah also put down the rebellion of Jasrath Khokhar and managed to fend off multiple invasions by the Timurids of Kabul.[67]

The last ruler of the Sayyids, Ala-ud-Din, voluntarily abdicated the throne of the Delhi Sultanate in favour of Bahlul Khan Lodi on 19 April 1451, and left for Badaun, where he died in 1478.[68]

Langah Sultanate (c. 1450–1540 CE)[edit]

In 1445, Sultan Qutbudin, chief of Langah (a Jat Zamindar tribe),[69][70][71][72] established the Langah Sultanate in Multan after the fall of the Sayyid dynasty. Husseyn Langah I (reigned 1456–1502) was the second ruler of Langah Sultanate. He undertook military campaigns in Punjab and captured Chiniot and Shorkot from the Lodis. Shah Husayn successfully repulsed attempted invasion by the Lodis led by Tatar Khan and Barbak Shah, as well as his daughter Zeerak Rumman.[11]

Modern period[edit]

Mughal Empire (c. 1526–1761 CE)[edit]

The Mughals came to power in the early 16th century and gradually expanded to control all of the Punjab from their capital at Lahore. During the Mughal era, Saadullah Khan, born into a family of Punjabi agriculturalists[73] belonging to the Thaheem tribe[74] from Chiniot[75] remained grand vizier (or Prime Minister) of the Mughal Empire in the period 1645–1656.[75] Other prominent Muslims from Punjab who rose to nobility during the Mughal Era include Wazir Khan,[76] Adina Beg Arain,[77] and Shahbaz Khan Kamboh.[78] The Mughal Empire ruled the region until it was severely weakened in the eighteenth century.[20] As Mughal power weakened, Afghan rulers took control of the region.[20] Contested by the Marathas and Afghans, the region was the center of the growing influence of the misls, who expanded and established the Sikh Confederacy as the Mughals and Afghans weakened, ultimately ruling the Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and territories north into the Himalayas.[20]

Sikh Empire (c. 1799–1849 CE)[edit]

In the 19th century, Maharajah Ranjit Singh established the Sikh Empire based in the Punjab.[79] The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849, when it was defeated and conquered in the Second Anglo-Sikh War. It was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls.[80][81] At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. It was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital; Multan, also in Punjab; Peshawar; and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849. Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 3.5 million in 1831 (making it the 19th most populous country at the time),[82] it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British Empire.

British Punjab (c. 1849–1947 CE)[edit]

Illustration of Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire

The Sikh Empire ruled the Punjab until the British annexed it in 1849 following the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars.[83] Most of the Punjabi homeland formed a province of British India, though a number of small princely states retained local rulers who recognized British authority.[20] The Punjab with its rich farmlands became one of the most important colonial assets.[20] Lahore was a noted center of learning and culture, and Rawalpindi became an important military installation.[20] Most Punjabis supported the British during World War I, providing men and resources to the war effort even though the Punjab remained a source of anti colonial activities.[84]: 163  Disturbances in the region increased as the war continued.[20] At the end of the war, high casualty rates, heavy taxation, inflation, and a widespread influenza epidemic disrupted Punjabi society.[20] In 1919, Colonel Reginald Dyer ordered troops under command to fire on a crowd of demonstrators, mostly Sikhs in Amritsar. The Jallianwala massacre fueled the indian independence movement.[20] Nationalists declared the independence of India from Lahore in 1930 but were quickly suppressed.[20] When the Second World War broke out, nationalism in British India had already divided into religious movements.[20] Many Sikhs and other minorities supported the Hindus, who promised a secular multicultural and multireligious society, and Muslim leaders in Lahore passed a resolution to work for a Muslim Pakistan, making the Punjab region a center of growing conflict between Indian and Pakistani nationalists.[20] At the end of the war, the British granted separate independence to India and Pakistan, setting off massive communal violence as Muslims fled to Pakistan and Hindu and Sikh Punjabis fled east to India.[20]

The British Raj had major political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai. At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan.[85] The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following partition, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.[86][87][88][89]

Another major consequence of partition was the sudden shift towards religious homogeneity occurred in all districts across Punjab owing to the new international border that cut through the province. This rapid demographic shift was primarily due to wide scale migration but also caused by large-scale religious cleansing riots which were witnessed across the region at the time. According to historical demographer Tim Dyson, in the eastern regions of Punjab that ultimately became Indian Punjab following independence, districts that were 66% Hindu in 1941 became 80% Hindu in 1951; those that were 20% Sikh became 50% Sikh in 1951. Conversely, in the western regions of Punjab that ultimately became Pakistani Punjab, all districts became almost exclusively Muslim by 1951.[90]

Geography[edit]

The geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century Mughal Empire it referred to a relatively smaller area between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers.[91][92]

Sikh Empire[edit]

Map showing the Punjabi Sikh Empire

At its height in the first half of the 19th century, the Sikh Empire spanned a total of over 200,000 sq mi (520,000 km2).[93][94][95]

The Punjab was a region straddling India and the Afghan Durrani Empire. The following modern-day political divisions made up the historical Punjab region during the Sikh Empire:

After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement. This opportunity was used by the East India Company to launch the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. The country was finally annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849 into separate princely states and the province of Punjab. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore as a direct representative of the Crown.[84]: 221 

Punjab (British India)[edit]

In British India, until the Partition of India in 1947, the Punjab Province was geographically a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces.[105] In total Punjab had an area of approximately 357 000 km square about the same size as modern day Germany, being one of the largest provinces of the British Raj.

Map of the Punjab Province (British India)

It encompassed the present day Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and some parts of Himachal Pradesh which were merged with Punjab by the British for administrative purposes (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union) and the Pakistani regions of the Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

In 1901 the frontier districts beyond the Indus were separated from Punjab and made into a new province: the North-West Frontier Province. Subsequently, Punjab was divided into four natural geographical divisions by colonial officials on the decadal census data:[106]: 2 [107]: 4 

  1. Indo-Gangetic Plain West geographical division (including Hisar district, Loharu State, Rohtak district, Dujana State, Gurgaon district, Pataudi State, Delhi, Karnal district, Jalandhar district, Kapurthala State, Ludhiana district, Malerkotla State, Firozpur district, Faridkot State, Patiala State, Jind State, Nabha State, Lahore District, Amritsar district, Gujranwala District, and Sheikhupura district);
  2. Himalayan geographical division (including Nahan State, Simla District, Simla Hill States, Kangra district, Mandi State, Suket State, and Chamba State);
  3. Sub-Himalayan geographical division (including Ambala district, Kalsia State, Hoshiarpur district, Gurdaspur district, Sialkot District, Gujrat District, Jhelum District, Rawalpindi District, and Attock District;
  4. North-West Dry Area geographical division (including Montgomery District, Shahpur District, Mianwali District, Lyallpur District, Jhang District, Multan District, Bahawalpur State, Muzaffargarh District, and Dera Ghazi Khan District).

Partition of British Punjab[edit]

The struggle for Indian independence witnessed competing and conflicting interests in the Punjab. The landed elites of the Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities had loyally collaborated with the British since annexation, supported the Unionist Party and were hostile to the Congress party–led independence movement.[108] Amongst the peasantry and urban middle classes, the Hindus were the most active National Congress supporters, the Sikhs flocked to the Akali movement whilst the Muslims eventually supported the Muslim League.[108]

Since the partition of the sub-continent had been decided, special meetings of the Western and Eastern Section of the Legislative Assembly were held on 23 June 1947 to decide whether or not the Province of the Punjab be partitioned. After voting on both sides, partition was decided and the existing Punjab Legislative Assembly was also divided into West Punjab Legislative Assembly and the East Punjab Legislative Assembly. This last Assembly before independence, held its last sitting on 4 July 1947.[109]

Major cities[edit]

Historically, Lahore has been the capital of the Punjab region and continues to be the most populous city in the region, with a population of 11 million for the city proper. Faisalabad is the 2nd most populous city and largest industrial hub in this region. Other major cities are Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, and Chandigarh are the other cities in Punjab with a city-proper population of over a million.

Climate[edit]

The snow-covered Himalayas

The climate has significant impact on the economy of Punjab, particularly for agriculture in the region. Climate is not uniform over the whole region, as the areas adjacent to the Himalayas generally receive heavier rainfall than those at a distance.[110]

There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the hot season, from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C (120 °F). The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon season is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to 5 °C (41 °F) at night and 12 °C (54 °F) by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.[111]

Western Punjab[edit]

Climate data for Islamabad (1991-2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.1
(86.2)
30.0
(86.0)
37.0
(98.6)
44.0
(111.2)
45.6
(114.1)
50.0
(122.0)
45.0
(113.0)
42.0
(107.6)
38.1
(100.6)
38.0
(100.4)
32.2
(90.0)
28.3
(82.9)
50.0
(122.0)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
20.0
(68.0)
24.8
(76.6)
30.6
(87.1)
36.1
(97.0)
38.3
(100.9)
35.4
(95.7)
33.9
(93.0)
33.4
(92.1)
30.9
(87.6)
25.4
(77.7)
20.4
(68.7)
28.9
(84.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
13.4
(56.1)
18.1
(64.6)
23.6
(74.5)
28.7
(83.7)
31.4
(88.5)
30.1
(86.2)
29.1
(84.4)
27.6
(81.7)
23.3
(73.9)
17.3
(63.1)
12.5
(54.5)
22.2
(71.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
6.8
(44.2)
11.4
(52.5)
16.6
(61.9)
21.5
(70.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.9
(76.8)
24.2
(75.6)
21.7
(71.1)
15.6
(60.1)
9.1
(48.4)
4.7
(40.5)
15.4
(59.7)
Record low °C (°F) −6
(21)
−5.0
(23.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.1
(35.8)
5.5
(41.9)
13
(55)
15.2
(59.4)
14.5
(58.1)
13.3
(55.9)
5.7
(42.3)
−0.6
(30.9)
−2.8
(27.0)
−6.0
(21.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.2
(2.17)
99.5
(3.92)
96.5
(3.80)
58.1
(2.29)
39.9
(1.57)
78.4
(3.09)
310.6
(12.23)
317.0
(12.48)
135.4
(5.33)
34.4
(1.35)
17.7
(0.70)
25.9
(1.02)
1,268.6
(49.95)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.7 8.0 7.3 6.1 5.2 6.0 12.3 11.9 6.4 2.9 2.0 2.0 74.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 195.7 187.1 202.3 252.4 319.0 300.1 264.4 250.7 262.2 275.5 247.9 195.6 2,952.9
Source 1: NOAA (sun, 1961-1990)[112][113]
Source 2: PMD (extremes)[114]

Central Punjab[edit]

Climate data for Lahore (1991-2020, extremes 1931-2018)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.8
(82.0)
33.3
(91.9)
37.8
(100.0)
46.1
(115.0)
48.3
(118.9)
47.2
(117.0)
46.1
(115.0)
42.8
(109.0)
41.7
(107.1)
40.6
(105.1)
35.0
(95.0)
30.0
(86.0)
48.3
(118.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 18.4
(65.1)
22.2
(72.0)
27.5
(81.5)
34.2
(93.6)
38.9
(102.0)
38.9
(102.0)
35.6
(96.1)
34.7
(94.5)
34.4
(93.9)
32.4
(90.3)
27.1
(80.8)
21.4
(70.5)
30.5
(86.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.1
(55.6)
16.5
(61.7)
21.6
(70.9)
27.7
(81.9)
32.3
(90.1)
33.2
(91.8)
31.3
(88.3)
30.8
(87.4)
29.9
(85.8)
26.3
(79.3)
20.4
(68.7)
15.1
(59.2)
24.9
(76.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
10.8
(51.4)
15.7
(60.3)
21.1
(70.0)
25.6
(78.1)
27.4
(81.3)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
25.3
(77.5)
20.1
(68.2)
13.7
(56.7)
8.8
(47.8)
19.2
(66.5)
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
0.0
(32.0)
2.8
(37.0)
10.0
(50.0)
14.0
(57.2)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68.0)
19.0
(66.2)
16.7
(62.1)
8.3
(46.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−1.1
(30.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.9
(0.86)
39.5
(1.56)
43.5
(1.71)
25.5
(1.00)
26.7
(1.05)
84.8
(3.34)
195.6
(7.70)
184.1
(7.25)
88.6
(3.49)
13.3
(0.52)
6.9
(0.27)
16.8
(0.66)
747.2
(29.41)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.5 3.5 3.6 2.8 2.9 5.0 9.1 8.7 4.9 1.1 1.9 1.1 47.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 218.8 215.0 245.8 256.1 308.3 269.0 227.5 234.9 265.6 290.0 229.6 222.9 2,983.5
Source 1: NOAA (sun, 1961-1990)[115]
Source 2: PMD[116]

Eastern Punjab[edit]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.7
(81.9)
32.8
(91.0)
37.8
(100.0)
42.6
(108.7)
44.6
(112.3)
45.3
(113.5)
42.0
(107.6)
39.0
(102.2)
37.5
(99.5)
37.0
(98.6)
34.0
(93.2)
28.5
(83.3)
45.3
(113.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 20.5
(68.9)
23.0
(73.4)
28.4
(83.1)
34.6
(94.3)
38.3
(100.9)
38.3
(100.9)
34.1
(93.4)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
32.3
(90.1)
27.4
(81.3)
21.9
(71.4)
30.4
(86.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
8.1
(46.6)
13.0
(55.4)
18.8
(65.8)
23.0
(73.4)
24.9
(76.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.2
(73.8)
21.7
(71.1)
17.2
(63.0)
10.6
(51.1)
6.4
(43.5)
16.3
(61.3)
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
4.2
(39.6)
7.8
(46.0)
13.4
(56.1)
14.8
(58.6)
14.2
(57.6)
17.2
(63.0)
14.3
(57.7)
9.4
(48.9)
3.7
(38.7)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 43.3
(1.70)
44.2
(1.74)
30.5
(1.20)
11.7
(0.46)
28.9
(1.14)
131.8
(5.19)
278.1
(10.95)
289.0
(11.38)
158.2
(6.23)
22.8
(0.90)
6.4
(0.25)
19.2
(0.76)
1,064.1
(41.89)
Average rainy days 2.8 2.7 2.0 0.8 1.6 5.5 10.8 10.9 4.8 1.4 0.8 1.4 45.5
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 47 42 34 23 23 39 62 70 59 40 40 46 44
Source: India Meteorological Department[117][118]

Demographics[edit]

Languages[edit]

The dominant mother tongue in each District of Pakistan, according to the 2017 Pakistan Census

The major language is Punjabi, which is written in India with the Gurmukhi script, and in Pakistan using the Shahmukhi script.[119] The Punjabi language has official status and is widely used in education and administration in Indian Punjab, whereas in Pakistani Punjab these roles are instead fulfilled by the Urdu language.

Several languages closely related to Punjabi are spoken in the various parts of the region. Dogri,[120] Kangri,[121] and other western Pahari dialects are spoken in the north-central and northeastern parts of the region, while Bagri[122] is spoken in south-central and southeastern sections. Meanwhile, Saraiki is generally spoken across a wide belt covering the southwest, while in the northwest there are large pockets containing speakers of Hindko and Pothwari.[123]

Linguistic demographics of Punjab Province
Language Percentage
1911[106]: 370 
Punjabi[e] 75.93%
Western Hindi[f] 15.82%
Western Pahari 4.11%
Rajasthani 3.0%
Balochi 0.29%
Pashto 0.28%
English 0.15%
Other 0.42%

Religions[edit]

Background[edit]

Rig Veda, the oldest known Hindu text, originated in the Punjab region.

Hinduism is the oldest of the religions practised by Punjabi people, however, the term Hindu was also applied over a vast territory with much regional diversity.[124] The historical Vedic religion constituted the religious ideas and practices in the Punjab during the Vedic period (1500–500 BCE), centered primarily in the worship of Indra.[125][126][127][128] The bulk of the Rigveda was composed in the Punjab region between circa 1500 and 1200 BC,[129] while later Vedic scriptures were composed more eastwards, between the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. An ancient Indian law book called the Manusmriti, developed by Brahmin Hindu priests, shaped Punjabi religious life from 200 BC onward.[130]

Later, the spread of Buddhisim and Jainism in the Indian subcontinent saw the growth of Buddhism and Jainism in the Punjab.[131] Islam was introduced via southern Punjab in the 8th century, becoming the majority by the 16th century, via local conversion.[132][133] There was a small Jain community left in Punjab by the 16th century, while the Buddhist community had largely disappeared by the turn of the 10th century.[134] The region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of the Punjab region.[135]

The rise of Sikhism in the 1700s saw some Punjabis, both Hindu and Muslim, accepting the new Sikh faith.[130][136] A number of Punjabis during the colonial period of India became Christians, with all of these religions characterizing the religious diversity now found in the Punjab region.[130]

Colonial era[edit]

A number of Punjabis during the colonial period of India became Christians, with all of these religions characterizing the religious diversity now found in the Punjab region.[137] Additionally during the colonial era, the practice of religious syncretism among Punjabi Muslims and Punjabi Hindus was noted and documented by officials in census reports:

"In other parts of the Province, too, traces of Hindu festivals are noticeable among the Muhammadans. In the western Punjab, Baisakhi, the new year's day of the Hindus, is celebrated as an agricultural festival, by all Muhammadans, by racing bullocks yoked to the well gear, with the beat of tom-toms, and large crowds gather to witness the show, The race is called Baisakhi and is a favourite pastime in the well-irrigated tracts. Then the processions of Tazias, in Muharram, with the accompaniment of tom-toms, fencing parties and bands playing on flutes and other musical instruments (which is disapproved by the orthodox Muhammadans) and the establishment of Sabils (shelters where water and sharbat are served out) are clearly influenced by similar practices at Hindu festivals, while the illuminations on occasions like the Chiraghan fair of Shalamar (Lahore) are no doubt practices answering to the holiday-making instinct of the converted Hindus."[106]: 174 
"Besides actual conversion, Islam has had a considerable influence on the Hindu religion. The sects of reformers based on a revolt from the orthodoxy of Varnashrama Dharma were obviously the outcome of the knowledge that a different religion could produce equally pious and right thinking men. Laxity in social restrictions also appeared simultaneously in various degrees and certain customs were assimilated to those of the Muhammadans. On the other hand the miraculous powers of Muhammadan saints were enough to attract the saint worshiping Hindus, to allegiance, if not to a total change of faith... The Shamsis are believers in Shah Shamas Tabrez of Multan, and follow the Imam, for the time being, of the Ismailia sect of Shias... they belong mostly to the Sunar caste and their connection with the sect is kept a secret, like Freemasonry. They pass as ordinary Hindus, but their devotion to the Imam is very strong."[106]: 130 

— Excerpts from the Census of India (Punjab Province), 1911 AD
Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of the British India(1881–1941)[138][107]: 46 
Religious
group
Population
% 1881[g]
Population
% 1891
Population
% 1901[g]
Population
% 1911[g]
Population
% 1921
Population
% 1931
Population
% 1941
Islam 47.6% 47.8% 49.2% 50.8% 51.1% 52.4% 53.2%
Hinduism[h] 43.8% 43.6% 41.8% 36.3% 35.1% 31.7% 30.1%
Sikhism 8.2% 8.2% 8.5% 11.9% 12.4% 14.3% 14.9%
Christianity 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5%
Other religions / No religion 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
Religious groups in Punjab Province (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[139][140][141][g] 1901[142]: 34 [g] 1911[143]: 27 [144]: 27 [g] 1921[145]: 29  1931[146]: 277  1941[147]: 42 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 9,872,745 47.58% 12,183,345 49.22% 12,275,477 50.75% 12,813,383 51.05% 14,929,896 52.4% 18,259,744 53.22%
Hinduism [h] 9,095,175 43.84% 10,344,469 41.79% 8,773,621 36.27% 8,799,651 35.06% 9,018,509 31.65% 10,336,549 30.13%
Sikhism 1,706,165 8.22% 2,102,896 8.49% 2,883,729 11.92% 3,107,296 12.38% 4,071,624 14.29% 5,116,185 14.91%
Jainism 42,572 0.21% 49,983 0.2% 46,775 0.19% 41,321 0.16% 43,140 0.15% 45,475 0.13%
Christianity 28,054 0.14% 66,591 0.27% 199,751 0.83% 332,939 1.33% 419,353 1.47% 512,466 1.49%
Buddhism 3,251 0.02% 6,940 0.03% 7,690 0.03% 5,912 0.02% 7,753 0.03% 854 0.002%
Zoroastrianism 413 0.002% 477 0.002% 653 0.003% 526 0.002% 569 0.002% 4,359 0.01%
Judaism 24 0.0001% 54 0.0002% 19 0.0001% 13 0% 39 0.0001%
Others 57 0.0003% 12 0% 0 0% 13 0.0001% 0 0% 34,190 0.1%
Total population 20,748,432 100% 24,754,737 100% 24,187,750 100% 25,101,060 100% 28,490,857 100% 34,309,861 100%
Religion in West Punjab (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[139][140][141][148][i] 1901[142]: 34 [149]: 62 [j] 1911[143]: 27 [144]: 27 [k] 1921[145]: 29 [l] 1931[146]: 277 [m] 1941[147]: 42 [n]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 6,201,859 78.09% 7,951,155 76.25% 8,494,314 76.49% 8,975,288 75.49% 10,570,029 75.28% 13,022,160 75.1%
Hinduism [h] 1,449,913 18.26% 1,944,363 18.65% 1,645,758 14.82% 1,797,141 15.12% 1,957,878 13.94% 2,373,466 13.69%
Sikhism 272,908 3.44% 483,999 4.64% 813,441 7.33% 863,091 7.26% 1,180,789 8.41% 1,520,112 8.77%
Christianity 12,992 0.16% 42,371 0.41% 144,514 1.3% 247,030 2.08% 324,730 2.31% 395,311 2.28%
Jainism 4,352 0.05% 5,562 0.05% 5,977 0.05% 5,930 0.05% 6,921 0.05% 9,520 0.05%
Zoroastrianism 354 0.004% 300 0.003% 377 0.003% 309 0.003% 413 0.003% 312 0.002%
Buddhism 0 0% 6 0.0001% 168 0.002% 172 0.001% 32 0.0002% 87 0.001%
Judaism 9 0.0001% 36 0.0003% 16 0.0001% 6 0% 7 0%
Others 21 0.0003% 0 0% 0 0% 8 0.0001% 0 0% 19,128 0.11%
Total Population 7,942,399 100% 10,427,765 100% 11,104,585 100% 11,888,985 100% 14,040,798 100% 17,340,103 100%
Territory comprises the contemporary subdivisions of Punjab, Pakistan and Islamabad Capital Territory.
Religion in East Punjab (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[139][140][141][148][o][g] 1901[142]: 34 [149]: 62 [p][g] 1911[143]: 27 [144]: 27 [q][g] 1921[145]: 29 [r] 1931[146]: 277 [s] 1941[147]: 42 [t]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Hinduism [h] 7,645,262 59.7% 8,400,106 58.63% 7,127,863 54.48% 7,002,510 53% 7,060,631 48.86% 7,963,083 46.93%
Islam 3,670,886 28.67% 4,232,190 29.54% 3,781,163 28.9% 3,838,095 29.05% 4,359,867 30.17% 5,237,584 30.86%
Sikhism 1,433,257 11.19% 1,618,897 11.3% 2,070,288 15.82% 2,244,205 16.99% 2,890,835 20.01% 3,596,073 21.19%
Jainism 38,220 0.3% 44,421 0.31% 40,798 0.31% 35,391 0.27% 36,219 0.25% 35,955 0.21%
Christianity 15,062 0.12% 24,220 0.17% 55,237 0.42% 85,909 0.65% 94,623 0.65% 117,155 0.69%
Buddhism 3,251 0.03% 6,934 0.05% 7,522 0.06% 5,740 0.04% 7,721 0.05% 767 0.005%
Zoroastrianism 59 0.0005% 177 0.001% 276 0.002% 217 0.002% 156 0.001% 4,047 0.02%
Judaism 15 0.0001% 18 0.0001% 3 0% 7 0% 32 0.0002%
Others 36 0.0003% 12 0.0001% 0 0% 5 0% 0 0% 15,062 0.09%
Total Population 12,806,033 100% 14,326,972 100% 13,083,165 100% 13,212,075 100% 14,450,059 100% 16,969,758 100%
Territory comprises the contemporary subdivisions of Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
Religious groups in the Indo—Gangetic Plain West geographical division of Punjab Province (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[139][140][141] 1901[142]: 34  1911[143]: 27 [144]: 27  1921[145]: 29  1931[146]: 277  1941[147]: 42 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Hinduism [h] 4,975,901 48.94% 5,825,964 48.64% 4,790,624 43.44% 4,735,960 41.37% 4,709,545 36.59% 5,314,610 34.43%
Islam 3,751,891 36.9% 4,481,366 37.42% 4,144,971 37.59% 4,350,186 38% 5,112,215 39.72% 6,247,791 40.48%
Sikhism 1,390,873 13.68% 1,605,457 13.4% 1,993,750 18.08% 2,186,429 19.1% 2,816,785 21.88% 3,576,659 23.17%
Jainism 36,479 0.36% 41,877 0.35% 39,111 0.35% 33,515 0.29% 34,806 0.27% 34,744 0.23%
Christianity 11,729 0.12% 22,103 0.18% 58,462 0.53% 140,104 1.22% 198,081 1.54% 247,028 1.6%
Zoroastrianism 139 0% 299 0% 412 0% 318 0% 314 0% 235 0%
Buddhism 1 0% 3 0% 132 0% 184 0% 23 0% 39 0%
Judaism 19 0% 28 0% 14 0% 5 0% 30 0%
Others 49 0% 12 0% 0 0% 6 0% 0 0% 14,844 0.1%
Total population[u] 10,167,062 100% 11,977,100 100% 11,027,490 100% 11,446,716 100% 12,871,774 100% 15,435,980 100%

The Indo−Gangetic Plain West geographical division included Hisar district, Loharu State, Rohtak district, Dujana State, Gurgaon district, Pataudi State, Delhi, Karnal district, Jalandhar district, Kapurthala State, Ludhiana district, Malerkotla State, Firozpur district, Faridkot State, Patiala State, Jind State, Nabha State, Lahore District, Amritsar district, Gujranwala District, and Sheikhupura District.[106]: 2 [107]: 4 

Religious groups in the Himalayan geographical division of Punjab Province (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[139][140][141] 1901[142]: 34  1911[143]: 27 [144]: 27  1921[145]: 29  1931[146]: 277  1941[147]: 42 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Hinduism [h] 1,458,481 94.74% 1,598,853 94.6% 1,630,084 94.53% 1,642,176 94.5% 1,729,008 94.42% 1,929,634 94.76%
Islam 70,642 4.59% 76,480 4.53% 74,205 4.3% 77,425 4.46% 82,711 4.52% 87,485 4.3%
Christianity 3,840 0.25% 3,415 0.2% 4,400 0.26% 4,471 0.26% 2,586 0.14% 2,129 0.1%
Buddhism 3,250 0.21% 6,931 0.41% 7,518 0.44% 5,718 0.33% 7,705 0.42% 614 0.03%
Sikhism 2,680 0.17% 3,897 0.23% 7,894 0.46% 7,610 0.44% 8,948 0.49% 12,245 0.6%
Jainism 536 0.03% 483 0.03% 358 0.02% 356 0.02% 291 0.02% 425 0.02%
Zoroastrianism 4 0% 7 0% 18 0% 40 0% 3 0% 3,895 0.19%
Judaism 0 0% 3 0% 1 0% 1 0% 0 0%
Others 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 4 0% 0 0% 1 0%
Total population[u] 1,539,433 100% 1,690,066 100% 1,724,480 100% 1,737,801 100% 1,831,253 100% 2,036,428 100%

The Himalayan geographical division included Sirmoor State, Simla District, Simla Hill States, Bilaspur State, Kangra district, Mandi State, Suket State, and Chamba State.[106]: 2 [107]: 4 

Religious groups in the Sub—Himalayan geographical division of Punjab Province (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[139][140][141] 1901[142]: 34  1911[143]: 27 [144]: 27  1921[145]: 29  1931[146]: 277  1941[147]: 42 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 3,511,174 58.8% 3,741,759 60.62% 3,551,989 61.19% 3,587,246 61.44% 4,009,166 61.99% 4,751,911 62.32%
Hinduism [h] 2,159,634 36.17% 2,042,505 33.09% 1,588,097 27.36% 1,556,703 26.66% 1,565,034 24.2% 1,799,915 23.6%
Sikhism 284,592 4.77% 350,587 5.68% 565,596 9.74% 570,759 9.78% 753,168 11.65% 906,802 11.89%
Christianity 10,363 0.17% 29,930 0.48% 92,524 1.59% 117,172 2.01% 132,500 2.05% 155,386 2.04%
Jainism 5,231 0.09% 7,278 0.12% 6,695 0.12% 6,866 0.12% 7,299 0.11% 9,172 0.12%
Zoroastrianism 200 0% 117 0% 152 0% 111 0% 76 0% 141 0%
Buddhism 0 0% 6 0% 11 0% 8 0% 22 0% 171 0%
Judaism 5 0% 17 0% 1 0% 7 0% 6 0%
Others 1 0% 0 0% 0 0% 3 0% 0 0% 1,681 0.02%
Total population[u] 5,971,195 100% 6,172,187 100% 5,805,081 100% 5,838,869 100% 6,467,272 100% 7,625,185 100%

The Sub−Himalayan geographical division included Ambala district, Kalsia State, Hoshiarpur district, Gurdaspur district, Sialkot District, Gujrat District, Jhelum District, Rawalpindi District, and Attock District.[106]: 2 [107]: 4 

Religious groups in the North—West Dry Area geographical division of Punjab Province (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[139][140][141] 1901[142]: 34  1911[143]: 27 [144]: 27  1921[145]: 29  1931[146]: 277  1941[147]: 42 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 2,539,038 82.68% 3,883,740 79.01% 4,504,312 80% 4,798,526 78.95% 5,725,804 78.22% 7,172,557 77.86%
Hinduism [h] 501,159 16.32% 877,147 17.84% 764,816 13.58% 864,812 14.23% 1,014,922 13.86% 1,292,390 14.03%
Sikhism 28,020 0.91% 142,955 2.91% 316,489 5.62% 342,498 5.64% 492,723 6.73% 620,479 6.74%
Christianity 2,122 0.07% 11,143 0.23% 44,365 0.79% 71,192 1.17% 86,186 1.18% 107,923 1.17%
Jainism 326 0.01% 345 0.01% 611 0.01% 584 0.01% 744 0.01% 1,134 0.01%
Zoroastrianism 70 0% 54 0% 71 0% 57 0% 176 0% 88 0%
Buddhism 0 0% 0 0% 29 0% 2 0% 3 0% 30 0%
Judaism 0 0% 6 0% 3 0% 0 0% 3 0%
Others 7 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 17,664 0.19%
Total population[u] 3,070,742 100% 4,915,384 100% 5,630,699 100% 6,077,674 100% 7,320,558 100% 9,212,268 100%

The North−West Dry Area geographical division included Montgomery District, Shahpur District, Mianwali District, Lyallpur District, Jhang District, Multan District, Bahawalpur State, Muzaffargarh District, Dera Ghazi Khan District, and the Biloch Trans–Frontier Tract.[106]: 2 [107]: 4 

Post-partition[edit]

In the present-day, the vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include significant minority faiths, such as Shia Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and Christians.

Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state. About 57.7% of the population of Punjab state is Sikh, 38.5% is Hindu, with the remaining population including Muslims, Christians, and Jains.[150] Punjab state contains the holy Sikh cities of Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib.

The Punjab was home to several Sufi saints, and Sufism is well established in the region.[151] Also, Kirpal Singh revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.[152]

Religious groups in the Punjab Region (2011 Census of India & 2017 Census of Pakistan)[153][154][155][a]
Religious
group
Punjab
Region
Punjab
(Pakistan)
[153]
Punjab
(India)
[154]
Haryana[155] Delhi[155] Himachal
Pradesh
[155]
Islamabad[153] Chandigarh[155]
Total
population
Percentage Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 114,130,322 60.13% 107,541,602 97.77% 535,489 1.93% 1,781,342 7.03% 2,158,684 12.86% 149,881 2.18% 1,911,877 95.43% 51,447 4.87%
Hinduism 54,159,083 28.54% 211,641 0.19% 10,678,138 38.49% 22,171,128 87.46% 13,712,100 81.68% 6,532,765 95.17% 737 0.04% 852,574 80.78%
Sikhism 18,037,312 9.5% 16,004,754 57.69% 1,243,752 4.91% 570,581 3.4% 79,896 1.16% 138,329 13.11%
Christianity 2,715,952 1.43% 2,063,063 1.88% 348,230 1.26% 50,353 0.2% 146,093 0.87% 12,646 0.18% 86,847 4.34% 8,720 0.83%
Jainism 267,649 0.14% 45,040 0.16% 52,613 0.21% 166,231 0.99% 1,805 0.03% 1,960 0.19%
Ahmadiyya 160,759 0.08% 158,021 0.14% 2,738 0.14%
Buddhism 139,019 0.07% 33,237 0.12% 7,514 0.03% 18,449 0.11% 78,659 1.15% 1,160 0.11%
Others 185,720 0.1% 15,328 0.01% 98,450 0.35% 44,760 0.18% 15,803 0.09% 8,950 0.13% 1,169 0.06% 1,260 0.12%
Total population 189,795,816 100% 109,989,655 100% 27,743,338 100% 25,351,462 100% 16,787,941 100% 6,864,602 100% 2,003,368 100% 1,055,450 100%

Tribes[edit]

Jats in Delhi (1868)
Rajputs in Delhi (1868)
Brahmin in Lahore (c. 1799–1849)
Left to right: Gurkha, Brahmin and Shudra (Chuhra-Chamar) in Shimla (1868)
Arains in Lahore (1868)
Tarkhans in Lahore (c. 1862–1872)
Gujjars in Delhi (c. 1859–1869)
Arora in Lahore (c. 1862–1872)
Kumhars in Lahore (c. 1859–1869)

The Punjab region is diverse. Historic census reports taken in the colonial era details the main castes are represented, alongside numerous subcastes and tribes (also known as Jāti or Barādarī), formed parts of the various ethnic groups in the region, contemporarily known as Punjabis, Saraikis, Haryanvis, Hindkowans, Dogras, Paharis, and more.

Tribes of Punjab Province (1881–1931)[106]: 478 [156]: 348 [157]: 193–254 [158]: 367 [159]: 281–309 
Tribe 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Jat 4,223,885 20.31% 4,500,340 19.64% 4,884,285 20.04% 4,891,060 20.56% 5,453,747 21.73% 6,070,032 21.31%
Rajput 1,648,426 7.92% 1,747,989 7.63% 1,784,402 7.32% 1,586,274 6.67% 1,853,025 7.38% 2,351,650 8.25%
Brahman 1,040,771 5% 1,069,132 4.67% 1,077,252 4.42% 985,901 4.14% 994,529 3.96% 1,058,598 3.72%
Chuhra 1,039,039 5% 1,175,504 5.13% 1,175,003 4.82% 912,998 3.84% 750,596 2.99% 681,359 2.39%
Chamar 1,033,727 4.97% 1,147,913 5.01% 1,172,118 4.81% 1,075,941 4.52% 1,134,700 4.52% 1,102,465 3.87%
Arain 795,471 3.82% 890,264 3.88% 1,003,698 4.12% 973,888 4.09% 1,086,455 4.33% 1,329,312 4.67%
Julaha 593,199 2.85% 620,401 2.71% 651,800 2.67% 626,960 2.64% 643,403 2.56% 672,243 2.36%
Tarkhan 564,385 2.71% 621,718 2.71% 675,361 2.77% 637,971 2.68% 614,912 2.45% 654,053 2.3%
Gujjar 539,251 2.59% 600,198 2.62% 611,904 2.51% 595,598 2.5% 627,451 2.5% 696,442 2.44%
Arora 538,465 2.59% 603,131 2.63% 647,945 2.66% 667,943 2.81% 707,495 2.82% 769,694 2.7%
Kumhar 465,676 2.24% 515,331 2.25% 561,298 2.3% 542,906 2.28% 570,158 2.27% 62,0402 2.18%
Bania 437,000 2.1% 442,000 1.93% 452,000 1.85% 404,000 1.7% 374,169 1.49%
Jhinwar 418,499 2.01% 458,702 2% 450,362 1.85% 331,951 1.4% 371,418 1.48% 370,168 1.3%
Khatri 392,413 1.89% 418,517 1.83% 433,579 1.78% 423,704 1.78% 452,902 1.8% 516,207 1.81%
Awan 350,848 1.69% 389,402 1.7% 420,504 1.73% 425,450 1.79% 439,975 1.75% 538,760 1.89%
Kanet 346,000 1.66% 370,000 1.61% 390,000 1.6% 404,000 1.7% 288,159 1.15% 305,814 1.07%
Mochi 334,034 1.61% 384,179 1.68% 408,314 1.68% 410,977 1.73% 429,242 1.71% 466,832 1.64%
Baloch 331,851 1.6% 383,138 1.67% 466,645 1.92% 530,976 2.23% 531,084 2.12% 624,691 2.19%
Nai 323,703 1.56% 371,144 1.62% 370,019 1.52% 344,845 1.45% 360,653 1.44% 380,657 1.34%
Sheikh 293,606 1.41% 287,778 1.26% 264,656 1.09% 276,687 1.16% 244,800 0.98% 407,576 1.43%
Lohar 291,506 1.4% 323,420 1.41% 347,099 1.42% 319,847 1.34% 322,195 1.28% 333,910 1.17%
Teli 250,544 1.2% 291,513 1.27% 309,433 1.27% 284,505 1.2% 305,122 1.22% 339,124 1.19%
Pathan 210,613 1.01% 221,262 0.97% 246,790 1.01% 272,547 1.15% 261,729 1.04% 345,438 1.21%
Sayyid 200,728 0.96% 217,034 0.95% 230,802 0.95% 239,160 1.01% 247,087 0.98% 293,313 1.03%
Mirasi 192,107 0.92% 230,700 1.01% 244,506 1% 223,093 0.94% 232,280 0.93% 242,685 0.85%
Machhi 167,882 0.81% 196,574 0.86% 236,122 0.97% 239,702 1.01% 280,956 1.12% 314,791 1.1%
Ahir 165,878 0.8% 188,838 0.82% 197,805 0.81% 201,299 0.85% 201,539 0.8% 221,897 0.78%
Kashmiri 149,733 0.72% 141,280 0.62% 189,878 0.78% 175,334 0.74% 166,449 0.66% 200,066 0.7%
Saini 147,183 0.71% 120,507 0.53% 121,722 0.5% 107,759 0.45% 120,376 0.48% 157,301 0.55%
Sunar 145,903 0.7% 164,087 0.72% 174,628 0.72% 155,993 0.66% 127,090 0.51% 159,655 0.56%
Kamboh 129,468 0.62% 150,646 0.66% 173,780 0.71% 171,536 0.72% 180,870 0.72% 239,385 0.84%
Dhobi 123,767 0.6% 139,421 0.61% 142,342 0.58% 151,566 0.64% 163,908 0.65% 174,519 0.61%
Meo 112,566 0.54% 115,916 0.51% 133,300 0.55% 120,752 0.51% 111,564 0.44% 124,821 0.44%
Faqir 111,995 0.54% 300,214 1.31% 362,266 1.49% 262,511 1.1% 270,070 1.08% 283,634 1%
Ghirath 110,507 0.53% 118,631 0.52% 121,718 0.5% 121,107 0.51% 117,949 0.47% 122,785 0.43%
Chhimba 100,448 0.48% 141,819 0.62% 147,152 0.6% 124,090 0.52% 120,695 0.48% 92,491 0.32%
Qassab 92,571 0.45% 109,435 0.48% 114,158 0.47% 117,363 0.49% 120,820 0.48% 127,198 0.45%
Rathi 82,957 0.4% 100,656 0.44% 37,793 0.16% 97,763 0.41% 118,015 0.47% 134,093 0.47%
Dagi & Koli 78,559 0.38% 167,772 0.73% 153,990 0.63% 172,269 0.72% 165,159 0.66% 182,056 0.64%
Mughal 92,000 0.44% 118,000 0.51% 98,000 0.4% 99,000 0.42% 88,951 0.35%
Jogi-Rawal 90,000 0.43% 91,000 0.4% 76,000 0.31% 83,000 0.35% 80,577 0.32%
Dumna 66,169 0.32% 64,046 0.28% 53,394 0.22% 72,250 0.3% 36,669 0.15% 32,055 0.11%
Dhanuk 66,000 0.32% 74,000 0.32% 77,000 0.32% 83,000 0.35% 87,278 0.35%
Dogar 63,000 0.01% 70,000 0.01% 75,000 0.01% 68,000 0.29% 74,369 0.3%
Khoja 62,000 0.3% 90,000 0.39% 99,000 0.41% 63,000 0.26% 87,461 0.35%
Mallah 62,000 0.3% 77,000 0.34% 73,000 0.3% 78,000 0.33% 74,233 0.3%
Mali 58,672 0.28% 95,989 0.42% 105,956 0.43% 96,883 0.41% 92,933 0.37% 72,299 0.25%
Bharai 56,000 0.27% 67,000 0.29% 66,000 0.27% 58,000 0.24% 61,721 0.25%
Barwala 55,000 0.26% 64,000 0.28% 69,000 0.28% 64,000 0.27% 65,907 0.26%
Mahtam 50,313 0.24% 56,982 0.25% 82,719 0.34% 81,805 0.34% 94,325 0.38% 64,004 0.22%
Labana 47,000 0.23% 55,000 0.24% 56,000 0.23% 58,000 0.24% 56,316 0.22%
Megh 37,373 0.18% 41,068 0.18% 44,315 0.18% 39,549 0.17% 30,465 0.12% 22,539 0.08%
Khokhar 36,000 0.17% 130,000 0.57% 108,000 0.44% 60,000 0.25% 69,169 0.28%
Darzi 30,190 0.15% 36,919 0.16% 39,164 0.16% 35,508 0.15% 38,256 0.15% 45,688 0.16%
Bawaria 22,013 0.11% 26,420 0.12% 29,112 0.12% 32,849 0.14% 34,807 0.14% 32,508 0.11%
Sansi 19,920 0.1% 22,218 0.1% 26,000 0.11% 24,439 0.1% 17,402 0.07% 28,262 0.1%
Od 15,652 0.08% 22,450 0.1% 26,160 0.11% 31,690 0.13% 28,502 0.11% 32,719 0.11%
Sarera 10,792 0.05% 11,366 0.05% 9,587 0.04% 10,743 0.05% 9,873 0.04% 11,230 0.04%
Pakhiwara 3,741 0.02% 3,674 0.02% 3,595 0.01% 3,711 0.02% 2,801 0.01% 3,100 0.01%
Ghosi 2,221 0.01% 2,652 0.01% 3,012 0.01% 2,419 0.01% 502 0% 3,836 0.01%
Harni 1,318 0.01% 4,157 0.02% 3,462 0.01% 3,360 0.01% 2,988 0.01% 3,387 0.01%
Maliar 81,000 0.33% 90,000 0.38% 88,755 0.35%
Mussalli 57,367 0.24% 309,543 1.3% 323,549 1.29% 412,295 1.45%
Qureshi 53,000 0.22% 71,000 0.3% 97,625 0.39%
Aggarwal 339,494 1.43% 349,322 1.39% 373,014 1.31%
Bagaria 1,262 0.01% 1,619 0.01% 2,446 0.01%
Total population 20,800,995 100% 22,915,894 100% 24,367,113 100% 23,791,841 100% 25,101,514 100% 28,490,869 100%

Economy[edit]

The historical region of Punjab produces a relatively high proportion of the food output from India and Pakistan.[citation needed] The region has been used for extensive wheat farming. In addition, rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit, and vegetables are also grown.[160]

The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab is considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. The Indian state of Punjab is currently the 16th richest state or the eighth richest large state of India. Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's foodgrain production.[161] Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%.[162]

Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton.[160] In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce.[163] In the Punjab region of Pakistan, 42.3% of the labour force is engaged in the agriculture sector.[164]

Alternatively, Punjab is also adding to the economy with the increase in employment of Punjab youth in the private sector. Government schemes such as 'Ghar Ghar Rozgar and Karobar Mission' have brought enhanced employability in the private sector. As of October 2019, more than 32,000 youths have been placed in different jobs and 12,000 have been skill-trained.[165]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Estimates from combining 2011 Indian census and 2017 Pakistani census with religious data amalgamated from Punjab, India, Punjab, Pakistan, Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Islamabad, and Chandigarh.[153][154][155]
  2. ^ From Persian پنج panj—meaning "five"—and آب âb—meaning "water" or "river". Thus, Panjâb, پنجاب or Panj-Âb, پنج‌آب translates as "five waters".[2]
  3. ^ Craterus supervised the construction. These cities are yet to be identified.
  4. ^ Western Punjabi languages and dialects including Saraiki, Hindko and Pahari-Pothwari, and other related languages or dialects
  5. ^ Standard Punjabi: 58.34%
    Lahnda:[d] 17.59%
  6. ^ Including Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Braj Bhasha, Haryanvi, and other related languages or dialects
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Including Delhi district, which was later made into a separate province in 1912, following the transfer from Calcutta to Delhi as capital of India in 1911.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h 1931 & 1941 censuses: Including Ad-Dharmis
  9. ^ 1881 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Montgomery, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), and one princely state (Bahawalpur) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1881 census data here: [139][140][141]
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  10. ^ 1901 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur (inscribed as the Chenab Colony on the 1901 census), Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1901 census data here: [142]: 34 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  11. ^ 1911 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1911 census data here: [143]: 27 [144]: 27 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  12. ^ 1921 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1921 census data here: [145]: 29 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  13. ^ 1931 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1931 census data here: [146]: 277 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  14. ^ 1941 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1941 census data here: [147]: 42 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  15. ^ 1881 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Delhi, Karnal, Sirsa, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, and Simla Hill) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1881 census data here: [139][140][141]
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  16. ^ 1901 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Delhi, Karnal, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Nahan, Simla Hill, Mandi, Suket, and Chamba) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1901 census data here: [142]: 34 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  17. ^ 1911 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Delhi, Karnal, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Nahan, Simla Hill, Mandi, Suket, and Chamba) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1911 census data here: [143]: 27 [144]: 27 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  18. ^ 1921 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Karnal, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Nahan, Simla Hill, Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, and Chamba) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1921 census data here: [145]: 29 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  19. ^ 1931 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Karnal, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Sirmoor, Simla Hill, Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, and Chamba) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1931 census data here: [146]: 277 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  20. ^ 1941 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Karnal, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Sirmoor, Simla Hill, Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, and Chamba) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1941 census data here: [147]: 42 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  21. ^ a b c d See total breakdowns in tables on Religion in the Punjab page.

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Condos, Mark. The Insecurity State: Punjab and the Making of Colonial Power in British India (2020) excerpt Archived 18 November 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  • Narang, K.S.; Gupta, Dr H.R. (1969). History of the Punjab 1500–1858 (PDF). U. C. Kapur & Sons, Delhi. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  • [Quraishee 73] Punjabi Adab De Kahani, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973.
  • [Chopra 77] Punjab as a Sovereign State, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977.
  • Patwant Singh. 1999. The Sikhs. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50206-0.
  • The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, Buddha Parkash.
  • Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash.
  • History of Porus, Patiala, Buddha Parkash.
  • History of the Panjab, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi (Ed).
  • The Legacy of the Punjab, 1997, R. M. Chopra.
  • The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, R. M. Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition, published in 2013.
  • Sims, Holly. "The State and Agricultural Productivity: Continuity versus Change in the Indian and Pakistani Punjabs." Asian Survey, 1 April 1986, Vol. 26(4), pp. 483–500.

External links[edit]