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Coordinates: 31°N 74°E / 31°N 74°E / 31; 74

Land of the five rivers
Location of Punjab in South Asia
Location of Punjab in South Asia
AreasSee below
 • Total358,354.5 km2 (138,361.4 sq mi)
 (2011, India / 2017, Pakistan)[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]
 • Totalc. 190 million in India and Pakistan
 • Ethnic groupsPunjabis
Minor: Haryanvis, Himachalis, Dogras, Hindkowans, Saraikis, Pashtuns, Muhajirs, Kashmiris, Biharis[8]
 • LanguagesPunjabi and others
 • ReligionsIslam (60%)
Hinduism (29%)
Sikhism (10%)
Christianity (1%)
Others (<1%)
Time zonesUTC+05:30 (IST (India))
UTC+05:00 (PKT (Pakistan))
Population, area and religious figures based on Punjab province borders

Punjab (/pʌnˈɑːb, -ˈæb, ˈpʌn-/; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; Punjabi: [pənˈdʒaːb] (listen); also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb)[a] is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

The geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century Mughal Empire it referred to a relatively smaller area between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers.[10] In British India, until the Partition of India in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi and the Pakistani regions of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south.

The predominant ethnolinguistic group of the Punjab region is the Punjabi people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Punjabi language. Punjabi Muslims are the majority in West Punjab (Pakistan), while Punjabi Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus are the majority in East Punjab (India). Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region was the cradle for the Indus Valley Civilisation. The region had numerous migrations by the Indo-Aryan peoples. The land was later invaded and contested by the Persians, Mauryans, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Kushans, Macedonians, Ghaznavids, Turkic, Mongols, Timurids, Mughals, Marathas, Arabs, Pashtuns, British, and other peoples. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region,[11] which is considered the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions.[12] The Punjab region is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan.[13][14][15]


Though the name Panjab is of Persian origin, its two parts ('panj' پنج, panj, 'five' and 'ab' آب, āb, 'water') are cognates of the Sanskrit words 'pañca' and 'apa' of the same meaning.[9][16] The word pañjāb thus means 'The Land of Five Waters', referring to the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.[17] All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Sutlej being the largest. References to a land of five rivers may be found in the Mahabharata, which calls one of the regions in ancient Bharat Panchanada (Sanskrit: पञ्चनाद, romanizedpañca-nāda, lit.'five rivers').[18][19] Persian place names are very common in Northwest India and Pakistan. The ancient Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamía (Greek: Πενταποταμία),[20][21][22] which has the same meaning as the Persian word.


Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site

The Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan peoples as well as partially to various indigenous communities. As a result of several invasions from Central Asia and the Middle East, many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of the Punjab.

In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of South Asia, the Indus Valley Civilisation, was located in the region.

Ancient period[edit]

The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are described as being fought in what is now the state of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas, and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.[23] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr. L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas, and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab."[24]

Classical period[edit]

Menander I Soter (165/155 – 130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130 BC.[25][26]

In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded Pauravas and defeated King Porus. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot in northeast Pakistan). By 305 BCE the area was ruled by the Maurya Empire. In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya presence in the area was then consolidated in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in 180 BCE.

Menander I Soter ("Menander I the Saviour"; known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era, who conquered Punjab and made Sagala the capital of his Empire.[25] Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the region till his death in 130 BCE.[26] The neighbouring Seleucid Empire rule came to an end around 12 BCE, after several invasions by the Yuezhi and the Scythian people.[citation needed]

Medieval period[edit]

Early (600s to 1206)[edit]

In 711–713 CE, the 18-year-old Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim of Taif, a city in what is now Saudi Arabia, came by way of the Arabian Sea with Arab troops to defeat Raja Dahir. Bin Qasim conquered parts of present-day Sindh and southern Punjab for the Umayyad Caliphate. The newly created state of Sind, encompassing part of Punjab, brought Islamic rule to the region for the first time. Sind would later be governed by the Abbasid Caliphate, before fragmenting into five smaller kingdoms, one of which was based in Multan. The remainder of Punjab at this time was governed by the Hindu Shahis and local Rajputs.

A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar

In 1001, Mahmud of Ghazni began a series of raids which culminated in establishing Ghaznavid rule across the Punjab by 1026. The Ghaznavids, a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin,[27][b][28] reigned until 1186 when they were defeated and replaced by the Ghurid dynasty, of Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan.[29]

Late (1206–1526)[edit]

Following the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206, the Ghurid state fragmented and was replaced in northern India by the Delhi Sultanate. The Delhi Sultanate ruled the Punjab for the next three hundred years, led by five unrelated dynasties, the Mamluks, Khalajis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodis.

Modern period[edit]

Early (1526–1858)[edit]

In 1526, the Delhi Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Turko-Mongol Mughal Empire. The Mughals established prosperity, growth, and relative peace, particularly under the reign of Jahangir. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism.

The Afghan forces of the Durrani Empire (also known as the Afghan Empire), under the command of Ahmad Shah Durrani, entered Punjab in 1749 and captured Kashmir and Punja, with Lahore governed by Pashtuns. In 1758, Punjab came under the rule of Marathas, who captured the region by defeating the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Following the Third Battle of Panipat against the Marathas, the Durranis regained their power and dominion over the Punjab region and Kashmir Valley. Abdali's Indian invasion weakened Maratha influence.

After the death of Ahmad Shah, Punjab was freed from Afghan rule by Sikhs for a brief period between 1773 and 1818. At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar, Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called Misl. From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted East India Company sovereignty. After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later, the British East India Company was given[who?] an excuse to declare war, and in 1849, following the first and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars, Punjab was annexed by the East India Company. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Sikh rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support.[30] This support proved vital in the Battle of Jhelum, where mutineers killed thirty-five soldiers from the 35 Regiment of Foot, and in Ludhiana, where a rebellion was defeated with the assistance of the Punjab chiefs of Nabha and Malerkotla.

1858 to present[edit]

The British Raj had major political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai. At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan.[31] The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following partition, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.[32][33][34][35]


Political geography[edit]

16th century[edit]

In the 16th century, during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar, the term Punjab was synonymous with the Lahore province. It covered a relatively smaller area lying between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers.[10]

19th century[edit]

The Punjab, 1849
The Punjab, 1880

The 19th-century definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in today's Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur[36] and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (especially Peshawar,[37] known in the Punjab region as Pishore).[38] In India, the wider definition includes parts of Delhi and Jammu Division.[39][40][41]

Using the older definition, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas:[9]

  1. the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division, Kangra-Bilaspur valley and Azad Kashmir;
  2. the trans-Indus region including Peshawar;
  3. the central plain with its five rivers;
  4. the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the Salt Range between the Jhelum and the Indus rivers;
  5. the semi-desert to the south of the Sutlej river.

The formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, and the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres (0.2 in) per year.

The upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains. The Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and further south. The mountains are relatively young and are eroding rapidly. The Indus and the five rivers of Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam, minerals and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which consequently are very fertile.[42]

Major cities[edit]

Historically, Lahore has been the capital of the Punjab region and continues to be the most populous city in the region at 11 million cities' proper population. Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, and Chandigarh are all the other cities in Punjab with a city proper population of over a million.

1947 partition[edit]

The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India, whereby the then British Punjab Province was partitioned between what would become India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes the Punjab province and Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh, Haryana,[43] and Himachal Pradesh.

Present-day maps[edit]

Major cities[edit]

Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore, Faisalabad, Ludhiana and Amritsar.

Greater Punjab[edit]

Another definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times.[44][45][46][47] In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region.[48]


The snow-covered Himalayas

The climate has significant impact on the economy of Punjab, particularly for agriculture in the region. Climate is not uniform over the whole region, as the sections adjacent to the Himalayas generally receive heavier rainfall than those at a distance.[49]

There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C (120 °F). The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to 5 °C (41 °F) at night and 12 °C (54 °F) by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.[50]

Western Punjab[edit]

Climate data for Islamabad (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.1
Average high °C (°F) 17.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.1
Average low °C (°F) 2.6
Record low °C (°F) −3.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 67.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 195.7 187.1 202.3 252.4 311.9 300.1 264.4 250.7 262.2 275.5 247.9 195.6 2,945.8
Source 1: NOAA (normals)[51]
Source 2: PMD (extremes)[52]

Central Punjab[edit]

Climate data for Lahore (1961–1990), extremes (1931–2018)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.8
Average high °C (°F) 19.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.8
Average low °C (°F) 5.9
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
Average rainfall mm (inches) 34.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 218.8 215.0 245.8 276.6 308.3 269.0 227.5 234.9 265.6 290.0 259.6 222.9 3,034
Source 1: NOAA (1961-1990) [53]
Source 2: PMD[54]

Eastern Punjab[edit]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.7
Average high °C (°F) 20.5
Average low °C (°F) 5.5
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 43.3
Average rainy days 2.8 2.7 2.0 0.8 1.6 5.5 10.8 10.9 4.8 1.4 0.8 1.4 45.5
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 47 42 34 23 23 39 62 70 59 40 40 46 44
Source: India Meteorological Department[55][56]


Ethnic Punjabis in India and Pakistan

Religion in Punjab Region (2011 and 2017)[57][58][59]

  Islam (60.13%)
  Hinduism (28.54%)
  Sikhism (9.5%)
  Christianity (1.43%)
  Others (0.33%)


Dominant Mother Tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census

The major language is Punjabi, which is written in India with the Gurmukhi script, and in Pakistan using the Shahmukhi script.[60] The Punjabi language has official status and is widely used in education and administration in Indian Punjab, whereas in Pakistani Punjab these roles are instead fulfilled by the Urdu language.

Several languages closely related to Punjabi are spoken in the periphery of the region. In the southwestern half of Pakistani Punjab, the majority language is Saraiki, while in the north there are speakers of Hindko and Pothwari. Within India, Dogri is spoken in the northernmost parts of the region, and Bagri in the extreme south-east.


The Punjabi people first practiced Hinduism, the oldest recorded religion in the Punjab region.[61] An ancient Indian law book called the Manusmriti, developed by Brahmin Hindu priests, shaped Punjabi religious life from 200 BC onward.[62] The spread of Buddhsim and Jainism in India saw many Hindu Punjabis adopting the Buddhist and Jain faith though the decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent resulted in Punjab becoming a Hindu society again, though Jainism continued as a minority religion.[63][64] The arrival of Islam in medieval India resulted in the conversion of some Hindu Punjabis to Islam,[65][62] and the rise of Sikhism in the 1700s saw some Punjabis, both Hindu and Muslim, accepting the new Sikh faith.[62][66] A number of Punjabis during the colonial period of India became Christians, with all of these religions characterizing the religious diversity now found in the Punjab region.[62]

In the present-day, the vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include significant minority faiths, such as Shia Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and Christians.

Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state. About 57.7% of the population of Punjab state is Sikh, 38.5% is Hindu, with the remaining population including Muslims, Christians, and Jains.[67] Punjab state contains the holy Sikh cities of Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib.

The Punjab was home to several Sufi saints, and Sufism is well established in the region.[68] Also, Kirpal Singh revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.[69]

Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of British India (1881–1941)[70]
% 1881
% 1891
% 1901
% 1911
% 1921
% 1931
% 1941
Islam 47.6% 47.8% 49.6% 51.1% 51.1% 52.4% 53.2%
Hinduism 43.8% 43.6% 41.3% 35.8% 35.1% 30.2% 29.1%
Sikhism 8.2% 8.2% 8.6% 12.1% 12.4% 14.3% 14.9%
Christianity 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5%
Other religions / No religion 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 1.6% 1.3%
Punjab region religious diversity (estimates from combining 2011 Indian census and 2017 Pakistani census)[57][58][59]
Religion Estimated population Estimated percentage
Islam Star and Crescent.svg 114.1 million 60%
Hinduism Om.svg 54.1 million 29%
Sikhism Khanda.svg 18.0 million 10%
Christianity Christian cross.svg 2.7 million 1%
Others 0.6 million 0%
Total Population 189.8 million 100%



Punjabis celebrate different festivals based on their following culture, season and religion:

Sikhism and Hinduism




Traditional Punjabi clothing differs depending on the region. It includes the following:


The historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of India and Pakistan's food output respectively. The region has been used for extensive wheat farming. In addition, rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit, and vegetables are also grown.[71]

The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab is considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. The Indian state of Punjab is currently the 16th richest state or the eighth richest large state of India. Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's foodgrain production.[72] Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%.[73]

Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India," Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton.[74] In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce.[75] In the Punjab region of Pakistan, 42.3% of the labour force is engaged in the agriculture sector.[76]

Alternatively, Punjab is also adding to the economy with the increase in employment of Punjab youth in the private sector. Government schemes such as 'Ghar Ghar Rozgar and Karobar Mission' have brought enhanced employability in the private sector. So far, 32,420 youths have been placed in different jobs and 12,114 have been skill-trained.[77]


Three Punjab cities; Bathinda, Patiala and Ferozepur, were featured in a list of the top 100 cleanest cities of India from a Swachh Survekshan report released in August 2020.[78]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ From Persian پنج panj—meaning "five"—and آب âb—meaning "water" or "river". Thus, Panjâb, پنجاب or Panj-Âb, پنج‌آب translates as "five waters".[9]
  2. ^ The Ghaznavids were a dynasty of Turkic slave-soldiers...[27]


  1. ^ 2017 Census Archived 15 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "The News International: Latest News Breaking, Pakistan News". Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Area, population, decennial growth rate and density for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for Punjab and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: Punjab". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  4. ^ "Chandigarh (India): Union Territory & Agglomeration - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Decadal Variation in Population Since 1901". Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  6. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Profile" (PDF). Census of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  7. ^ "Delhi (India): Union Territory, Major Agglomerations & Towns – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". City Population. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  8. ^ "Elections in Bihar, Campaigning in Punjab to Woo Bihari Migrants". 4 October 2015.
  9. ^ a b c H K Manmohan Siṅgh. "The Punjab". The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh. Punjabi University, Patiala. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  10. ^ a b J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. The New Cambridge History of India (Revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0.
  11. ^ Jatiinder Aulakh. Archaeological History of Majha: Research Book about Archaeology and Mythology with Rare Photograph. Createspace Independent Pub, 2014
  12. ^ Arrain, Anabasis, V.22, p.115
  13. ^ "Punjab, bread basket of India, hungers for change". Reuters. 30 January 2012.
  14. ^ "Columbia Water Center Released New Whitepaper: "Restoring Groundwater in Punjab, India's Breadbasket" – Columbia Water Center". 7 March 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  15. ^ "Pakistan flood: Sindh braces as water envelops southern Punjab". The Guardian. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  16. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. p. 1 ("Introduction"). ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0.
  17. ^ "Punjab." Pp. 107 in Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed.), vol. 20.
  18. ^ Kenneth Pletcher, ed. (2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4. The word's origin can perhaps be traced to panca nada, Sanskrit for "five rivers" and the name of a region mentioned in the ancient epic the Mahabharata.
  19. ^ Rajesh Bala (2005). "Foreign Invasions and their Effect on Punjab". In Sukhdial Singh (ed.). Punjab History Conference, Thirty-seventh Session, March 18-20, 2005: Proceedings. Punjabi University. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-7380-990-3. The word Punjab is a compound of two words-Panj (Five) and aab (Water), thus signifying the land of five waters or rivers. This origin can perhaps be traced to panch nada, Sanskrit for 'Five rivers' the word used before the advent of Muslims with a knowledge of Persian to describe the meeting point of the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers, before they joined the Indus.
  20. ^ Lassen, Christian. 1827. Commentatio Geographica atque Historica de Pentapotamia Indica [A Geographical and Historical Commentary on Indian Pentapotamia]. Weber. p. 4: "That part of India which today we call by the Persian name ''Penjab'' is named Panchanada in the sacred language of the Indians; either of which names may be rendered in Greek by Πενταποταμια. The Persian origin of the former name is not at all in doubt, although the words of which it is composed are both Indian and Persian.... But, in truth, that final word is never, to my knowledge, used by the Indians in proper names compounded in this way; on the other hand, there exist multiple Persian names which end with that word, e.g., Doab and Nilab. Therefore, it is probable that the name Penjab, which is today found in all geographical books, is of more recent origin and is to be attributed to the Muslim kings of India, among whom the Persian language was mostly in use. That the Indian name Panchanada is ancient and genuine is evident from the fact that it is already seen in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the most ancient Indian poems, and that no other exists in addition to it among the Indians; for Panchála, which English translations of the Ramayana render with the name of another region, entirely distinct from Pentapotamia...."[whose translation?]
  21. ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1891). History of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Calcultta Central Press Company. p. 1. The Panjáb, the Pentapotamia of the Greek historians, the north-western region of the empire of Hindostán, derives its name from two Persian words, panj (five), an áb (water, having reference to the five rivers which confer on the country its distinguishing features."
  22. ^ Khalid, Kanwal (2015). "Lahore of Pre Historic Era" (PDF). Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan. 52 (2): 73. The earliest mention of five rivers in the collective sense was found in Yajurveda and a word Panchananda was used, which is a Sanskrit word to describe a land where five rivers meet. [...] In the later period the word Pentapotamia was used by the Greeks to identify this land. (Penta means 5 and potamia, water ___ the land of five rivers) Muslim Historians implied the word "Punjab " for this region. Again it was not a new word because in Persian-speaking areas, there are references of this name given to any particular place where five rivers or lakes meet.
  23. ^ Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36.
  24. ^ Joshi, L. M., and Fauja Singh. History of Panjab, Vol I. p. 4.
  25. ^ a b Hazel, John (2013). Who's Who in the Greek World. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 9781134802241. Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala his capital, he made an expedition across northern India and visited Patna, the capital of the Mauraya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides.
  26. ^ a b Ahir, D. C. (1971). Buddhism in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Maha Bodhi Society of India. p. 31. OCLC 1288206. Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C.
  27. ^ a b Levi & Sela 2010, p. 83.
  28. ^ Bosworth 1963, p. 4.
  29. ^ C. E. Bosworth: GHURIDS. In Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2001 (last updated in 2012). Online edition.
  30. ^ Ganda Singh (August 2004). "The Truth about the Indian Mutiny". Sikh Spectrum. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  31. ^ "Pakistan Geotagging: Partition of Punjab in 1947". 3 October 2014. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.. Daily Times (10 May 2012). Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  32. ^ Talbot, Ian (2009). "Partition of India: The Human Dimension". Cultural and Social History. 6 (4): 403–410. doi:10.2752/147800409X466254. S2CID 147110854. The number of casualties remains a matter of dispute, with figures being claimed that range from 200,000 to 2 million victims.
  33. ^ D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-0415565660.
  34. ^ Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of India. Duke University Press.
  35. ^ Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1134378258.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Condos, Mark. The Insecurity State: Punjab and the Making of Colonial Power in British India (2020) excerpt
  • Narang, K.S.; Gupta, Dr H.R. (1969). History of the Punjab 1500–1858 (PDF). U. C. Kapur & Sons, Delhi. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  • [Quraishee 73] Punjabi Adab De Kahani, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973.
  • [Chopra 77] Punjab as a Sovereign State, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977.
  • Patwant Singh. 1999. The Sikhs. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50206-0.
  • The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, Buddha Parkash.
  • Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash.
  • History of Porus, Patiala, Buddha Parkash.
  • History of the Panjab, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi (Ed).
  • The Legacy of the Punjab, 1997, R. M. Chopra.
  • The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, R. M. Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition, published in 2013.
  • Sims, Holly. "The State and Agricultural Productivity: Continuity versus Change in the Indian and Pakistani Punjabs." Asian Survey, 1 April 1986, Vol. 26(4), pp. 483–500.

External links[edit]