|Stylistic origins||Hardcore punk, thrash metal, speed metal, punk rock|
|Cultural origins||Early 1980s, United States, particularly Greater Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, California Bay Area, and Houston|
|Typical instruments||Vocals, electric guitar, bass guitar, drums|
Crossover thrash (often abbreviated to crossover) is a form of thrash metal and hardcore punk which had mixed both genres together or had influences from each other. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and punk rock. Other genres on the same continuum have significant overlap with crossover thrash, and besides traditional hardcore punk and thrash metal, include related styles such as thrashcore, grindcore and skate punk.
The genre is often confused with thrashcore, which is essentially a faster hardcore punk rather than a more punk-oriented form of metal. Throughout the early and mid 1980s, the term "thrash" was often used as a synonym for hardcore punk (as in the New York Thrash compilation of 1982). The term "thrashcore" to distinguish acts of the genre from others was not coined until at least 1993. Many crossover bands, such as D.R.I., began as influential thrashcore bands. The "-core" suffix of "thrashcore" is sometimes used to distinguish it from crossover thrash and thrash metal, the latter of which is often referred to simply as "thrash", which in turn is rarely used to refer to crossover thrash or thrashcore. Thrashcore is occasionally used by the music press to refer to thrash metal-inflected metalcore.
Crossover thrash evolved when performers in metal began borrowing elements of hardcore punk's music. Void and their 1982 Split LP with fellow D.C. band The Faith are hailed as one of the earliest examples of hardcore/heavy metal crossover and their chaotic musical approach is often cited as particularly influential. Punk-based metal bands generally evolved into the genre by developing a more technically advanced approach than the average hardcore outfit (which focused on very fast tempos and very brief songs), these bands were more metal-sounding and aggressive than traditional hardcore punk and thrashcore.
Especially early on, crossover thrash had a strong affinity with skate punk, but gradually became more and more the province of metal audiences. The scene gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984. The term "metalcore" was originally used to refer to these crossover groups.
As Steven Blush says,
|“||It was natural. The most intense music, after Black Flag and Dead Kennedys, was Slayer and Metallica. Therefore, that's where everybody was going. That turned into a culture war, basically. And the people who were on the alt-rock, indie-rock side won, and the people who were crossover kind of got destroyed.||”|
Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles and Suicidal Tendencies played alongside thrash metal groups like Megadeth, Anthrax, Metallica, Slayer and Exodus. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which began in 1984, and included crossover groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front, and Warzone.
Also in 1984 New Jersey crossover group, Hogan's Heroes, was formed and played alongside thrash metal groups like Destruction, Death Angel, Forbidden, and Prong. Other prominent crossover thrash groups include Crumbsuckers, Nuclear Assault, Stormtroopers of Death, SSD, Cryptic Slaughter, The Boneless Ones, The Exploited, and Discharge.
In the October 1984 issue of Maximum Rocknroll ,famed Metallica LP cover artist Brian "Pushead" Schroeder wrote "You ain't heard this! Blisters with speedcore franticness, mean with whining licks as it kicks into a maniac pace. Well organized melodies that cry out in terrorizing metallic thrash. While some bands are trying to be metal , English Dogs are just the dawning of speedcore!" He was referring to the EP "To The End's Of The Earth"
List of bands
- The Accüsed
- Agnostic Front
- Attitude Adjustment
- Blunt Force Trauma
- The Brood
- Cerebral Fix
- Concrete Sox
- Corrosion of Conformity
- The Crucified
- Cryptic Slaughter
- Dayglo Abortions
- Dead Horse
- Death Ray Vision
- Dr. Know
- English Dogs
- The Exploited
- The Faith
- Fearless Iranians from Hell
- Final Conflict
- Gama Bomb
- Gang Green
- Hogan's Heroes
- The Icemen
- Life of Agony (early)
- Mucky Pup
- Municipal Waste
- Nuclear Assault
- Ratos de Porão
- Send More Paramedics
- Short Sharp Shock (SSS)
- Sick Mother Fakers
- Soziedad Alkoholika
- Stormtroopers of Death
- Suicidal Tendencies
- Sworn Enemy
- This is Hell
- Toxic Holocaust
- Uncle Slam
- Violator (band)
- Vegan Reich
- Verbal Abuse
- What Happens Next?
- Yellow Machinegun
- Felix von Havoc. "Maximum Rock'n'Roll #198". Retrieved June 20, 2008.
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- As Max Ward writes, "625 started in 1993 in order to help out the local Bay Area thrashcore scene." Ward, Max (2000). "About 625". 625 Thrashcore. Retrieved June 5, 2008.
- DiStefano, Alex (February 23, 2015). "The 10 Best Crossover Thrash Bands". LA Weekly. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- Stewart Voegtlin, "Soulfly Cranks Up the Thrash and Triggers a Debacle", Village Voice, July 29, 2008.  Access date: July 31, 2008.
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- Best Heavy Metal Albums Of 1986
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- * 1948-1999 Muze, Inc. POP Artists beginning with HOD, Phonolog, 1999, p. 1.No. 7-278B Section 207
- * Metalcore Magazine "Forbes, Chris. Tell Us About The Crossover Scene You Were A Part Of In The Eighies, June 20, 2007". Retrieved 2012-02-22.
- * Decolator, Paul. New Jersey. Maximum RockNRoll, July 1986, p. 41.
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- Blush, Steven and Petros, George (2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Los Angeles, CA: Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-71-7
- Waksman, Steve (2009). This Ain't the Summer of Love: Conflict and Crossover in Heavy Metal and Punk. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25310-0