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Temporal range: Oligocene–Holocene
Pupilla muscorum 2.png
A right side view of a live Pupilla muscorum
Pupilla muscorum.jpg
Six shells of Pupilla muscorum, scale bar in mm
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
informal group Orthurethra

Superfamily: Pupilloidea
Family: Pupillidae
Genus: Pupilla
Fleming, 1828[1]

Pupilla is a genus of minute air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks or micromollusks in the family Pupillidae.

Shells of Pupilla species are known from terrestrial Cenozoic strata dating back to the Oligocene until the Holocene period.[2]


This genus occurs in Eurasia, northern Africa and North America.[3]


Pupilla has several subgenera.[citation needed] Species within the genus Pupilla include:

subgenus Pupilla

subgenus Gibbulinopsis

subgenus ?


  1. ^ Fleming J. (1828). A history of British animals, exhibiting the descriptive characters and systematic arrangement of the genera and species of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, Mollusca, and Radiata of the United Kingdom; including the indigenous, extirpated, and extinct kinds, together with periodical and occasional visitants. pp. i-xxxii [= 1-23], 1-565, [1]. Edinburgh. (Bell & Bradfute).
  2. ^ (in Czech) Ivanov M., Hrdličková, S. & Gregorová, R. (2001). Encyklopedie zkamenělin. Rebo Productions, Dobřejovice, 1. vydání, 312 pp., page 125.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Genus summary for Pupilla". AnimalBase. Last modified 02-09-2006, accessed 30 July 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Pokryszko B. M., Auffenberg K., Hlaváč J. Č. & Naggs F. (2009). "Pupilloidea of Pakistan (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): Truncatellininae, Vertigininae, Gastrocoptinae, Pupillinae (In Part)". Annales Zoologici 59(4): 423-458. doi:10.3161/000345409X484847.
  5. ^ Kessner V. (1996). Pupilla ficulnea. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 7 August 2007.
  6. ^ (in Czech) Ložek V. (1954). "Noví měkkýši československého pleistocénu (Neue Mollusken aus dem tschechoslowakischen Pleistozän). Vertigo pseudosubstriata sp. n., Pupilla muscorum densegyrata ssp. n. a Pupilla loessica sp. n." Anthropozoikum 3(1953): 327–342, Tab. 1.
  7. ^ Mollusc Specialist Group (1996). Pupilla obliquicosta. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 7 August 2007.
  8. ^ Mollusc Specialist Group (1996). Pupilla pupula. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 7 August 2007.