Purandara Dasa

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Purandara Dasa
Purandara dasa.jpg
Purandardasa painting
Background information
Native name
ಪುರಂದರ ದಾಸ
Birth nameSrinivasa Nayaka ‌
ಶ್ರೀನಿವಾಸ ನಾಯಕ
Born1484
Kshemapura, near Tirthahalli, Shivamogga district, Karnataka
OriginKshemapura, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India
Died
2 January 1564
Hampi, Karnataka, India
GenresCarnatic music
Occupation(s)Carnatic Vocalist, Scholar, Saint, Poet, Composer
InstrumentsVeena, Khartal, Mridangam, Tambura

Purandara Dāsa (Kannada: ಪುರಂದರ ದಾಸ; IAST: purandara dāsa)[1] (c. 1484– c. 1564) was a Haridasa, a great devotee of the supreme Lord Sri Lord Krishna, a vaishnava poet and saint. He was a disciple of the Dvaita philosopher-saint Vyasatirtha, and a contemporary of yet another Haridasa, Kanakadasa. His guru, Vyasatirtha, glorified Purandara Dasa in a song thus: Dāsarendare purandara dāsarayya. He was a composer, singer and one of the chief founding-proponents of South Indian classical music (Carnatic music). In honor of his significant contributions to Carnatic music, he is widely referred to as the Pitamaha (lit. "father" or "grandfather") of Carnatic music.[2][3][4][5] He is respected as an avatara (incarnation) of the great sage Narada (a celestial being who is also a singer).

Purandara Dasa was a wealthy merchant of gold, silver and other miscellaneous jewellery from Karnataka, who gave away all his material riches to become a Haridasa (literally meaning a servant of Lord Hari or Lord Krishna), a devotional singer who made the difficult Sanskrit tenets of Srimad Bhagavatam available to everyone in simple and melodious songs. Thus the pure and transcendental Madhwa philosophy of harisarvottamattva (means the supreme one is Lord Hari or Vishnu and all others jivas or living beings are his servants) not only remained among the scholars but also reached even common man for his spiritual upliftment. He was one of the most important music scholars of medieval India.[6][7][8] He formulated the basic lessons of teaching Carnatic music by structuring graded exercises known as Svaravalis and Alankaras,[6] and at the same time, he introduced the raga Mayamalavagowla as the first scale to be learnt by beginners in the field – a practice that is still followed today. He also composed Gitas (simple songs) for novice students.

Purandara Dasa is noted for composing Dasa Sahithya, as a Bhakti movement vocalist, and a music scholar. His practice was emulated by his younger contemporary, Kanakadasa. Purandara Dasa's Carnatic music compositions are mostly in Kannada, though some are in Sanskrit. He signed his compositions with the ankita (pen name) "Purandara Vittala" (Vittala is another name of the supreme one, Lord Krishna, one of the incarnations of the Lord Vishnu) and this same form of Lord Krishna is his aaradhya daiva or ishta murthi or worshippable deity.

Biography[edit]

Inscriptional evidence suggests Purandara Dasa was born to a diamond merchant in a Deshastha Brahmin community of Madhva tradition.[9][10][11] in 1484 CE in Kshemapura, near Tirthahalli, Shivamogga district, Karnataka state.[12] According to other opinions, his native town was Purandaraghatta in Karnataka,[13] or Purandaragad near Pune, but the latter s considered a historical mistake – connecting his "pen name" (his ankita) with a location that mainly served as a military encampment in the 15th and 16th century.[14]

The only son of Varadappa Nayaka, a wealthy merchant, and Leelavati, he was named Srinivasa Nayaka, after the Lord of the Seven Hills. He received a good education in accordance with the family traditions and acquired proficiency in Kannada, Sanskrit, and sacred music. At the age of 16 was he was married to one Saraswati Bai, held by tradition to have been a pious young girl. He lost his parents at age 20, thereby inheriting his father's business of gemstones and pawning. He prospered and became known as Navakoti Narayana(an abundantly rich man; worth ninety millions).

Popular legend narrates a miraculous incident in Srinivasa Nayaka's life, owing to which he was led to devote himself to the practice, propagation and inculcation of bhakti (devotion) towards Lord Krishna through musical compositions. As a natural, inescapable consequence of such a transforming event, ubiquitous in the lives of several saints throughout the ages, he is believed to have relinquished his former greedy and miserly self, having realized the worthlessness of attachment to worldly possessions:[15] The Lord, in a bid to cure Srinivasa of his tenacious materialistic delusion and attachment, and thereby claim his devotion to Himself, approached Srinivasa in the guise of a poor man, with a piteous plea for money; ostensibly, the money was direly needed to perform His (!) son's upanayana (sacred initiation).

Having been summarily rejected, mocked and turned out, the 'poor man' surreptitiously repeated his plea before Srinivasa's wife; a generous soul of rigorous spiritual nature, she gave away one of her precious nose rings, unbeknownst to her husband; the 'poor man' sold the nose ring back to none other than Srinivasa himself! The shrewd Srinavasa, privy to his wife's openhandedness, immediately identified the nose ring as his wife's and hurried home; enraged and anxious to ascertain the truth of the matter, he demanded his wife to produce the nose ring before him immediately.

Realizing that Srinivasa had grown wise to her secret donation, the wife decided to end her life with poison. Having completed her prayers to the Lord before her attempt, she was shocked to see a nose ring inside the poison cup – completely identical to the one she had just given away. Incredulous and rapturous, she recounted the entire episode to her husband, who was bewildered and lost. Meanwhile, a search for the 'poor man' was of no avail; he had as mysteriously vanished as he had appeared! At that very propitious moment, Srinivasa's old self – convinced of the inscrutable ways of the Lord, having witnessed the unfailing grace that saved his pious wife, bewildered at the power that could, in a moment, produce a gold ornament by mere will – instantly shook off that beginningless, persistent veil in the form of 'I' and 'mine', which masks the men's vision of the divine. At 30 years of age, he gave away all his wealth in charity, and together with his family, abandoned his house to lead the life of a mendicant – living on alms and singing the glories of the Lord. In his very first song composition, he laments his wasted life of indulgence. It begins with the words "Ana lae kara" in the Shuddha Saveri raga, set to Triputa tala.

In the course of his wandering he met the holy sage Vyasatirtha, one of the chief exponents of Madhwa philosophy and the rajaguru of Krishnadevaraya, the emperor of Vijayanagara kingdom. According to Prof. Sambamoorthy,[16] Srinivasa had his formal initiation at the hands of Vyasatirtha in 1525 when he was about 40 years old, with the name Purandara Dasa bestowed on him. Purandara Dasa traveled extensively through the length and breadth of the Vijayanagara empire in Karnataka, Tirupati, Pandharapura composing and rendering soul stirring songs in praise of god. He spent his last years in Hampi and also sang in Krishnadevaraya's durbar. The mantapa (mandap) in which he stayed is known as Purandara Dasa Mantapa (mandap) in Hampi. He died on 2 January 1564 at the age of 80. Tradition and legend holds that he composed 475,000 keerthanas (songs). Further, according to this legend, his original desire was to compose 500,000 keerthanas. Being unable to do it in his present life, he requested his younger son to complete them. His son Madhwapathi told his father that he could do this in his next janma (birth). It is believed that he was reborn as the famous Vijayadaasa—birthplace is Cheekalparvi village near Maanvi town, Raichur district in Karnataka State—and completed the remaining 25 thousand keerthanas as promised. Most his songs are in praise of Lord Narayana and other Devatas. Due to this, he is believed to be an avatar of Narada, the celestial singer and son of Goddess Saraswati. One of the trimurtis (three icons) of Carnatic music, Saint Thyagaraja, has paid tribute to Purandara Dasa in his geya natakam(an opera) Prahlada Bhakti Vijayam.[17]

Purandara Dasa and Carnatic music[edit]

Purandara Dasa systematized the method of teaching Carnatic music which is followed to the present day. He introduced the raga Mayamalavagowla as the basic scale for music instruction and fashioned a series of graded lessons such as swaravalis, janti swaras, alankaras, lakshana geetas, prabandhas, ugabhogas, daatu varase, geeta, sooladis and kritis.[2] Another of his important contributions[citation needed] was the fusion of bhava, raga, and laya in his compositions. He included comments on ordinary daily life and elements of colloquial language in his lyrics. He introduced folk ragas into the mainstream, setting his lyrics to tunes/ragas of his day so that even a common man could learn and sing them.[18] He also composed a large number of lakshya and lakshana geetas, many of which are sung to this day. His sooladis are musical masterpieces and are the standard for raga lakshana. Scholars attribute the standardization of varna mettus entirely to Purandara Dasa.[citation needed]

The itinerant dasas who succeeded him are believed to have followed the systems he devised, as well as orally passing down his compositions. According to traditional sources, his compositions number as many as four lac and seventy five thousand.[19] No more than 700 compositions are accessible now.

Purandara Dasa was a vaggeyakara (composer-performer), a lakshanakara (musicologist), and the founder of musical pedagogy. For all these reasons and the enormous influence that he had on Carnatic music, musicologists call him the Sangeeta Pitamaha (lit. "grandfather") of Carnatic music.[20]

Purandara Dasa had great influence on Hindustani music. The foremost Hindustani musician Tansen's teacher, Swami Haridas, also a Saraswat Brahmin, was Purandara Dasa's disciple.[21]

In contemporary music[edit]

Statue of Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa on a 1964 stamp of India

In the pure Carnatic tradition, Bidaram Krishnappa was one of the foremost singers of modern times to popularize the compositions of Purandara Dasa. Singer Madras Lalithangi, and her illustrious daughter Padmavibushan, Sangeetha Kalanidhi M. L. Vasanthakumari have rendered yeoman service in propagating the compositions of Purandara Dasa; both were considered as authorities on Purandara Dasa. M. L. Vasantha Kumari was awarded an honorary doctorate by Mysore University for her contributions to Purandara Dasa's music.

Though the compositions of Purandara Dasa are originally in the ragas of the Carnatic system of music, his compositions have been adopted and made equally popular in Hindustani music. Hindustani music legends such as Bhimsen Joshi, Madhav Gudi and Basavaraj Rajguru have made them more popular in recent years.

Classical vocalists and musicians such as Upendra Bhat, Puttur Narasimha Nayak, Venkatesh Kumar, Nagaraja Rao Havaldar, Ganapathi Bhatt, Vidyabhushana, Pravin Godkhindi, Nachiketa Sharma, Sangeetha Katti, and the Bombay Sisters are continuing the tradition of singing and performing Purandara Dasa's compositions and other Dasa Sahitya songs in Carnatic as well as Hindustani music concerts. Of late, Mysore Ramachandracharya is industriously propagating dasa sahitya through his concerts. Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams is also propagating the dasa krithis through the Dasa Sahitya Project. He also composed the first lullaby songs in Carnatic music, such as Thoogire Rangana[22] and Gummana Kareyadire,[23] which led to the creation of many similar songs by others.

Memorials and monuments[edit]

The Purandara Mantapa[24] adjoining the Vijayavittala temple at Hampi is one of the longstanding monuments relating to Purandara Dasa. This is where he is said to have composed and sung in praise of Lord Vishnu.

A statue of Purandara Dasa has been erected at the foothills of Tirumala in Alipiri.[25][26] A statue of Purandara Dasa adorns the Asthana Mandapam (auditorium) on the Tirumala hill.

Sri Purandara Dasa Memorial Trust (SPDMT),[27] formed in Bangalore in 2007, has been actively involved in promoting and researching all aspects of the life and works of Purandara Dasa. A 3500-square-foot concert hall, called 'Purandara Mantapa', has been erected on the premises of the Trust.

The Indiranagar Sangeetha Sabha (ISS) at Indiranagar, Bangalore formed in 1986, has dedicated an auditorium with a seating capacity of 600 called Purandara Bhavana[28] exclusively for cultural events, inaugurated by Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam,[29] to his memory.

Aradhana[edit]

Aradhana is a religious-devotional observation, held annually, to remember and honor saintly persons on the anniversary of their disappearance . Purandara Dasa's aradhana or punyadina is held on the pushya bahula amavasya[30] of the Indian chandramana calendar (a new moon day, generally in February–March). Musicians and art aficionados in the state of Karnataka, South India and many art and religious centers around the world observe this occasion with religious and musical fervor. His compositions are sung by established and upcoming artists on this day.

In art and popular culture[edit]

Biographical movies and documentaries[edit]

Three biographical films, in Kannada language, have been made on the life and compositions of Purandara Dasa.

Film director and playwright Girish Karnad made a documentary film titled Kanaka-Purandara (English, 1988) on the two medieval Bhakti poets of Karnataka.[31][32]

Philosophy[edit]

The philosophy of Purandara Dasa is harmonious with the concept of bhakti in Hinduism, broadly based on the Narada Bhakti Sutras and essentially synchronous with the pan-Indian Bhakti movement. It teaches complete self-surrender and unadulterated love towards Lord Krishna, the Supreme. The philosophy of Bhakti in Purandara Dasa's compositions stems from the essential teachings of the realistic-pluralistic Madhwa Philosophy of Vaishnavism, and has been rendered in simple Kannada. The individual soul (jeeva) is a pratibimba (reflection) of the Lord (Ishvara), who is the bimba (source). The jeeva owes its existence, knowledge and bliss to the Ishvara, and any sense of independence with regards to one's actions and the results thereof is to be given up.[33] The mind has to be turned away from transient pleasures and possessions of this world; instead, it is to be turned towards the Lord, who alone is the abode of unadulterated, unswerving bliss. His keerthanas have simple lessons in this regard and implore men to lead the noble life of a Vaishnava.[34]

Casteism[edit]

Purandara Dasa fought the evils of casteism through his songs.[35] In his song aavakulavaadarenu aavanadarenu aatma bhavavariyada mele he wonders what is the use if one does not understand the spirit of humanism whatever caste or status one might be accredited to.[35] In the same song when relating to cows of different colours and sugarcane of different shapes he emphasizes that one's birth cannot merely decide the highness or lowness of any individual.[35] He asks will the sweetness of a crooked sugarcane be also crooked or will the milk of cows of many a colour be also of many colours.[35]

Untouchability[edit]

Purandara Dasa made some forceful expressions on untouchability, which was dogging society.[35] His strength comes perhaps from the support of his guru Vyasathirtha with the backing of powerful king Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara himself.[35] In one such song Holaya horagithane oorolagillave he opines that an individual should not be branded untouchable on the basis of his/her birth in any specific caste, however it is rather his conduct which should make him untouchable if at all he can be called so. The usage of the word untouchable is not used in the limited context of physical contact with the person, it is the worthlessness of the association with that person which is highlighted here. This is evident by the subsequent expressions in the song which says that one who does not practice self-discipline is untouchable, one who plots against his own government is untouchable, similarly one who shirks charity while having wealth is untouchable, one who poisons to eliminate his opponents is untouchable, one who does not use soft language is untouchable, one who prides over his purity of caste is untouchable and finally one who does not meditate on Purandara Vittala is untouchable.[35] Dasa's message is loud and clear rejecting untouchability in our society.[35] He uses the name of Purandara Vittala to imply any God.[35] This is evident from his other songs on various Gods and Goddesses.[35] Similar ideas were expressed by many other poets also.[35]

Example poem: Good – he became an ascetic-Hari Dasa[edit]

Purandaradasa says how his wife made him Hari devotee and renounce all his crores of wealth and became an ascetic.

ಆದದ್ದೆಲ್ಲ ಒಳಿತೆ ಆಯಿತು
ರಾಗ : Poorvikalyani ; ತಾಳ : ಆದಿತಾಳ


Aadaddella oLitE aayitu namma
Shreedhara seve maadalu sadhana sampattayitu;
Dandige betta hidiyodakke
mande maachi naachutalidde,
Hendati santati saavirvaagali
Dandige betta hidisidaLyya
GopaaLa butti hidiyodakke.
Bhupatiyante garvisutidde,
Aa patnee kula saavirvaagali,
GopaaLa butti hidisidaLayya;
TuLasi male haakuvudakke
Arasanante naachutalidde,
Sarasijaksha Purandhara ViTTala
TuLasi male haakisidnayya!

Whatever happened happened for good
Raga: Poorvikalyani; Tala: Aadi.

Whatever happened happened for good
A way to serve the God imbibed with all wealth !
To hold the carrying-stick[36] on my shoulder,
I had bent my head with shyness,
She like my better-half emerge in thousands,
Who made me carry the shoulder-stick.!
To stretch my hand with begging bowl,
I was abashed with pride like a king,
This wife like lineage come out in thousands!
She made me to hold out the begging bowl!
To wear a Tulasi garland, I hesitated
In shyness like a crowned king,
Made me wear the wreath of TuLsi[37]
He, the God Vittala of Purandara – with lotus eyes

—from Dasara Padagalu collection by G. V. Shastri
free from copyright
For Kannada text see Talk:Purandara Dasa

Salutations[edit]

Indian Postage Stamp in honour of Purandarasa Dasa
  • On 14 January 1964, the India Security Press – Department of posts had issued a stamp in honour of Purandarasa Dasa on his 400th death anniversary.[38]
  • Tirupati Tirumala Devasthanam has propagated and popularised the literature of Purandara Dasa under the Dasa Sahitya Project.[39]

Compilations of Purandara Dasa's lyrics[edit]

  • Gaja Vadana Beduve Gowri Thanaya A popular Purandara Dasa composition in Carnatic Raagam Hamsadhwani
  • Jackson, William J. 2002. Songs of Three Great South Indian Saints. Oxford India. ISBN 0-19-566051-X
  • KavyaPremi. 1996. Purandara Daasa Haadugalu. Dharwad: Samaja Publishers. Contains ca. 225 songs; in Kannada language.
  • List of Songs in Kannada at WikiSource

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kamath, Suryanath. (1980). A concise history of Karnataka from prehistoric times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter Books.
  2. ^ a b Iyer, Panchapakesa. (2006). Karnataka Sangeetha Sastra. Chennai: Zion Printers. p. 93: "He is considered to be the Pitamaha of Carnatic music because he codified the teaching of Carnatic music by evolving several graded steps like Sarali, Jantai and Tattu Varisai; alankaras and geethams")
  3. ^ Thielemann, Selina. (2002). Divine Service and the Performing Arts in India. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation. ISBN 81-7648-333-8. p. 22: "The most well known among the haridasas is Purandara Dasa (1480 or 84-1564), whose significant contribution to South Indian music is honoured by referring to him as the 'father of Carnatic music'".
  4. ^ Parthasarathy, T. S. (1991). "Margadarsi Whom Swati Tirunal followed". The Journal of the Music Academy, Madras. 62: 72. The great Purandara Dasa was a 'Margadarsi' in many ways although he is generally referred to as the 'Pitamaha' (grandfather) of Carnatic music.
  5. ^ Zydenbos, R . (2012) in Cushman S, Cavanagh C, Ramazani J, Rouzer P, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics: Fourth Edition, p. 767, Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15491-6
  6. ^ a b Nettl, Bruno; Stone, Ruth M.; Porter, James (1998). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia : the Indian subcontinent. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1.
  7. ^ Narayan, M.K.V. (2010). Lyrical Musings on Indic Culture: A Sociological Study of Songs of Sant Purandara Dasa. Readworthy. p. 108. ISBN 978-93-80009-31-5.
  8. ^ Ranade, Ramchandra Dattatraya (1933). Mysticism in India: The Poet-Saints of Maharashtra. State University of New York Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-0-87395-669-7.
  9. ^ Purandaradāsa; Iyer, A. S. Panchapakesa (1992). Sree Puranḍara gānāmrutham: text with notation. Gānāmrutha Prachuram. Shri Purandara dasa who is considered to be the aadhiguru and Sangeeta Pitamaha of carnatic music was born in purandaragad in Ballary District near the town of Hampi, to a millionaire Varadappa Nayak and Kamalambal, a devoted wife and great lady, belonging to Madhva Desastha Brahmin race, by the blessings of Tirupati Venkatachalapathi in the year 1484.
  10. ^ Vedavalli, Mandayam Bharati (2001). Saṅgīta śāstra saṅgraha: a guide to theory of Indian music. M.B. Vedavalli. p. 143. Purandara Dasa was the son of a rich merchant by name Varadappa Nayaka. He was a Brahmin of the Madhva Desasta Sect.
  11. ^ Rangarajan, S. (1997). Frontline, Volume 14, Issues 8–14. Kasturi & Sons.
  12. ^ Sharma (2000), p. 598
  13. ^ Chaitanya Deva, Bigamudre (1995). Indian Music. Taylor & Francis. p. 83. ISBN 978-81-224-0730-3.
  14. ^ Desai, Krishnarao and Sharma in Sharma (2000), Appendix VII
  15. ^ Iyengar, Masti Venkatesha ("Srinavasa"). 1964. Purandara Daasa. Bangalore: Bangalore Press.
  16. ^ Friday Review Chennai and Tamil Nadu. Columns : An authority on Purandara Dasa. The Hindu. 20 October 2006.
  17. ^ Thyagaraja Vaibhavam: Prahlada Bhakti Vijayam – Part 1 – Dance-Drama. Thyagaraja-vaibhavam.blogspot.in (20 July 2011). Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  18. ^ "Purandaradasa: Fountainhead of Karnataka sangeeta i.e., Carnatic music". Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  19. ^ K Paniker, Ayyapan (2008). medieval India Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 196–198. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  20. ^ "Stamps On Saint Composers – Part 13. Purandaradasa". Archived from the original on 30 November 2006. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  21. ^ Gavai, Sheshadri. (1956). Sangeetha kalaravinda. Bangalore: Aravinda Publications.
  22. ^ Toogire Rangana. YouTube (29 September 2012). Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  23. ^ Bharatanatyam dance – Gummana Kareyadire. YouTube (14 September 2010). Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  24. ^ Purandara Mantapa. Hampi.in. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  25. ^ "Purandaradasa statue unveiled at Tirupati". Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  26. ^ Purandaradasa statue unveiled at Tirupati. The New Indian Express. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  27. ^ Welcome to Sri Purandara Dasa Memorial Trust (R). Purandara.org. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  28. ^ Purandara Bhavana. Isangeethasabha.in. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  29. ^ Indiranagar Sangeetha Sabha. Isangeethasabha.in. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  30. ^ Purandara Dasaru – Sumadhwa Seva. Sumadhwaseva.com. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  31. ^ Kanaka-Purandara IMDb
  32. ^ AWARDS: The multi-faceted playwright Archived 30 December 2001 at the Wayback Machine Frontline, Vol. 16, No. 03, 30 Jan – 12 February 1999.
  33. ^ Tattvavaada Philosophy: The Essence of Madhva Philosophy. Madhwabrahmanas.blogspot.in (9 September 2010). Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  34. ^ Sri Purandara Dasa (1494–1564) | Rambling with Bellur. Bellurramki18.wordpress.com (19 January 2007). Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k M.K.V, Narayan (2010). Lyrical Musings on Indic Culture: A Sociology Study of Songs of Sant Purandara Dasa. Read Worthy Publications Private Limited. p. 11. ISBN 9789380009315. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  36. ^ A stick on shoulder with weight on two ends.
  37. ^ Ocimum tenuiflorum plant – wearing the Garland of its leaves like an ascetic.
  38. ^ "Commemorative Postage Stamps Of India". Ministry of Communication, Government of India.
  39. ^ "Dasa Sahitya Project". Retrieved 29 October 2015.

Cited sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • The Vedanta kesari, Volume 49, Sri Ramakrishna Math., 1964, p. 419
  • Kassebaum, Gayatri Rajapur. ‘Karnatak raga’ (2000). In Arnold, Alison. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. New York City & London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Dr. Vasudev Agnihotry "Purandaradasaru mattu Shri Mad Bhagavata Ondu Toulanika Adhyayana" PhD Osmania University Hyderabad, India 1984 Publisher: Samskriti Prakashana Sedam. Keertana Vidya nagar sedam 58522 dist gulbarga Karnataka

External links[edit]