In mechanic and geology, pure shear is a three-dimensional homogeneous flattening of a body. It is an example of irrotational strain in which body is elongated in one direction while being shortened perpendicularly. For soft materials, such as rubber, a strain state of pure shear is often used for characterizing hyperelastic and fracture mechanical behaviour.   A rod under torsion is a practical example for a body under pure shear.
Pure shear stress-strain relation
where is the shear modulus of the material, given by
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