Purple Line (Maryland)

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Purple Line
MTA Purple Line logo.jpg
Overview
StatusOn hold (construction halted)
OwnerMaryland Transit Administration
LocaleMontgomery County, MD
Prince George's County, MD
TerminiBethesda (West)
New Carrollton (East)
Stations21 (planned)[1]
Service
TypeLight rail transit
SystemMaryland Transit Administration
Rolling stock26 CAF LRVs[2]
Daily ridership64,800 (2030 projection)[1]
Technical
Track length16.2 miles (26.1 km)[3]
CharacterAt-grade, elevated, and underground
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge[4]
Electrification1,500 V DC Overhead line[5]
Operating speed55 miles per hour (89 km/h)[6]
Route map

Bethesda
WMATA Red.svg
Connecticut Avenue
Lyttonsville
16th Street–Woodside
Silver Spring Metro
MARC train.svg WMATA Red.svg
Bonifant St.
Silver Spring Library
Wayne Ave.
Dale Drive
Manchester Place
Long Branch
MD 193
University Blvd.
Piney Branch Road
Takoma/Langley
Transit Center
Riggs Road
Adelphi Road–UMGC–UMD
Campus Drive–UMD
Campus Dr.
Baltimore Avenue–College Park–UMD
↑ Phase 2
↓ Phase 1
College Park Metro–UMD
MARC train.svg WMATA Green.svg WMATA Yellow.svg
Riverdale Park North–UMD
MD 201
Keilworth Ave.
Riverdale Park–Kenilworth
Beacon Heights–East Pines
Glenridge Maintenance Facility
Glenridge
Ellin Rd.
New Carrollton Metro
AmtrakMARC train.svg WMATA Orange.svg

The Purple Line is an under-construction 16.2-mile (26.1 km) light rail line[3] intended to link the Washington, D.C., suburbs of Bethesda, Silver Spring, College Park, and New Carrollton, all in the state of Maryland.[7] The line is to allow riders to move between the Maryland branches of the Red, Green, Yellow, and Orange lines of the Washington Metro without needing to ride into central Washington, and is to offer transfers to all three lines of the MARC commuter rail system. The project is being administered by the Maryland Transit Administration (MTA), an agency of the Maryland Department of Transportation, and not the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), which operates Metro.

Throughout the decades-long planning process, the project had been dogged by resistance, particularly from residents of the upscale community of Chevy Chase. During the administration of Governor Bob Ehrlich, plans were made to build a bus rapid transit line dubbed the Bi-County Transitway instead. Legal attempts to thwart the line continued even after construction had begun;[8] but in December 2017, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit ruled that Purple Line construction could continue despite these objections.[9][10]

Purple Line Transit Partners, a consortium headed by Fluor Enterprises, was formed to design and build the Purple Line, then to operate and maintain it for 36 years.[11][3] Construction began in August 2017.[12] But in September 2020, the consortium halted work and announced that it would end its contract due to mounting delays and disputes with the state government.[13] The project had already consumed $1.1 billion of the anticipated $2 billion construction cost.[14]

A new general contractor was selected in November 2021.[15] Under the new contract, the total construction cost would rise to $3.4 billion. The total cost of the 30-year contract, which includes construction, operation, and maintenance, would rise from $5.6 billion to $9.3 billion. Construction is expected to resume in spring 2022, and train service to begin in fall 2026.[14]

History[edit]

Early studies, public debate, design[edit]

Topological map of the Washington Metro system depicting integration of the Purple Line

The "Purple Line" has been the name of two different transit proposals. In 1994, John J. Corley Jr., an architect with Harry Weese Associates (which designed the Washington Metro system) proposed a multibillion-dollar Metro line around the 64-mile (103 km) Capital Beltway. This would have served as a "ring" line, connecting suburb to suburb and complementing the existing Metro lines, which radiate from Washington.[16] (See Rapid transit#Network topologies.) In 1998, the Beltway Purple Line received considerable political support from Montgomery County Executive Douglas M. Duncan and then-Governor Parris Glendening, which was a $10 billion, 30-mile (48 km) line from National Harbor to Montgomery Mall.[17]

In 1987, after CSX expressed a desire to abandon the Georgetown Branch rail line, Maryland leaders immediately started planning to repurpose it for transit and a hiking trail.[18] The idea of adapting the railroad for a transit line dated back at least as far as 1970, when such a use was included in the October 1970 Master Plan for the Bethesda-Chevy Chase Planning Area.[19] Montgomery County purchased its portion of the railroad right-of-way from CSX in 1988.[20] Eventually, this proposal came known as the "Inner Purple Line" to distinguish it from the "Beltway Purple Line". By 2001, the "Beltway Purple Line" proposal had been abandoned as too costly and the name was attached to the Bethesda to New Carrollton line.[21]

Robert Flanagan, the Maryland State Secretary of Transportation under Governor Robert Ehrlich, merged the Purple Line proposal with the Georgetown Branch Light Rail Transit (GBLRT). The GBLRT was proposed as a light rail transit line from Silver Spring westward, following the former Georgetown Branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (now a short CSX siding and the Capital Crescent Trail) to Bethesda.[22]

Groundbreaking ceremony of the Purple Line on August 28, 2017.[23]

In March 2003, the Ehrlich administration renamed the project the "Bi-County Transitway", reflecting a proposal by Ehrlich and Flanagan to use bus rapid transit instead of light rail, and because the name "Purple Line" seemed to suggest a new heavy-rail system like the color-named lines of the Washington Metro system. The new name did not catch on; several media outlets and most citizens continued to refer to the "Purple Line". In 2007, Governor Martin O'Malley and Secretary of Transportation John Porcari reverted to "Purple Line".[24]

In January 2008, the O'Malley administration allocated $100 million within a six-year capital budget to complete design documents for state approval and funding of the Purple Line.[25] In May 2008, it was projected that the Purple Line would have about 68,000 daily trips.[26] A draft environmental impact study was issued on October 20, 2008.[27] On December 22, 2008, Montgomery County planners endorsed building a light rail line rather than a bus line. On January 15, 2009, the county planning board also endorsed the light rail option,[28] and County Executive Isiah Leggett has also expressed support.[29] On October 21, 2009, members of the National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board voted unanimously to approve the Purple Line light rail project for inclusion into the region's Constrained Long-Range Transportation Plan.[30]

Planners proposed to use existing Washington Metro stations and to accept the WMATA's SmarTrip farecard.[31] Metro's 2008 annual report envisioned that the Purple Line would be fully integrated with the existing Washington Metro transit system by 2030.[32][33]

The proposed project drew support and opposition in the community:

Support for Purple Line

  • Purple Line Now is a non-profit organization that advocated for a Purple Line light rail line from Bethesda to New Carrollton to integrated with a hiker/biker trail from Bethesda to Silver Spring.[34]
  • The Action Committee for Transit is a community group that supports the Purple Line.[35]
  • The Washington Post editorial board endorsed the Purple Line light rail option in 2008.[36]
  • The Montgomery County Council and Prince George's County Council voted unanimously in favor of the light rail option for the Purple Line in January 2009.[37]
  • Maryland state officials (including former Governor Martin O'Malley, D-MD) are also strong Purple Line advocates. State officials say that a Purple Line, which is to run primarily above ground, "would provide better east–west transit service, particularly for lower-income workers who cannot afford cars."[38]
  • The development firm Chevy Chase Land Co. is a strong proponent of the construction of the Purple Line. The website for the pro-Purple umbrella group Purple Line NOW! lists Edward Asher as a member of its board of directors. The Washington Post indicates that the development firm would "no doubt profit from property it owns near at least one of the proposed stations."[38]
  • The Sierra Club advocates a larger-scale rail system to parallel the Capital Beltway and link all existing Metro lines at their peripheries. This environmental group advocates rail transit over car use because carbon emissions are a major cause of climate change.[39]
  • Some student leaders (the Student Government Association and Graduate Student Government) at the University of Maryland support transit alternatives to campus.[40][41]
  • On January 27, 2009, the Montgomery County Council voted to support the light rail option.[42] Governor O'Malley announced his own approval on August 4, 2009.[1]
  • The vice president of trail development for the Rails-to-Trails Conservancy has said that with proper design, the trail-Purple Line combination can be "among the best in the nation."[43]
  • Members of the Facebook group New Urbanist Memes for Transit-Oriented Teens were "irrationally excited for the forthcoming Maryland purple line."[44]

Support for bus

  • A 2008 study by Sam Schwartz Engineering for the Town of Chevy Chase supported bus rapid transit using an alternate Jones Bridge Road alignment. The Chevy Chase study expressed concerns about the expected ridership numbers, carbon footprint, interruptions in recreation pathways, and the cost of bus and light rail proposals by the MTA involving a Capital Crescent Trail alignment. Although a Jones Bridge Road alignment was also proposed by the MTA, the study noted that features typical of bus rapid transit that were missing from the MTA proposal.[45]

Opposition to rail

Opponents argued that the Purple Line would hurt the Capital Crescent Trail (pictured).
Construction of the Purple Line and Capital Crescent Trail crossings of Rock Creek during the construction pause in 2021
  • A not-for-profit local organization, Friends of the Capital Crescent Trail, has been collecting signatures on a petition opposing the MTA's Purple Line proposals since 2003 and filed a lawsuit in the Federal District Court in the District of Columbia in 2014 asserting failure by the Federal Transit Administration to comply with Federal environmental laws in initially approving a grant to help build the Purple Line. The organization's website says that the MTA's light rail and bus rapid transit proposals will undermine the environment and safety on the Capital Crescent Trail.[46] Alternatives suggested by the organization's website included the Jones Bridge Road alignment for bus rapid transit recommended by the Chevy Chase study.[45] Save the Trail Petition prefers alternatives, however, noting that a Jones Bridge Road alignment would also have some impact on the trail.[47]
  • A leading opponent of the Purple Line was the Columbia Country Club, a private club whose golf course occupies both sides of the planned route between Bethesda and Silver Spring.[48] Newly elected leaders of the Club signed an agreement not to oppose the Purple Line if its route were adjusted by 12 feet (3.66 m).
  • Opponents in the Town of Chevy Chase cited the town's study of bus rapid transit alternatives. The study estimated a cost of less than $1 billion for a bus rapid transit system, compared with an estimated cost of $1.8 billion for light rail.[49] A 2011 news report placed the cost of the rail line at US$1.93 billion.[50]
    • Residents around the Dale Wayne stop were concerned in 2010 that doubling the size of the road, along with the county's "smart growth" policy around transit stops, would encourage commercial development in a residential neighborhood. Their concerns have also questioned whether the 1,427 daily boardings anticipated by the MTA by 2030 is a realistic figure for the Dale station.[51][52]

Procurement[edit]

The Purple Line was procured as a full design-build-finance-operate-maintain public–private partnership. On December 7, 2015, four teams composed of major American and international firms submitted their bids to realize the project:[53][54]

Approval[edit]

Hogan backed the Purple Line while blocking construction of the Baltimore Red Line in 2015.
Purple Line construction at the Paul S. Sarbanes Transit Center in Silver Spring, May 2020
The Northeast Branch Anacostia River crossing during the construction pause in 2021

Governor Larry Hogan opposed the Purple Line project while campaigning in 2014 but approved it in June 2015. At the same time, Hogan cancelled its sister project, the Baltimore Red Line, citing excessive costs. Hogan reduced the state's contribution to the project from $700 million to $168 million, putting the difference toward highway construction. The budget shortfall is expected to be covered by increased funds from Prince George's and Montgomery counties, as well as lower operational costs due to longer headways.[55]

On March 2, 2016, Hogan announced that the state had chosen a team of private companies to build, operate, and maintain the Purple Line for $3.3 billion over 36 years. The contract was won by the Purple Line Transit Partners, led by construction giant Fluor Corporation. MTA officials forecast the beginning of service by late 2022.[56]

On April 6, 2016, the Maryland Board of Public Works – made up of Hogan, State Treasurer Nancy K. Kopp, and State Comptroller Peter Franchot – unanimously approved the contract, as expected.[57] The $5.6 billion contract is 876 pages long and, according to The Washington Post is "believed to be the most expensive government contract ever in Maryland" and "one of the largest public-private partnerships on a U.S. transportation project" ever.[57] The contract approval allowed the Maryland Transit Administration to finalize $900 million in federal construction grants.[56][57]

In August 2016, U.S. District Court Judge Richard J. Leon found that the Maryland Transit Administration and the Federal Transit Administration did not study whether Metro's maintenance issues and ridership decline would affect the Purple Line.[58] Judge Leon decided to vacate the Purple Line's federal approval.[58] A federal funding agreement cannot be signed without the reinstatement of the environmental approval, and Maryland had said it could not afford to build the Purple Line without sufficient federal funding.[58][59] On August 21, 2017, despite the ongoing court case over the environmental analysis, $900 million of federal funding was granted for the light rail project.[60] On December 19, 2017, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit ruled in favor of the Purple Line, specifically stating that declining ridership on the Washington Metro system does not require Maryland to complete a new environmental study for the Purple Line.[10] This federal appeals court ruling allowed for construction to continue and effectively ended the three-year legal battle surrounding the 16-mile light-rail line project.[9]

In 2019, the Purple Line Transit Partners said the opening date would slip to 2023 or 2024.[61]

On April 13, 2020, U.S. District Judge James Bredar dismissed the third and final lawsuit brought by opponents of the Purple Line.[62]

Purple Line Transit Partners quits[edit]

By 2020, the project had accrued over $800 million in change orders from Purple Line Transit Partners and the opening date had slipped 32 months.[63][64][65] The consortium sent a letter to the state on May 1 that year making known their intent to cease work on the line and terminate their contract.[63] A temporary restraining order which had halted the company from quitting work was lifted in September,[66] and PLTP began packing up construction sites the following week.[67]

In November 2020, the Maryland Department of Transportation announced that MDOT and the Maryland Transit Administration have assumed many of the Purple Line's contracts, including the manufacturing of light-rail cars, operations, and maintenance, as well as design and construction contracts.[68] On November 24, 2020, the Maryland Department of Transportation agreed to pay $250 million to settle the costs of overruns that caused the contractor to quit and to resume construction of the Purple Line.[69][70] In mid-December 2020, Maryland's Board of Public Works officially and unanimously voted to approve the $250 million legal settlement to PLTP to resolve the contract disputes and resume construction within the next nine months.[71]

By mid-year 2021, it appeared completion might be as late as 2027.[72]

New contractor selected[edit]

On November 5, 2021, managers of the Purple Line announced that Maryland Transit Solutions was selected to be the new contractor to complete the Purple Line. The contract is expected to receive full approval in February 2022, allowing work to resume in spring 2022.[15][73][74] The total cost of the 30-year contract, which includes construction, operation, and maintenance, would rise from $5.6 billion to $9.3 billion. Train service is expected to begin in fall 2026.[75]

Route and station locations[edit]

The Silver Spring Library, with the space under the overhang set aside for the future Purple Line station
Roughly geographical map of the proposed Purple Line routes including alternative alignments

The planned rail line will connect the existing Metro, MARC commuter rail, and Amtrak stations at:[7]

The following stations are part of the "Locally Preferred Alternative" route approved by Governor Martin O'Malley on August 9, 2009:[76]

Station Name Location Connections Facilities
Bethesda 7450 Wisconsin Avenue
Bethesda, Maryland
WMATA Metro Logo small.svg Metrorail: WMATA Red.svg Red Line
Bus transport Metrobus: J2, J4, L2
Bus transport Ride On: 29, 30, 32, 34, 36, 47, 70
Bus transport Bethesda Circulator
Bike transport Capital Crescent Trail
Connecticut Avenue Capital Crescent Trail & Connecticut Avenue
Chevy Chase, MD 20815
Bus transport Metrobus: L8
Lyttonsville Lyttonsville Place, Lyttonsville
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Bus transport Ride On: 2
16th Street–Woodside 16th Street, Woodside
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Bus transport Metrobus: J1, J2, J4
Bus transport Ride On: 1, 2, 11, 18
Silver Spring 8400 Colesville Road
Silver Spring, MD 20910
WMATA Metro Logo small.svg Metrorail: WMATA Red.svg Red Line
MARC train.svg MARC Train:   Brunswick Line
Bus transport Metrobus: 70, 79, F4, J1, J2, J4, Q1, Q2, Q4, S2, S9, Y2, Y7, Y8, Z2, Z6, Z7, Z8, Z11
Bus transport Ride On: 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 28, Flash BRT (Blue, Orange)
Bus transport MTA Maryland Bus: 915, 929
Bus transport Shuttle-UM: 111
Bus transport Peter Pan Bus
Transit center (existing)
Bike transport Capital Bikeshare
Silver Spring Library 900 Wayne Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Bus transport Metrobus: F4, J4
Bus transport Ride On: 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 28
Bus transport Shuttle-UM: 111
Dale Drive Dale Drive & Wayne Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Bus transport Ride On: 12, 15, 19
Manchester Place Wayne Avenue & Plymouth Street
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Bus transport Metrobus: J4
Bus transport Ride On: 12, 13, 19
Long Branch 8736 Arliss Street
Silver Spring, MD 20901
Bus transport Ride On: 14, 15, 16, 20, 24
Piney Branch Road Piney Branch Road & University Boulevard
Silver Spring, MD 20903
Bus transport Metrobus: C2, C4, J4
Bus transport Ride On: 14, 15, 16, 20, 24
Takoma Langley Crossroads
Transit Center
7900 New Hampshire Ave
Langley Park, MD
Bus transport Metrobus: C2, C4, F8, J4, K6, K9
Bus transport Ride On: 15, 16, 17, 18, 25
Bus transport TheBus: 18
Bus transport Shuttle-UM: 111
Riggs Road Riggs Road & University Boulevard
Langley Park/Hyattsville, MD 20903
Bus transport Metrobus: C2, C4, J4, F8, R1, R2
Bus transport TheBus: 18
Adelphi Road–UMGC–UMD Adelphi Road & Campus Drive
Adelphi/Hyattsville, MD 20903
Bus transport Metrobus: C2, C8, F6, F8, J4
Bus transport TheBus: 18
Bus transport Shuttle-UM
Campus Drive–UMD Campus Drive & Library Lane
College Park, MD 20742
Bus transport Metrobus: C2, C8, F6, J4
Bus transport Shuttle-UM
Baltimore Avenue–College Park–UMD Baltimore Avenue & Rossborough Lane
College Park, MD 20742
Bus transport Metrobus: 83, 83X, 86, C8, F6, J4
Bus transport TheBus: 17
Bus transport Shuttle-UM
College Park Metro–UMD 4931 Calvert Road & 7202 Bowdoin Avenue
College Park, Maryland
WMATA Metro Logo small.svg Metrorail: WMATA Green.svg Green Line, WMATA Yellow.svg Yellow Line
MARC train.svg MARC Train:   Camden Line
Bus transport Metrobus: 83, 86, C8, F6, J4, R12
Bus transport RTA: 302/G
Bus transport TheBus: 14, 17
Bus transport Shuttle-UM: 104, 109
Bus transport MTA Maryland: 204
Riverdale Park North–UMD River Road & Haig Drive
Riverdale Park, MD 20737
Bus transport Metrobus: F6, R12
Bus transport TheBus: 14
Riverdale Park–Kenilworth East West Highway & Kenilworth Avenue
Riverdale Park, MD 20737
Bus transport Metrobus: F4, R12, T14
Bus transport TheBus: 14
Beacon Heights–East Pines Riverdale Road & 67th Avenue
Riverdale Park, MD 20737
Bus transport Metrobus: F4, T14
Bus transport TheBus: 14
Glenridge Veterans Parkway & Annapolis Road
Hyattsville, MD 20784
Bus transport Metrobus: F13, T18
New Carrollton 4300–4700 Garden City Drive
New Carrollton, MD
WMATA Metro Logo small.svg Metrorail: WMATA Orange.svg Orange Line
MARC train.svg MARC Train:   Penn Line
Amtrak Amtrak
Bus transport Metrobus: 87, B21, B22, B24, B27, B29, C28, F4, F6, F12, F13, F14, G12, G14, T14, T18
Bus transport MTA Maryland Commuter Bus
Bus transport TheBus: 15X, 16, 21, 21X
Bus transport Greyhound
Bus transport Peter Pan Bus Lines

Potential further expansion[edit]

Although the Purple Line is usually described as a 16-mile east–west line between Bethesda and New Carrollton,[7] there have been several proposals to expand the line further into Maryland or to mirror the Capital Beltway as a loop around the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. The Sierra Club has argued for a Purple Line that would "encircle Washington, D.C." and "connect existing suburban metro lines."[39] Maryland Lieutenant Governor Anthony G. Brown, while campaigning in 2006, similarly stated that he would "like to see the Purple Line go from Bethesda to across the Woodrow Wilson Bridge," adding, "Let's swing that boy all the way around" (a reference to having the Purple Line circle through Virginia and back to the line's point of origin in Bethesda).[77]

An advocacy group known as "The Inner Purple Line Campaign" proposed that the Purple Line be extended westward to Tysons Corner and eastward to Largo, and that it could eventually cross the new Wilson Bridge from Suitland through Oxon Hill to Alexandria, eventually forming a rail line that encircles the city.[35] The new Woodrow Wilson Bridge (I-495's southern crossing over the Potomac River) is built to carry a heavy or light rail line.[78] Suggested stops along this proposed Purple Line expansion include:[79]

Rolling stock[edit]

The light rail vehicles designed to run on the Purple Line are being built by CAF at their Elmira, New York, facility. Vehicles are 136 feet (41 m) long[81] and can carry up to 431 passengers. CAF began testing the cars in 2020.[82] As of June 2021 all 130 car shells had been fabricated at the CAF facility in Spain, and the cars were in various stages of assembly and completion at the Elmira plant.[83]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Governor O'Malley Announces Purple Line Locally Preferred Alternative" (Press release). New Carrollton, MD: MDOT. August 4, 2009. Archived from the original on September 14, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  2. ^ "CAF Awarded Supply of 26 LRVS For Maryland in the USA". June 28, 2016. Archived from the original on July 11, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Freed, Benjamin (March 2, 2016). "Purple Line Construction to Start Later This Year". Washingtonian. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  4. ^ Request For Proposals Technical Provisions Part 2B, Design Build Requirements (Report). MDOT/MTA. pp. 2–203. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  5. ^ Shah, Dhaval R. Presale: Purple Line Transit Partners LLC. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: S&P Global Ratings. p. 14. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  6. ^ "MARYLAND LRV maximum speed". CAF. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  7. ^ a b c "Project Overview – Maryland Purple Line". purplelinemd.com. MTA. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  8. ^ Metcaf, Andrew (December 19, 2016). "Transit Agencies Say Metro's Woes Won't Impact Purple Line". Bethesda Magazine. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  9. ^ a b Shaver, Katherine (December 19, 2017). "Federal appeals court ruling allows Purple Line construction to continue". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
  10. ^ a b Cloherty, Megan (December 19, 2017). "US appeals court clears a legal hurdle for Purple Line". WTOP. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
  11. ^ "Purple Line Contract Receives Green Light From Governor Larry Hogan". mymcmedia.org. March 2, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  12. ^ Shaver, Katherine (September 27, 2018). "Purple Line set to open in fall of 2022, despite year-long delay in construction start, Maryland official says". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  13. ^ "Maryland takes over contracts on Purple Line construction after contractor quits". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  14. ^ a b "Purple Line will open 4½ years late and cost $1.4 billion more to complete, state says". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  15. ^ a b Shaver, Katherine (November 5, 2021). "New Purple Line contractors selected to resume full construction this spring". The Washington Post.
  16. ^ Fehr, Stephen (December 18, 1994). "A Palette of Proposals for Metro". The Washington Post.
  17. ^ "A Governor's Purple Vision". The Washington Post. October 18, 1998. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  18. ^ Mariano, Ann (June 13, 1987). "Study Favorable to CSX Rail Plans". The Washington Post.
  19. ^ Bethesda : Central Business District Sector Plan. July 1975.
  20. ^ Armao, Jo-Ann (December 9, 1988). "Rail Spur Purchase 'Priceless'; Montgomery Weighs Hiking, Trolley Line". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 6, 2017.
  21. ^ Layton, Lindsey (March 31, 2001). "Glendening Gives Pro-Metro Pep Talk". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017.
  22. ^ "What is the Purple Line – Maryland Purple Line". purplelinemd.com. MTA. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  23. ^ "Officials Break Ground on Long-Awaited Purple Line Project; Construction Immediately Starts". Bethesda Magazine. August 28, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  24. ^ "Project History – Maryland Purple Line". purplelinemd.com. MTA. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  25. ^ Davis, Janel (January 18, 2008). "O'Malley allocates $100M for Purple Line planning". The Gazette. Maryland. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
  26. ^ Shaver, Katherine (May 30, 2008). "Trips on Purple Line Rail Projected at 68,000 Daily". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  27. ^ "Studies & Reports Maryland Purple Line". MTA. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  28. ^ Spivak, Miranda S. (January 16, 2009). "Montgomery Planners Back Rail". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  29. ^ Shaver, Katherine (January 23, 2009). "Leggett Endorses Light-Rail Plan". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  30. ^ TPB News Vol XVII Issue 4 p. 1 (November 2009). "TPB Gives Final Approval to Purple Line Project" (PDF). Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  31. ^ "Public Meeting on the Purple Line" (PDF). Town of Chevy Chase, Maryland. June 6, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 6, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  32. ^ "2008 Annual Report" (PDF). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Retrieved January 21, 2009.
  33. ^ "Metro preparing for more people to shift to transit if gasoline prices continue to skyrocket". WMATA. May 22, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  34. ^ "Purple Line Now: Who We Are". Purple Line Now. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
  35. ^ a b What is the Purple Line?, The Inner Purple Line Campaign, a project of the Action Committee for Transit (ACT), retrieved December 4, 2009
  36. ^ "Full Speed Ahead". Editorial. The Washington Post. November 16, 2008. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
  37. ^ "News & Events". purplelinenow.org. Archived from the original on May 17, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
  38. ^ a b Shaver, Katherine (July 13, 2008). "Purple Line Foes Offer No Ideas, And No Names". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
  39. ^ a b "Transportation (and how it relates to Smart Growth)". Sierra Club. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  40. ^ Shaver, Katherine (May 13, 2007). "Students Urge Stronger Backing of Purple Line". The Washington Post. p. C04.
  41. ^ "Letter from student leaders to UMD President" (PDF). Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  42. ^ Shaver, Katherine (January 23, 2009). "Leggett Endorses Light-Rail Plan". The Washington Post. p. B03. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
  43. ^ Maynard, Patrick (June 8, 2011). "Rails to Trails VP on Purple Line". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
  44. ^ Hunt, Elle (July 5, 2018). "Meet the Numtots: the millennials who find fixing public transit sexy". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  45. ^ a b "Analysis of MTA Purple Line". Sam Schwartz Engineering. April 23, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
  46. ^ Save the Trail
  47. ^ Save the Trail Petition: Alternatives Studies of alternatives to a Capital Crescent Trail alignment, retrieved December 2, 2009
  48. ^ Shaver, Katherine (January 16, 2005). "Fortunes Shift for East-West Rail Plan". The Washington Post. p. C01.
  49. ^ Shaver, Katherine (July 7, 2008). "Chevy Chase Says Buses Beat Trains on Purple Line". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 15, 2014.
  50. ^ Lazo, Luz (September 30, 2011). "In Langley Park, Purple Line brings promise, and fears, of change". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  51. ^ Jason Tomassini (May 12, 2010). "MTA pushing for additional Purple Line stop in Silver Spring". The Gazette. Archived from the original on May 15, 2010.
  52. ^ Purple Line study report (August 2009). "An evaluation of the merits of an LRT station at Dale Drive and Wayne Avenue" (PDF). MTA Maryland. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
  53. ^ Shaver, Katherine (December 8, 2015). "Four teams of private companies submit bids to build, operate Purple Line". The Washington Post.
  54. ^ "Shortlisted Proposers Purple Line P3 Revised Third Party Contact Points" (PDF). Retrieved January 18, 2016.[dead link]
  55. ^ McCartney, Robert; Hicks, Joshua; Turque, Bill (June 25, 2015). "Hogan: Maryland will move forward on Purple Line, with counties' help". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
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External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata