Saxifraga oppositifolia

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Saxifraga oppositifolia
Purpsaxifrage2.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Saxifragaceae
Genus: Saxifraga
Species: S. oppositifolia
Binomial name
Saxifraga oppositifolia
L.
Saxifraga oppositifolia - MHNT

Saxifraga oppositifolia, the purple saxifrage or purple mountain saxifrage,[1] is a species of edible plant that is very common all over the high Arctic and also some high mountainous areas further south, including northern Britain, the Alps and the Rocky Mountains. It is even known to grow on Kaffeklubben Island in north Greenland,[2] at 83°40'N, the most northerly plant locality in the world.

It is a low-growing, densely or loosely matted plant growing to 3–5 cm high, with somewhat woody branches of creeping or trailing habit close to the surface. The leaves are small, rounded, scale-like, opposite in 4 rows, with ciliated margins. The flowers are solitary on short stalks, petals purple or lilac, much longer than the calyx lobes. It is one of the very first spring flowers, continuing to flower during the whole summer in localities where the snow melts later. The flowers grow to about 0.5 inches in diameter.

It grows in all kinds of cold temperate to arctic habitats, from sea level up to 1000 m, in many places colouring the landscape. It is a popular plant in alpine gardens, though difficult to grow in warm climates.

It serves as the territorial flower of Nordland county in Norway, Nunavut in Canada,[3] and the county flower of County Londonderry in Northern Ireland.

The flowers can be picked for food. The petals are edible. They are bitter at first but after about 1 second, they become sweet. They are slightly sticky. The flower is known to the Inuit people as aupilaktunnguat.[3]

Swiss botanist Christian Körner found the plant growing at an elevation of 4,505 metres (14,780 ft) in the Swiss alps, making it the highest elevation angiosperm in Europe.[4]

There are a few subspecies, including:

  • Saxifraga oppositifolia ssp. glandulisepala Hultén – native to Alaska[5]
  • Saxifraga oppositifolia ssp. oppositifolia L. – native to continental US[6]
  • Saxifraga oppositifolia ssp. smalliana (Engl. & Irmsch.) Hultén – native to Alaska[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Saxifraga oppositifolia". Itis.gov. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  2. ^ "Template". Sagaxexpeditions.com. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  3. ^ a b Official Flower of Nunavut, Nunavut, Canada
  4. ^ "Coldest places on earth with angiosperm plant life". Alpine Botany. 121 (1): 11–22. doi:10.1007/s00035-011-0089-1. 
  5. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Saxifraga oppositifolia ssp. glandulisepala". Itis.gov. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  6. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Saxifraga oppositifolia ssp. oppositifolia". Itis.gov. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  7. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Saxifraga oppositifolia ssp. smalliana". Itis.gov. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-10-25.