|Awarded by United States Armed Forces|
|Type||Military medal (Decoration)|
|Awarded for||"Being wounded or killed in any action against an enemy of the United States or as a result of an act of any such enemy or opposing armed forces"|
|Description||Obverse profile of George Washington|
|First awarded||February 22, 1932|
|Total awarded||Approximately 1,910,162 (as of June 5, 2010)|
|Next (higher)||Bronze Star Medal|
|Next (lower)||Defense Meritorious Service Medal|
Reverse of Purple Heart Medal and Purple Heart Service Ribbon
The Purple Heart is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those wounded or killed while serving, on or after April 5, 1917, with the U.S. military. With its forerunner, the Badge of Military Merit, which took the form of a heart made of purple cloth, the Purple Heart is the oldest military award still given to U.S. military members – the only earlier award being the obsolete Fidelity Medallion. The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located in New Windsor, New York.
The original Purple Heart, designated as the Badge of Military Merit, was established by George Washington – then the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army – by order from his Newburgh, New York headquarters on August 7, 1782. The Badge of Military Merit was only awarded to three Revolutionary War soldiers by Gen. George Washington himself. General Washington authorized his subordinate officers to issue Badges of Merit as appropriate. From then on, as its legend grew, so did its appearance. Although never abolished, the award of the badge was not proposed again officially until after World War I.
On October 10, 1927, Army Chief of Staff General Charles Pelot Summerall directed that a draft bill be sent to Congress "to revive the Badge of Military Merit". The bill was withdrawn and action on the case ceased January 3, 1928, but the office of the Adjutant General was instructed to file all materials collected for possible future use. A number of private interests sought to have the medal re-instituted in the Army; this included the board of directors of the Fort Ticonderoga Museum in Ticonderoga, New York.
On January 7, 1931, Summerall’s successor, General Douglas MacArthur, confidentially reopened work on a new design, involving the Washington Commission of Fine Arts. Elizabeth Will, an Army heraldic specialist in the Office of the Quartermaster General, was named to redesign the newly revived medal, which became known as the Purple Heart. Using general specifications provided to her, Will created the design sketch for the present medal of the Purple Heart. The new design, which exhibits a bust and profile of George Washington, was issued on the bicentennial of Washington's birth. Will's obituary, in the edition of February 8, 1975 of The Washington Post newspaper, reflects her many contributions to military heraldry.
The Commission of Fine Arts solicited plaster models from three leading sculptors for the medal, selecting that of John R. Sinnock of the Philadelphia Mint in May 1931. By Executive Order of the President of the United States, the Purple Heart was revived on the 200th Anniversary of George Washington's birth, out of respect to his memory and military achievements, by War Department General Order No. 3, dated February 22, 1932.
The criteria were announced in a War Department circular dated February 22, 1932, and authorized award to soldiers, upon their request, who had been awarded the Meritorious Service Citation Certificate, Army Wound Ribbon, or were authorized to wear Wound Chevrons subsequent to April 5, 1917, the day before the United States entered World War I. The first Purple Heart was awarded to MacArthur. During the early period of American involvement in World War II (December 7, 1941 – September 22, 1943), the Purple Heart was awarded both for wounds received in action against the enemy and for meritorious performance of duty. With the establishment of the Legion of Merit, by an Act of Congress, the practice of awarding the Purple Heart for meritorious service was discontinued. By Executive Order 9277, dated December 3, 1942, the decoration was applied to all services; the order required reasonable uniform application of the regulations for each of the Services. This executive order also authorized the award only for wounds received. For both military and civilian personnel during the World War II era, to meet eligibility for the Purple Heart, AR 600-45, dated September 22, 1943, and May 3, 1944, required identification of circumstances.
Subject to approval of the Secretary of Defense, Executive Order 10409, dated February 12, 1952, revised authorizations to include the Service Secretaries. Dated April 25, 1962, Executive Order 11016, included provisions for posthumous award of the Purple Heart. Dated February 23, 1984, Executive Order 12464, authorized award of the Purple Heart as a result of terrorist attacks, or while serving as part of a peacekeeping force, subsequent to March 28, 1973.
On June 13, 1985, the Senate approved an amendment to the 1985 Defense Authorization Bill, which changed the precedence of the Purple Heart award, from immediately above the Good Conduct Medal to immediately above the Meritorious Service Medals. Public Law 99-145 authorized the award for wounds received as a result of friendly fire. Public Law 104-106 expanded the eligibility date, authorizing award of the Purple Heart to a former prisoner of war who was wounded after April 25, 1962. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 (Public Law 105-85) changed the criteria to delete authorization for award of the Purple Heart to any civilian national of the United States, while serving under competent authority in any capacity with the Armed Forces. This change was effective May 18, 1998.
During World War II, nearly 500,000 Purple Heart medals were manufactured in anticipation of the estimated casualties resulting from the planned Allied invasion of Japan. To the present date, total combined American military casualties of the seventy years following the end of World War II—including the Korean and Vietnam Wars—have not exceeded that number. In 2003, there remained 120,000 Purple Heart medals in stock. The existing surplus allowed combat units in Iraq and Afghanistan to keep Purple Hearts on-hand for immediate award to soldiers wounded in the field.
The "History" section of the November 2009 edition of National Geographic estimated the number of Purple Hearts given. Above the estimates, the text reads, "Any tally of Purple Hearts is an estimate. Awards are often given during conflict; records aren't always exact" (page 33). The estimates are as follows:
- World War I: 320,518
- World War II: 1,076,245
- Korean War: 118,650
- Vietnam War: 351,794
- Persian Gulf War: 607
- Afghanistan War: 7,027 (as of June 5, 2010)
- Iraq War: 35,321 (as of June 5, 2010)
The Purple Heart is awarded in the name of the President of the United States to any member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, while serving under competent authority in any capacity with one of the U.S. Armed Services after April 5, 1917, has been wounded or killed. Specific examples of services which warrant the Purple Heart include any action against an enemy of the United States; any action with an opposing armed force of a foreign country in which the Armed Forces of the United States are or have been engaged; while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party; as a result of an act of any such enemy of opposing armed forces; or as the result of an act of any hostile foreign force. After March 28, 1973, it may be awarded as a result of an international terrorist attack against the United States or a foreign nation friendly to the United States, recognized as such an attack by the Secretary of the Army, or jointly by the Secretaries of the separate armed services concerned if persons from more than one service are wounded in the attack. After March 28, 1973, it may be awarded as a result of military operations while serving outside the territory of the United States as part of a peacekeeping force.
The Purple Heart differs from most other decorations in that an individual is not "recommended" for the decoration; rather he or she is entitled to it upon meeting specific criteria. A Purple Heart is awarded for the first wound suffered under conditions indicated above, but for each subsequent award an oak leaf cluster or 5/16 inch star is worn in lieu of another medal. Not more than one award will be made for more than one wound or injury received at the same instant.
A "wound" is defined as an injury to any part of the body from an outside force or agent sustained under one or more of the conditions listed above. A physical lesion is not required; however, the wound for which the award is made must have required treatment by a medical officer and records of medical treatment for wounds or injuries received in action must have been made a matter of official record. When contemplating an award of this decoration, the key issue that commanders must take into consideration is the degree to which the enemy caused the injury. The fact that the proposed recipient was participating in direct or indirect combat operations is a necessary prerequisite, but is not sole justification for award. The Purple Heart is not awarded for non-combat injuries.
Enemy-related injuries which justify the award of the Purple Heart include: injury caused by enemy bullet, shrapnel, or other projectile created by enemy action; injury caused by enemy placed land mine, naval mine, or trap; injury caused by enemy released chemical, biological, or nuclear agent; injury caused by vehicle or aircraft accident resulting from enemy fire; and, concussion injuries caused as a result of enemy generated explosions.
Injuries or wounds which do not qualify for award of the Purple Heart include frostbite or trench foot injuries; heat stroke; food poisoning not caused by enemy agents; chemical, biological, or nuclear agents not released by the enemy; battle fatigue; disease not directly caused by enemy agents; accidents, to include explosive, aircraft, vehicular, and other accidental wounding not related to or caused by enemy action; self-inflicted wounds (e.g., a soldier accidentally or intentionally fires their own gun and the bullet strikes his or her leg), except when in the heat of battle, and not involving gross negligence; post-traumatic stress disorders; and jump injuries not caused by enemy action.
It is not intended that such a strict interpretation of the requirement for the wound or injury to be caused by direct result of hostile action be taken that it would preclude the award being made to deserving personnel. Commanders must also take into consideration the circumstances surrounding an injury, even if it appears to meet the criteria. In the case of an individual injured while making a parachute landing from an aircraft that had been brought down by enemy fire; or, an individual injured as a result of a vehicle accident caused by enemy fire, the decision will be made in favor of the individual and the award will be made. As well, individuals wounded or killed as a result of "friendly fire" in the "heat of battle" will be awarded the Purple Heart as long as the "friendly" projectile or agent was released with the full intent of inflicting damage or destroying enemy troops or equipment. Individuals injured as a result of their own negligence, such as by driving or walking through an unauthorized area known to have been mined or placed off limits or searching for or picking up unexploded munitions as war souvenirs, will not be awarded the Purple Heart as they clearly were not injured as a result of enemy action, but rather by their own negligence.
From 1942 to 1997, civilians serving or closely affiliated with the armed forces—as government employees, Red Cross workers, war correspondents, and the like—were eligible to receive the Purple Heart. Among the earliest civilians to receive the award were nine firefighters of the Honolulu Fire Department killed or wounded while fighting fires at Hickam Field during the attack on Pearl Harbor. About 100 men and women received the award, the most famous being newspaperman Ernie Pyle who was awarded a Purple Heart posthumously by the Army after being killed by Japanese machine gun fire in the Pacific Theater, near the end of World War II. Before his death, Pyle had seen and experienced combat in the European Theater, while accompanying and writing about infantrymen for the folks back home.
The most recent Purple Hearts presented to civilians occurred after the terrorist attacks at Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia, in 1996—for their injuries, about 40 U.S. civil service employees received the award.
However, in 1997, at the urging of the Military Order of the Purple Heart, Congress passed legislation prohibiting future awards of the Purple Heart to civilians. Today, the Purple Heart is reserved for men and women in uniform. Civilian employees of the U.S. Department of Defense who are killed or wounded as a result of hostile action may receive the new Defense of Freedom Medal. This award was created shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
Animals are generally not eligible for the Purple Heart; however, there have been rare instances when animals holding military rank were honored with the award. An example includes the horse Sergeant Reckless during the Korean War.
The Purple Heart award is a heart-shaped medal within a gold border, 1 3⁄8 inches (35 mm) wide, containing a profile of General George Washington. Above the heart appears a shield of the coat of arms of George Washington (a white shield with two red bars and three red stars in chief) between sprays of green leaves. The reverse consists of a raised bronze heart with the words FOR MILITARY MERIT below the coat of arms and leaves.
The ribbon is 1 and 3⁄8 inches (35 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄8 inch (3 mm) white 67101; 1 1⁄8 inches (29 mm) purple 67115; and 1⁄8 inch (3 mm) white 67101.
Additional awards of the Purple Heart are denoted by oak leaf clusters in the Army and Air Force, and additional awards of the Purple Heart Medal are denoted by 5/16 inch stars in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.
Current active duty personnel are awarded the Purple Heart upon recommendation from their chain of command, stating the injury that was received and the action in which the service member was wounded. The award authority for the Purple Heart is normally at the level of an Army Brigade, Marine Corps Division, Air Force Wing, or Navy Task Force. While the award of the Purple Heart is considered automatic for all wounds received in combat, each award presentation must still be reviewed to ensure that the wounds received were as a result of enemy action. Modern day Purple Heart presentations are recorded in both hardcopy and electronic service records. The annotation of the Purple Heart is denoted both with the service member's parent command and at the headquarters of the military service department. An original citation and award certificate are presented to the service member and filed in the field service record.
During the Vietnam War, Korean War, and World War II, the Purple Heart was often awarded on the spot, with occasional entries made into service records. In addition, during mass demobilizations following each of America's major wars of the 20th century, it was common occurrence to omit mention from service records of a Purple Heart award. This occurred due to clerical errors, and became problematic once a service record was closed upon discharge. In terms of keeping accurate records, it was commonplace for some field commanders to engage in bedside presentations of the Purple Heart. This typically entailed a general entering a hospital with a box of Purple Hearts, pinning them on the pillows of wounded service members, then departing with no official records kept of the visit, or the award of the Purple Heart. Service members, themselves, complicated matters by unofficially leaving hospitals, hastily returning to their units to rejoin battle so as to not appear a malingerer. In such cases, even if a service member had received actual wounds in combat, both the award of the Purple Heart, as well as the entire visit to the hospital, was unrecorded in official records.
Service members requesting retroactive awards of the Purple Heart must normally apply through the National Personnel Records Center. Following a review of service records, qualified Army members are awarded the Purple Heart by the U.S. Army Human Resources Command in Alexandria, Virginia. Air Force veterans are awarded the Purple Heart by the Awards Office of Randolph Air Force Base, while Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, present Purple Hearts to veterans through the Navy Liaison Officer at the National Personnel Records Center. Simple clerical errors, where a Purple Heart is denoted in military records, but was simply omitted from a (WD AGO Form 53-55 (predecessor to the) DD Form 214 (Report of Separation), are corrected on site at the National Personnel Records Center through issuance of a DD-215 document.
Because the Purple Heart did not exist prior to 1932, decoration records are not annotated in the service histories of veterans wounded, or killed, by enemy action, prior to establishment of the medal. The Purple Heart is, however, retroactive to 1917 meaning it may be presented to veterans as far back as First World War. Prior to 2006, service departments would review all available records, including older service records, and service histories, to determine if a veteran warranted a retroactive Purple Heart. As of 2008, such records are listed as "Archival", by the National Archives and Records Administration, meaning they have been transferred from the custody of the military, and can no longer be loaned and transferred for retroactive medals determination. In such cases, requestors asking for a Purple Heart (especially from records of the First World War) are provided with a complete copy of all available records (or reconstructed records in the case of the 1973 fire) and advised the Purple Heart may be privately purchased if the requestor feels it is warranted.
A clause to the archival procedures was revised in mid-2008, where if a veteran, or, if deceased, an immediate member of the family, requested the Purple Heart, on an Army or Air Force record, the medal could still be granted by the National Archives. In such cases, where a determination was required made by the military service department, photocopies of the archival record, (but not the record itself), would be forwarded to the headquarters of the military branch in question. This stipulation was granted only for the Air Force and Army; Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard archival medals requests are still typically only offered a copy of the file and told to purchase the medal privately. For requests directly received from veterans, these are routed through a Navy Liaison Office, on site at 9700 Page Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63132-5100 (the location of the Military Personnel Records Center).
Destroyed record requests
Due to the 1973 National Archives Fire, a large number of retroactive Purple Heart requests are difficult to verify because all records to substantiate the award may have been destroyed. As a solution to deal with Purple Heart requests, where service records were destroyed in the 1973 fire, the National Personnel Records Center maintains a separate office. In such cases, NPRC searches through unit records, military pay records, and records of the Department of Veterans Affairs. If a Purple Heart is warranted, all available alternate records sources are forwarded to the military service department for final determination of issuance.
The loaning of fire related records to the military has declined since 2006 because a large number of such records now fall into the "archival records" category of military service records. This means the records were transferred from the military to the National Archives, and in such cases, the Purple Heart may be privately purchased by the requestor (see above section of retroactive requests for further details) but is no longer provided by the military service department.
- Bryan Anderson, Iraqi War veteran and triple amputee
- James Arness, actor
- Manny Babbitt, U.S Soldier executed for murder
- Peter Badcoe, Australian Army
- Bryan B. Battaglia, Marine Corps, 2nd Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman
- Kristin Beck, a former United States Navy SEAL who gained public attention in 2013 when she came out as a trans woman
- Rocky Bleier, NFL
- Dan Blocker, actor
- Pappy Boyington, Marine Corps pilot
- Charles Bronson, actor
- J. Herbert Burke, U.S. Representative from Florida
- Mel Casas, artist
- Llewellyn Chilson, Army, 3 awards
- David Christian, Army, 7 awards
- Wesley Clark, former SACEUR
- Cordelia E Cook, first woman recipient of the BSM and the Purple Heart
- Steponas Darius, aviator
- Ray Davis, Marine Corps general
- Sammy L. Davis, Army, 2 awards
- Bob Dole, Army, 2 awards, former U.S. senator and Republican presidential candidate
- Desmond Doss, WWII
- Charles Durning, actor
- Dale Dye, actor
- Samuel Fuller, director
- James Garner, actor, 2 awards
- James M. Gavin, Army Lt. general
- Salvatore Giunta, Medal of Honor, Afghanistan War.
- Calvin L. Graham, USN, WWII, youngest Purple Heart recipient, 12 years old
- Oren W. Haglund, production manager of eleven ABC/Warner Brothers television series between 1955 and 1961
- Joe Haldeman, writer
- Carlos Hathcock, Marine Corps
- Charles Franklin Hildebrand, journalist and publisher
- Daniel Inouye, U.S. Senator from Hawaii, Medal of Honor, WWII
- Raymond Jacobs, Marine Corps, flag raiser
- James Jones, writer
- John F. Kennedy, Navy, WWII, and 35th President of the United States
- John Kerry, Navy, United States Secretary of State, 3 awards
- Ron Kovic, writer
- Melvin Laird, Navy, WWII, U.S. Secretary of Defense
- Robert Leckie, Marine Corps
- Victor Maghakian, also known as Captain Victor "Transport" Maghakian
- Lee Marvin, actor
- John McCain, U.S. Senator from Arizona
- Audie Murphy, Medal of Honor recipient, actor, 3 awards
- Robert M. Polich, Sr., Army Air Forces pilot, featured in Minnesota's Greatest Generation (2008) short Film Festival
- Colin Powell, Army general, former United States Secretary of State.
- Charles P. Roland, American historian
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr., Navy, President's son
- Al Schmid, Marine Corps
- Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr., Commanding General of allied forces during Desert Storm
- Sergeant Reckless, Marine war horse of official rank, 2 awards
- Don W. Sears, Dean and Professor Emeritus of Law at the University of Colorado Law School
- Rod Serling, American screenwriter
- Robert B. Sherman, American songwriter
- Eric Shinseki, former Army Chief of Staff and Secretary of the Veterans Administration
- W. E. "Pete" Snelson, American politician
- Warren Spahn, MLB player
- Oliver Stone, director
- Sergeant Stubby, Army war dog WWI, 2 awards
- Bruce Sundlun, former Governor of Rhode Island.
- Pat Tillman, football player
- Gilbert R. Tredway, American historian
- Lauri Törni, Finnish soldier of three armies
- Matt Urban, Army, 7 awards
- Jay R. Vargas, Marine Corps, 5 awards
- Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., author
- Lewis William Walt, Marine Corps general, 2 awards
- Jim Webb, Marine Corps, former Secretary of the Navy, U.S. Senator from Virginia, author and Emmy Award winning journalist, 2 awards
- Richard Winters, Army major
- Chuck Yeager, Army Air Forces and Air Force brigadier general
Most Purple Heart awards
Nine Purple Hearts:
- Irwin "Ray" Fraser, U.S. Army: Korea War (3), Vietnam War (6).
- Albert L. Ireland, U.S. Marine Corps: World War II (5), Korean War (4).
Eight Purple Hearts:
- Robert T. Frederick, U.S. Army: World War II (8)
- David H. Hackworth, U.S. Army: Korean War (3), Vietnam War (5)
- Joe Hooper, U.S. Army, Medal of Honor: Vietnam War (8)
- Robert L. Howard, U.S. Army, Medal of Honor: Vietnam War (8)
- William Waugh, U.S. Army: Vietnam War (8)
Note: Joseph Svec, a noted Army paratrooper, received 7 Purple Hearts during the Vietnam War, but is rumored to have "earned" upwards of 20.
In popular culture
In May 2003, the United States Postal Service issued a Purple Heart postage stamp to honor sacrifices of those who served.
In May 2006, a soldier made national headlines after giving his Purple Heart to a girl who had written many letters to troops.
In May 2007, Vietnam veteran Jerrell Hudman announced that he planned to give one of his three Purple Hearts to George, a Jack Russell terrier. George died from injuries sustained when he saved a group of five children from being mauled by two pit bull terriers in New Zealand.
In August 2016, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump received a Purple Heart as a gift from supporter Lieutenant Colonel Louis Dorfman. This prompted the Republican nominee to reply, "I've always wanted to get the Purple Heart. This was... much easier." 
- Gold Star Lapel Button
- Law Enforcement Purple Heart
- Secretary of Defense Medal for the Defense of Freedom
- Texas Purple Heart Medal
- Thomas Jefferson Star for Foreign Service (State Department)
- Wound stripe
- Elizabeth Cross (United Kingdom)
- Sacrifice Medal (Canada)
- Insigne des blessés civils (France)
- Insignia for the Military Wounded (France)
- Wound Medal (Austria-Hungary)
- Wound Badge (Imperial and Nazi Germany)
- "History: Purple Hearts". National Geographic (November 2008): 33.
- "Manual of Military Decorations and Awards: DoD-Wide Performance and Valor Awards; Foreign Awards; Military Awards to Foreign Personnel and U.S. Public Health Service Officers; and Miscellaneous Information" (PDF). DoD Manual 1348.33, Vol. 3. Department of Defense. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "Purple Heart". The Institute of Heraldry. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- "Purple Heart History". PurpleHearts.net. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- "Sec. 571. The Purple Heart is to be awarded only to members of the armed forces." (PDF). Public Law 105–85. Department of Defense. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- D.M Giangreco and Kathryn Moore (December 15, 2003). "Are New Purple Hearts Being Manufactured to Meet the Demand?". History News Network. Retrieved June 6, 2011. drawn from material originally posted in Giangreco, D.M.; Moore, Kathryn (2000). "Half a Million Purple Hearts.". American Heritage. 51 (8): 81.
- "Military Awards" (PDF). Army Regulation 600–8–22. Army Publishing Directorate. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- Alvarez, L. and E. Eckholm (January 7, 2009 ). "Purple Heart Is Ruled Out for Traumatic Stress." New York Times. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
- Antone, Rod (December 24, 2005). "Rescuing history". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- "Ernie Pyle Is Killed on Ie Island; Foe Fired When All Seemed Safe". Nytimes.com. April 19, 1945. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- "Moving Pictures : 2008 Film Entries - Minnesota's Greatest Generation".
- "Roland, My Odyssey Through History". lsu.edu. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- "W. E. "Pete" Snelson (1923-2014)". The Odessa American. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "Wet Mountain Tribune - Page 4 - 2/4/2016".
- "National Affairs: Fighting Man". Time. July 27, 1953. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Leiter, Maria Theodore (November 17, 2007). "War Hero Comes Home". www.pcnr.com. Putnam County News and Recorder. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- "Purple is color for those who have bled red". Headquarters, Marine Corps. January 29, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- "Svec's Freefall". Check-Six.com. Check-Six. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
- "Soldier Gives His Purple Heart to Teen". The Washington Post. Associated Press. May 27, 2006.
- "Purple Heart for brave George". The Sydney Morning Herald. Associated Press. May 8, 2007.
- "Trump accepts Purple Heart as gift from veteran: 'This was much easier'". Chicago Tribune. August 2, 2016.
- "It's legal for Donald Trump to accept a Purple Heart. How he handled it is up for debate.". Washington Post.
- " Case Reference Guide regarding verification and issuance of the Purple Heart Medal", Military Personnel Records Center, St. Louis, Missouri
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Purple Heart.|
- Army Regulation 670-1: Wear and Appearance of Army Uniform and Insignia
- Purple Heart History
- The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service