The Pushkin Prize (Russian Пушкинская премия) was established in 1881 by the Russian Academy of Sciences to honor one of the greatest Russian poetsAlexander Pushkin (1799–1837). The prize was awarded to the Russian who achieved the highest standard of literary excellence. The prize was discontinued during the Soviet period. It was restored in 1989 by Alfred Toepfler in Hamburg. In 1995 the State Pushkin Prize was established by Boris Yeltsin's decree, with Sasha Sokolov being the first laureate. Both lasted till 2005. In 2005 the New Pushkin Prize was established by the Aleksander Zhukov Fund, as well as the Pushkin and Mikhaylovskoye museums.