Pushpagiri Temple Complex
Pushpagiri Temple complex
In the order from top left to bottom left, Vaidyanatheswara Swamy temple, Reliefs on the temple walls of Chennakesava Swamy, A panoramic view of Pushpagiri overlooking the river Penna, Indranatheswara Swamy temple, Trikuteswara Swamy temple
|• Total||7.5 km2 (2.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||380 m (1,250 ft)|
|• Total||500 (approx)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||+91 - 8562|
There are multiple legends associated with the origin of the temple complex. One of the legend says that it has come to existence from the Satya Yuga when Garuda in the process of freeing his mother from slavery has inadvertently spilled a drop of ambrosia into the surrounding lake. Another legend claims that during the time of Treta Yuga, Lord Rama worshipped Lord Vaidyanatheswara here and the flowers used in the process have accumulated so high that a flowery mound is established and hence the name Pushpagiri.
Srisaila Khanda of Skand Purana praises this temple as 'Nirvritti Sangameswara' because of its reputation of devotees giving up lives in devotion to Lord Shiva.
Whatever is the legend if is associated, it is now widely acknowledged that the temple of Sri Vaidyanatheswara has been in this temple complex from at least around 7th Century BCE. This is corroborated by various Puranas including the Srisaila Khanda of Skanda Purana and Sriranga Mahatmya of Garuda Purana.
Geographically Pushpagiri temple complex is located on the banks of the Pinakini river that meanders through the District which has origins on Nandi Hills in Karnataka and is at a distance of about 16 kilometres from the district headquarters.
The name Pushpagiri derives from a local legend that to extricate his mother Vinutha from the shackles of slavery of his stepmother Kadruva, Garuda has embarked on a journey to the heavens to conquer Lord Indra and fetch the holy nectar of Ambrosia. Garuda while returning from the heavenly abode passed by the hamlet then called - Kampalle, where he unintentionally spilt a drop into a local pond formed by the river Pinakini.
The pond immediately was granted divine powers of transforming back to their youth, all those that took a dip in it. Consequently, people began to throng the pond for a dip in its waters. Upon seeing this unprecedented miracle, the Devas approached God Vishnu who instructs Garuda to cover up the pond with a rock from a nearby mountain.
The megalith Garuda placed on the pond, started floating like a flower - Pushpa in Sanskrit. To stop it from raising again, God Vishnu and God Shiva drove the rock under with their feet into the land. Thus the name Pushpagiri which in Sanskrit would mean a flowery mound.
The temple complex is located at 380 metres (1,000 ft) above the sea level and covers an approximate area of 7.5 square kilometres (2.9 sq mi). There is lush greenery surrounding the hamlets that include in the temple complex with crops watered from the rain as well as the river year round.
Despite the hot tropical summers in the region, there is always water in the area due to the underwater level butted by the river. Apart from the small arid mountainous area where the mound is supposed to have fallen, the entire region is full of greenery on all sides with plenty of crops mainly paddy.
During the rainy season, the area is quite a sight for the beholders. The river Pinakini flows from west to east, changing its course towards the south at Pushpagiri and soon after the hamlet of Sivalapalle, the river changes its course again to travel east finally opening into the sea in Nellore District.
Pushpagiri shares a tropical climate with the Cuddapah district as with the encompassing region of Rayalaseema. The summers are long and hot with temperatures ranging between 37°C and 45°C. The river almost dries up during the rainy season with water left only in some pools made by the previous flow. The summer will occur between the months of April and July.
With the onset of monsoons the climate starts cooling down and the river swells up during the rains which could sometimes be very hazardous especially during the torrential rains in the months of August to October when the occurrence of hurricanes and low depressions are very common. The floods to the river can cause the swirling waters to precariously perch on the edges of the banks with all the river bed submerged.
The months between September and March are relatively cool, December being the coolest with a temperature averaging between 17°C and 23°C. This is the best time to visit the temples around and many people visit the area to perform spiritual pilgrimages as well as for sightseeing.
|Climate data for Pushpagiri, Cuddapah|
|Average high °C (°F)||22
|Average low °C (°F)||15
|Source: Indian Meteorological Department |
The early kings and saints
The first mention of Pushpagiri was about the old Indranatha Swamy temple. After the snake sacrifice, King Janamejaya performed a pilgrimage to the South India and in the process visited Pushpagiri. The hamlet of Chintalapatturu has an inscription in old Tamil that talks about the pilgrimage of King Janamejaya.
About 10 kilometres from the confluence of Papagni and Pinakini rivers, there used to be an ashram of Agastya Maharishi. Sage Agastya after crossing the Vindhya mountains, vowed not to return to stop the range from growing in competition with Himalayas. While the sage himself stayed in the South, his disciples installed a Linga in the nearby place and left for the Ganges plains. The temple for the Linga came to be called after the great saint Agastya as Sri Agastheeswara Swamy temple.
There is a lot of documented history about the Pushpagiri Temple Complex. The temple has a mention in the Skanda Purana in Srisaila Khanda, Rasaratnakara of Satyanatha. It has been mentioned as the Dakshina Dwara - Southern gate for the famous Jyothirlinga site of Srisailam in Ikshvaku inscriptions that were later excavated from the site. The place has been considered sacred from the ages of Karikala Chola of the early Chola Dynasty.
It is famous for the architectural styles originating from the Early Cholas culminating in the modern architecture and houses a variety of temples that have varied ages and significance. Since there is a belief among the later kingdoms that reigned the region that from the joyful cosmic dance of God Shiva at the Bhoga Nandeeswara Swamy temple on top of the Nandi Hills, three rivers took their origin. Pinakini or Penna River (in vernacular language), Arkavati and Palar.
While the other two rivers took their course to become the tributaries of the Cauvery river, Pinakini asked God Shiva the purpose of her birth and to what direction she should flow. God Shiva then said that his bow will show the river the way and pointed towards the east and a gorge evolved on the earth giving way for the mighty waters to flow through. Since the bow of God Shiva is named Pinaka, the river is hence called Pinakini after the bow of the God.
Various kings, rulers and local chieftains that ruled the area have endowed the temple complex with grants and monuments.
Patronage under later kings and chieftains
As the kings changed and new dynasties emerged, various kings from various dynasties have endowed the temple with bountiful gifts and grants. Somadeva of Vaidumba Dynasty who usurped power from the Cholas has provided grants to the temple including the Pallava king Chiddana Devaraja. Another king from the Kesa dynasty Yadava Singana. The temple of Vaidyanatheswara Swamy was patronised by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna Vallabha who provided lands for the daily maintenance of the temple. A rock inscription to this effect has been excavated by the ASI.
Gangaya Sahini and Ambadeva who were the chieftains of Kakatiya dynasty built various other temples in the names of themselves as well as their wives and daughters which add to the architectural glory of the temple. The temple for Chennakesava Swamy was built by the Musunuri Nayaks under the rule of the later Vijayanagara kings.
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya while he was ruling the Vijayanagara Empire has made multiple grants to the Chennakesava Swamy temple and to other temples in this temple complex. There was a lot of disturbance from the dacoits who used to way-lay the travellers in this region. Saluva as asked his feudatory Vankara kumara Dhuli Basivi Naidu to safeguard the pilgrims who are on their way to this place. After a couple of generations, the successors of Naidu joined hands with the bandits and during the time of Krishnadevaraya he summoned Musili Naidu and advised him against such activities. Naidu initially revolted against the rulers of Vijayanagara Empire and used to harass the pilgrims as a way to show his disloyalty but started to obey the king once he was made the in-charge of the surrounding villages with the capital at a place called "Jillella". Pushpagiri used to be a very popular pit-stop for the pilgrims that travelled the Varanasi-Rameswaram route. Rameswaram-Varanasi -Rameswaram was one of the Char Dham routes followed and prescribed by Jagadguru Adi Shankaracharya who proposed the Advaita Vedanta and also established a mutt in these premises.
Telugu is the main language spoken here. However, when the annual fair happens there are people from various places across South India and the area is flooded with various cultures and practices. From ages immemorial, this place has been a host to various practices including Veerapasupatha. The Vaidyanatha Swamy temple on the west bank of Penna river houses an idol of Nakulisa (also called Lakulisa) which is a testimony that various age-old cultures and practices of ancient Hinduism have been in practice in Pushpagiri area for a long time.
Further, the links of the local Mutt of Sri Pushpagiri Shankara Peetham to Srisailam temple as the patron-institution corroborate the fact that Veerapasupatha or Shakteya cults of Hinduism have been practised here by the roaming monks and Sadhus. Srisailam has a temple dedicated to Hatakeswara, renowned as the Lord of Pasupatham cult and is famous for various Vamachara along with Samyachara ways of worship.
Other inscriptions excavated along the belt of Yerragudipadu village to the Chintalapattur village also hold a testimony that these kinds of worship have been practised by the local folk as well as the visitors to the place.
The temple complex and other villages in the vicinity have dispersed temples that are dedicated to both Shaiva and Vaishnava practices of worship. At a time when South India has been experiencing widespread tensions because of the difference of opinion regarding the superiority of their own cults, this area cuddled in almost obscurity of the forests and mountains has been a place of worship for both Shaivas and Vaishnavas alike.
The architectural styles of the Pushpagiri temple complex range from the age of Ikshvakus to the modern chieftains that subordinated to the kings of Vijayanagara empire. The geographical position of Cuddapah district with mountainous boundaries gave rise to a lot of local feudal kingdoms that have thwarted the onslaught of foreign rules (both Indian and foreign) for a long time. The temple complex has documented history from early Ikshvakus to the local Zamindars that ruled the area. To name a few, it has remnants of the past belonging to Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Cholas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Vaidumbas, Kayasthas and Vijayanagara empires. The Vaidyanatha Swamy temple is a splendid structure and is adorned with a variety of rock-cut sculptures and reliefs of various Hindu Gods and Goddesses. The most striking and categorically ancient temple is this which has the Srichakra in the shrine of Kamakshi on the left as one enters the temple from the northern tower-gate. The entire temple consists of two shrines one dedicated for Vaidyanatha Swamy and another for Kamakshi Devi which is surrounded by various idols of the Hindu deities and Hero-Stones that were excavated and preserved by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)
Long before the struggle between Shaivites and Vaishnavites started, there was a sense of communal harmony amongst the people of Cuddapah district, especially those in the Pushpagiri region, It is evident from a variety of undamaged structures in the region that have stood side by side with no vandalism instigated by the various communal philosophies. There are various temples that stand testimony to this fact, two of which are just kilometers apart. The Vaishnavaite temple of Chennakesava and the temples surrounding it are of Indranatha, Bhimeswara, Trikuteswara and Vaidyanatheswara. While the Chennakesava temple stands towards the east bank of the river with its magnificent gateway-tower facing west, the Indranatha Swamy temple is ducked on the north bank of the river just opposite to the village of Pushpagiri. The earliest reference to this temple was made in an inscription in 1078 CE which registers a land by the Ahavamalladeva of Vaidumba dynasty. Another inscription dated 1182 CE grants some land in the area of Mulakanadu for the daily worship of the presiding deity of the temple.
The Indranatha Swamy temple faces east with a deck of steps arising from the Penna river There is a temple courtyard, a dilapidated gateway-tower. The Gopura of the temple is slightly towards the south-west of the temple and the temple is roughly a square. As one enters the temple there is a Mandapa towards the left supported by 12 pillars sculpted in perfect harmony. In the circumambulation path of the temple, towards the North-west is a "Bilva tree" which was considered sacred for the worship of God Shiva.
Inline with the ancient architecture, the Linga housed inside a sanctum sanctorum before which is a 16-pillared Mukhamandapa that is surrounded by three sub-shrines. The Antaralaya emanates from the Mukhamantapa and leads to the main shrine where the Linga is still residing, though there is no worship as such. Outside the structure lies a Mandapa for Nandi. The characteristic feature of this temple is the 16-pillared and vast open-pillared mandapa that leads into the main shrine. All the sub-shrines are vacant with no idols of any sort except the main shrine.
The temple of Chennakesava is another standing testimony to the art of ancient scions of dynasties that ruled this place. The detail that has gone into sculpting the rocks and boulders to become beautiful structures is outstanding. The presiding deity is Chennakesava Swamy which is the God that Cholas patronised across the generations. There are more temples dedicated to Chennakesava across the length and breadth of the Cuddapah district and they bear a striking resemblance to the Chennakesava temple in Pushpagiri.
The Chennakesava temple faces west with a tall Dwajasthambam (flag-staff) overlooking the Penna river as it changes course from east to south. From the main gateway-tower, there is a path that leads to the Pushpagiri temples inside the hamlet of Pushpagiri. The temple of Chennakesava is an artistic structure with three Shrines inside and two sub-shrines outside of the elevated platform. The shrines inside the platform have the main deity of Chennakesava and Shrine to the left dedicated for a Shiva Linga. There is another small shrine where it was said that a seated structure of Umamaheswara Swamy was once present which was vandalised and left vacant now. A relief on the back wall of the shrine is supposed to be a replica of the deity that once adorned the Shrine. In the circumambulation path of the temple, there is another sub-shrine that houses a Shiva Linga towards the North-east side of the elevated platform.
The temple is built with elaborate carvings on all sides and the shrines that house the Shiva Linga and the Chennakesava Swamy are separated by a ridge so that a Parikrama can be done for individual shrines. However, the characteristic feature of this temple is that both the Shrines have a single flag-staff that has Garuda with folded hands facing the Chennakesava Swamy shrine.
The shrine of Chennakesava faces west and houses an idol of standing Chennakesava Swamy towering at almost 10 feet. The elaborate carvings on the stone "halo" of the idol show the ten avataras of Vishnu. The temple is still in worship today with both the Linga and idol revered. As the Parikrama of the shrine is completed, there is a shrine for Rajyalakshmi Devi, the consort of Chennakesava Swamy. There is a mandapa towards the right of the shrine for Rajyalakshmi devi and a shrine lowering to the level of the steps into the river for Hanuman which seems to have been added to the complex at a later stage. The Gopuram that faces west has its origins from the time of Aghora Sivacharya and is renovated multiple times during various periods.
The carvings on the shrines depict various Hindu Gods and Goddesses in various postures and depict the stories of Ramayana and Mahabharatha. Most of the carvings are in a relatively better position than Indranatha Swamy temple and the temple is currently under the protection of Central Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) catalogued #41 as Sivakesava Swamy temple.
Pushpagiri temple complex has a variety of inscriptions ranging a wide range of periods. The architectural styles of the temples that adorn the complex have undergone quite a lot of changes during the rules of various Kings and their feudal subjects.
Some of the inscriptions have either become non-readable or have worn out due to wither negligence or vandalism of the subsequent rulers. Some of the noteworthy inscriptions that could are still legible are as below:
- Trailokya Malla Raju - In the year 991 CE, Malla Raju has noticed that the main idol of the Chennakesava Swamy temple was in a dilapidated situation and has undertaken a restoration work. An inscription to this effect is visible on the temple walls. A stepped route from the river to the temple has also been built during this time. The inscription has been written in old Kannada and Tamil scripts.
- Murari Kesavaraju Somadeva Raju - In the year 1062 CE, Somadeva Raju has ceded the village of Vadde Cheruvu to the Indranathaswamy temple and an inscription to this effect has been installed on the said temple premises.
- Ahava Malla Raju - In the year 1073 CE, when Malla Raju was ruling the area from the town of Valluru, he ceded the village of Chintalapatturu to Indranathaswamy temple and has erected an inscription.
- Malladeva Raju - In the year 1083, Malladeva Raju erected an inscription mentioning a hamlet of Kommaluru to Indranathaswamy temple.
- Bilvuni Bijjana Pallava Raju - In the year 1104 CE, Pallava Raju presented the village Rakshinama to Indranathaswamy temple and an inscription to this effect is seen today in the temple.
- Simhana Bhupati Raju - While the year of the inscription is not mentioned, Bhupati Raju presented the village of Lakshmipura to the Vaidyanatheswara Swamy temple.
- Bhujabala Veera Malla Raju - After Simhana Bhupati Raju, Veera Malla Raju ascended to the throne and one of the inscription mention that he has presented some land for the daily maintenance of the Vaidyanatheswara temple.
- Krishna Kannada Deva Raju - Another inscription which is undated mentions that Deva Raju has presented some land to the temples in Pushpagiri for the sake of maintenance. The inscription is in Kannada language and script.
- Mallikshitisham Raju - In the year 1171, Mallikshitisham Raju has presented the villages of Gundapuram and Lilapusta Puram to the Nageswara temple for the sake of daily worship and maintenance.
- Kamala Bhai - In the year 1178 CE, the queen of Gangaya Sahini, Kamala Bhai has visited the Kaleswaram temple and installed a Linga for Kaleswara. For the maintenance of the temple it was inscribed at Pedadurti that she has presented some land. Kamala Bhai once again visited Pushpagiri and presented the villages of Gangavaran or Ganganapalle in the year 1178 CE.
- Kakatiya Ganapati Deva - In the year 1179 CE, a feudatory of Kakatiya Ganapati Deva by the name Kayastha Gangaya visited Pushpagiri and rededicated the villages presented by Kamala Bhai to the Vaidyanatheswara Swamy temple under the orders of Ganapati Deva.
- Kayasta Gangaya Sahini - In the year 1179 CE, the chieftain of Kakatiya Empire, Gangaya Sahini belonging to the Kayastha community was made in charge of the Valluru Mandal in Kadapa district. He then ceded some land to Pushpagiri 'Sethicharyulu' towards the North-West of Pushpagiri. The inscription was erected in Nagari script. The same Ganagaya Sahini has mentioned in another inscription that he has also presented the village of Atluru which was at a distance of about 30 kilometres from Pushpagiri to the temple complex. The inscription to this effect was erected in the year 1196 CE.
- Tripurari Sivayya - In the year 1226 CE, when Ambadeva, another chieftain of Kakatiya Empire was ruling the southern districts, Sivayya has presented some land to his Guru, 'Sivacharyulu' under the ayacut of Cuddapah Pond.
- Sammeta Kampayya - In the year 1348 CE, a feudatory to the king of Nellore, Kampayya has circumabulated the hill of Pushpagiri for 1000 times and made some repairs to the ballasts of the Chennakesava temple and other temples in the complex.
- Deva Raya - In the year 1406 CE, Deva Raya has visited Pushpagiri and erected an inscription at the Indranatha Swany temple. The inscription is currently illegible due to climatic wear and tear.
- Krishna Deva Raya - In the year 1509 CE, as soon as Krishna Deva Raya was instilled on throne at Vijayanagara, he has presented the village of Chinnamachupalle to Pushpagiri Chennakesava Swamy temple A Kannada inscription to this effect has been found in the village of Chinnamachupalle.
Below is a gallery of the exquisitely detailed carvings on the walls of the shrines at the temple of Chennakesava Swamy (Sivakesava Swamy) temple in Pushpagiri.
Apart from the Indranatha Swamy, Vaidyanatheswara Swamy and Chennakesava Swamy temples, the Pushpagiri temple complex also has a lot of temples dedicated to Bhimeswara, Hachaleswara, Pallaveswara, Sambeswara, Kamala Sambeswara, Kashi Vishwanatha and more.
Styles of worship
Predominantly a Shaivite place, Pushpagiri also has numerous temples dedicated to various Vaishnava deities. Apart from the ubiquitous Shaiva and Vaishnava styles, there are various other styles of worship have existed here like Jainism, Buddhism, Golaki, Aaradhya, Kapalika, Kalamukha, Rasasaivam, Shakteya and Soura.
List of temples in the complex
Pushpagiri contains a lot of temples of which 28 are still extant which could be dated in between 10th and 13th Century CE. This list in not comprehensive and enumerates only the major temples in the area:
- Śrī Lakśmī Chennakeśava Swamy temple (Also called Śrī Śiva Keśava Swamy temple)
- Śrī Kāmākśi Vaidyanātheswara Swamy temple
- Śrī Santāna Malleśwara Swamy temple
- Śrī Trikūteshwara Swamy temple
- Śrī Indrānātha Swamy temple
- Śrī Kaśi Viśālākśi Viśwanātha Swamy temple
- Śrī Sākśi Malleśwara Swamy temple
- Śrī Agasthyeśwara Swamy temple
- Śrī Pāthāla Ganapathi temple
Apart from the above well known and documented temples, there are multiple sanctums that dot the landscape. Across the mound that abuts the river, there are tens of abandoned shrines that once once used to house a Linga and a Nandi which is evident from the vacated pedestals.
- Reddy, Prabhavati C. (26 March 2014). Hindu Pilgrimage: Shifting Patterns of Worldview of Srisailam in South India. Routledge. ISBN 9781317806318.
- "Wikimapia". Wikimapia.org.
- "Pushpagiri Temple Complex - Wikimapia". wikimapia.org. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Subramanyam, M. V. (3 August 2012). "Rope suspension bridge at Pushpagiri". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- A. Umamaheswara Shastry - A thesis on the inscriptions of Cuddapah district (కడప జిల్లా శాసనాలు)
- "Kadapa river map".
- "Ground Water Brochure, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). Central Ground Water Board. GOI.
- "Cuddapah District Administration". Cuddapah District Administration Website. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016.
- "Current weather in kadapa: Weekly forecast for kadapa, andhra pradesh". www.skymetweather.com. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Climate-Watch, October 2001" (PDF). www1.ncdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Weather in Kadapa, India | 14 day weather outlook of Kadapa". www.worldweatheronline.com. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "KADAPA Weather, Temperature, Best Season, Kadapa Weather Forecast, Climate". www.mustseeindia.com. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Climatological Information for Pushpagiri, Cuddapah", Indian Meteorological Department, India.
- Ray, Himanshu Prabha. "The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia". N. Fagin Books.
- "Srisailam". Srisailam.
- "Welcome to Mana Kadapa". Welcome to Mana Kadapa.
- "అన్వేషి: పుష్పగిరి".
- "Nandi Hills | Nandi Betta".
- The History of Andhra Country, 1000 A.D.-1500 A.D. by Yashoda Devi; ISBN 8121204380
- Ganapathi, Racharla (1 January 2000). Subordinate Rulers In Medieval Deccan. Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. ISBN 9788186050538. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- R, Ganapathi. Inscriptions of AndhraPradesh- Kadapa District, Part-I.
- The Asiatic journal and monthly register for British and foreign India, China and Australasia. Allen. 1840. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Pushpagiri,Religious Travel in Andhra Pradesh,Pushpagiri Temples,India". www.indiantravelportal.com. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "South Indian Inscriptions Volume_9 - Rashtrakutas Inscriptions @ whatisindia.com".
- A, Gurumurthy. "Temples of Cuddapah District".
- "Bilva – Lord Shiva's Tree". www.yogamag.net. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- A, Gurumurthy. "Temples of Cuddapah District": 69.
- Brackenbury,, C.F (1915). Cuddapah District Gazetteer, ( Madras). Imperial Government of India, Madras Province.
- Taylor, William (1862). A Catalogue Raisonnée of Oriental Manuscripts in the Library of the (late) College, Fort Saint George, Now in Charge of the Board of Examiners. Smith. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Raayalaseema : Pushpagiri temples, near Kadapa town". mana-raayalaseema.blogspot.in. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Dalal, Roshen (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books India. ISBN 9780143414216. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Banerji, Projesh (1985). Nataraja: The Dancing God. Cosmo Publications. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Archaeological Survey of India". asihyd.ap.nic.in. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "Temples of Andhra Pradesh (AP) - Lord Shiva temples districtwise listing of Andhrapradesh and Telangana". shaivam.org. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Reddy, B. Rama Chandra; Natarajan, R. "Social History through Inscriptions Imprecations of Cuddapah District". Indian Historical Review. 38 (1): 51–64. doi:10.1177/037698361103800103. ISSN 0376-9836.
- "srisaivamahapeetham". www.srisaivamahapeetham.org. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "The Concept of Rasa: With special reference of Abhinavagupta | Indian Institute of Advanced Study". iias.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "Pushpagiri, its desecrated temples and vandalised Nandis – #ReclaimTemples". reclaimtemples.com. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- Media related to Pushpagiri Temple Complex at Wikimedia Commons