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- 1 Philosophy
- 2 Foundation
- 3 Brahmsambandha
- 4 Basic concepts and terminology
- 5 Practices
- 6 Festivals
- 7 Seva
- 8 Haveli Sangeet(Kirtan)
- 9 Doctrine
- 10 Further reading
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
- It is based on the Vedant philosophy of "Ekmevadwitiyam Brahm" (the ultimate truth is one & only one Brahm) and "Sarvam Khalu Idam Brahm" (whatever is there, is Brahm).
- Ved, Brahma-sutras, Bhagwad Geeta and Shrimad Bhagawat are the four fundamental scriptures.
- The ultimate reality to which Ved & Brahmsutras refer as Brahm, Geeta refers as Parmatma and Shrimad Bhagawat refers as Bhagawan are all essentially one.
- This philosophy is called as "Sakar Brahmvad" or "Shuddhadwait Brahmvad", which is the fundamental doctrine of Mahaprabhu Shri Vallabhacharya.
- The path to be followed to attain the ultimate blissfulness based on this principle is called as Pushtimarg.
- The same Bhagawan is to be lovingly serviced in the form of Deity as Shri Krishna who is "Sachchidanand Purushottam Parambrahm".
- It (Pushtimarg) is spontaneous, selfless and motiveless love for Shri Krishna.
- It is based on pure love for Shri Krishna.
- It is expressed only through selfless service of Shri Krishna - "Seva".
- It is love after realising Shri Krishna's true nature.
- The knowledge gained is not a means of liberation.
- Liberation is considered secondary to the enjoyment of Shri Krishna's bliss.
- Its aim is Shri Krishna's happiness.
- No caste, creed, color, sex or age prevents one from attaining Shri Krishna's Grace.
- It does not know any boundaries, be it time, place, or anything else.
- It does not require a devotee to give up a householder's life. In fact, one can serve Him better by being a householder. This is different from other philosophies that require a life of contemplation as a monk.
- All worldly desires are diverted towards Shri Krishna; they are then not required to be suppressed.
- The world is not looked down upon but is treated as Shri Krishna's creation, and thus as real as Shri Krishna himself.
- Shri Krishna is the Supreme Deity; all the other deities reside in his form. Therefore, total faith is placed in Shri Krishna alone.
- In the state of liberation, the entity of the devotee merges into *Shri Krishna's blissful form. However, in Bhakti (especially Pushti bhakti), the devotee does not seek liberation: he enjoys Shri Krishna's bliss by participating in it as a separate divine entity.
Vallabhacharya is one of the seven main Acharyas of the Bhakti tradition of Hinduism. (The other six being Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhvacharya, Shri Nimbarkacharya and Shri Bhadreshdas Swami and Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.) He propagated the philosophy of Shuddhadvaita which forms the basis of Pushtimarg devotional practice. These acharyas have made significant contribution to the bhakti movement and led to the medieval rise in popularity of the Hindu Religion. The devotional movement is based on the idea that love of God should be seen as an end in itself, not as a means to something else.
Vallabhacharya was born into a Telugu Brahmin family in South India, now in Andhra Pradesh. His ancestors had a religious background and includes scholars like Yagnanarayan Bhatt and Ganapati Bhatt. They wrote several books on religion and devotion. Vallabhacharya was the second son of Lakshman Bhatt and Yallammagaru. Their ancestors had performed several Soma-yagnas and Shri Lakshman Bhatt completed 100 Somyagnas. Yagnanarayan was blessed by Lord Vishnu, that on completion of 100 Soma-yagnas, God himself would incarnate in his family.
Thus when 100 Soma-yagnas were complete, Lakshman Bhatt went to Kashi to accomplish his vow of feeding 125,000 Brahmins. He could not complete this task as there were political disturbances in Kashi. He took his pregnant wife Yallammagaru and on his way southwards he halted at a place called Champaranya. There, his wife gave birth to a still baby which they kept under a tree and proceeded ahead. On the same night Lakshman Bhatt heard a celestial voice ordering him to go back to the baby and pick it up as it was misunderstood to be a still born. On reaching the spot where they had kept the baby, they found the baby encircled by a divine fire as a protecting spirit.
Vallabh was a brilliant child. He finished studying Vedas and prominent scriptures at a very early age. At the age of 11 he started his all India pilgrimage. During this tour he came to Vijaynagar where he came to know about a sensational debate that was being conducted in the court of King Krishnadevraya. The debate was between the different Acharyas over the question whether the relationship between the world and God is dualistic or non-dualistic. Vallabh entered the court and with his unopposed arguments proved that God is pure and non-dualistic i.e. Shuddhadwait. His philosophy thenceforth came to be known as Shuddhadwait Brahmvaad. These philosophy is later incorporated in "Vallabh Digvijay"
During the second pilgrimage, Lord Krishna appeared in the form of Lord Shrinathji in front of him and ordered him to reestablish Pushti Marg and propagate the pushti kind of devotion among the chosen ones and bring them back to their original state in God's own domain. i.e. Vaikuntha or Golok-dham . But the question in Shri Vallabh's mind was that the divine souls in this world too are highly influenced by the materialistic world and their souls and body have lost the kind of purity that is needed for their reunion with the Supreme entity i.e. Lord Krishna.
Lord Shrinathji assured him that with "brahamasambandha", (relationship with God) whichever soul is admitted into the Pushti marg, all its impurities will refrain from obstructing the soul's relation with Himself and the soul will be eligible to pursue His bhakti. That was the night of Pavitra Ekadashi (Four days before the new moon day) of the auspicious month of Shravana. Lord Shrinathji taught him the Brahamasambandha mantra and asked him to bring back the divine souls back to him.
The formal initiation into Pushtimarg is called Brahmasambandha. The absolute and exclusive rights to grant "Brahmsambandh" in the path of grace, in order to transform an Ordinary jiva (soul) into a Pushti "Jeev" lie only with the descendants of Vallabhacharya, known as Goswami Balaks - Vallabhkul (The word "Goswami" literally means - the one who has control over all the senses), who Vallabh Vaishnavas respectfully and lovingly refer to as: "Goswami","Bawa" or "Jai Jai". They are the actual and direct descendants of Vallabhacharya Mahaprabhu. Goswamis are responsible for the "pushti"(literally means spiritual nourishment) of all the disciples initiated by them.
Brahmsabandha is a process, where after fasting for one full day(consuming fruits and milk only) one is given the Krishna "Gadhya Mantra" in front of a Deity "Swaroop" by a Vallabhkul Goswami after which tulsi leaves (Indian Basil) are offered to the lotus feet of the Lord. The Adhikaar(right) to perform daily "seva" comes only after one is initiated into Pushtimarg by means of formally granting Brahmsambandh by a Goswami Balak. Without brahmsambandh one does not hold the right to perform seva of a Pusht Swaroop (Deity) (the swaroop which showers grace just like it did on the gopis).
Basic concepts and terminology
- Pushti Marg Because the Lord is accessible only through His own grace. The Lord cannot be attained by a given formula - He is attainable only if He wants to be attained !
- Rudra Sampradaya Because Shri Vallabha's father was initiated in that Sampradaya as the knowledge in this line was first given to Rudra i.e. Lord Shiva.
- Shuddha-Advaita Pure Monism wherein entire universe is the manifestation of Brahman. This philosophy depends only on "Brahman" for explaining creation of the universe and it is not dependent upon concept of "Maya". Hence, it is "Shuddha". Brahman is true, the universe (being Brahman's own creation) is also true, soul (Jeev) is a part (Ansh) of the Brahman. Hence, it is "Adwait".
- Brahmavada Brahman is the source and cause of all that is in the Universe. Purest form of monism anywhere, in any religion. Uniquely, this is the only philosophy that states, categorically, that everything, absolutely everything, is perfect just the way it is. Everything is imbibed with the spirit of the Lord and as the Lord is eternally perfect, everything is perfect !
Krishna is the chief deity of the sect. Shri Yamunaji is worshiped as his fourth consort(chaturth Patrani) and is the goddess who ordered Shri Vallabhacharya to recite Shrimad Bhagwat (Shrimad Bhagwat Parayan) near her banks. It is for Shri Yamunaji, Shri Vallabhacharyaji composed Shri Yamunashtakam.
Several forms/icons of Shri Krishna are worshiped in the sect. Here are the main forms, their description and where they currently reside.
- Shri Nathji :- Govardhan nath (seven-year-old Shri Krishna), who is waiting for his beloved swamini at the door of his Nikunj - personal abode. (Nathadwara - Rajasthan)
- Navnit Priyaji :- Baby Krishna, with a butter ball(in semi-liquid form...not a full ball) in his right hand and a small loti a spherical vessel in his left hand which touches the ground. This swaroops Mukharvind (face) is Dark hued Megha-shyam while body is gaur Fair in color. (Nathadwara - Rajasthan)
- Mathura-Dheeshji :-Lord of Mathura - four armed image of the Lord...This swaroop has a round Pithika Stele. (Kota - Rajasthan)
- Vitthalnathji :- Lord, waiting with His hands on hips, for His beloved wife Rukmini. (Nathadwara - Rajasthan)
- Dwarika-Dheeshji :- Lord of Dwarika - four armed image of the Lord. This swaroop has a square Pithika Stele.(Kakaroli - Rajasthan)
- Gokul Nathji :- Lord of Gokul - four armed image of the Lord, lifting the mountain and playing his flute. He is accompanied by 2 Swaminis. (Gokul - UP)
- Gokul Chandramaji :- The "moon" of Gokul - dark wooden image of the Lord playing a flute. He has a Tribhangi posture i.e. bent from three sides - the neck, waist and legs. This swaroop is of the Maha-raas utsav during Sharadpurnima. (Kamvan - RJ)
- Madan Mohanji :- This swaroop is accompanied by Swamini. (Kamvan - RJ)
- Bal-Krishnaji :- Baby Krishna, with a butter ball in his right hand. (Surat - Gujarat)
- Natavarlalji -dancing krishna (Ahemadabad -Gujarat)
*Kalyanraiji -Krishna with 4 arms and having triangle pitika stele. (Vadodra-Gujarat)
*Mukundraiji- baby krishna crawling with butter.(Varanasi-UP)
- There are many other sashthapeeths and gruh-nidhis in Pushtimarg.
Pushtimarg Seva Prakar (devotional worship in Pushtimarg)
Seva is a key element of worship in Pushti Marg. All followers are expected to do seva to their personal icon of Krishna. In Pushti Marg, where the descendants of shrimad Vallabhcharyaji reside and perform Seva of their own idol of Shri krishna is called a "haveli" - literally a "mansion". Here the seva of thakurji(Shri Krishna) is performed with the bhaav of the Nandalaya. There is a daily routine of allowing the laity to have "darshan" (adore) the divine icon 8 times a day. The Vallabhkul adorn the icon in keeping with Pushti traditions and follow a colourful calendar of festivals.
Some of the important aspects of Pushtimarg Seva are:
- Raag (playing and hearing traditional Haveli music)
- Bhog (offering pure vegetarian saatvik food that does not contain any meat or such vegetables as onion, garlic, cabbage, carrots, and a few others)
- Vastra and Shringar (decorating the deity with beautiful clothes and adorning the deity with jewellery)
All of the above three are included in the daily seva (devotional service) which all followers of Pushtimarg offer to their Thakurji (personal Krishna deity), and all of them have been traditionally prescribed by Goswami Shri Vitthalnathji almost five hundred years ago. Shri Vitthalnathji is also called Gusainji (Vallabhacharya's second son). The raag, bhog, and vastra and shringar offerings vary daily according to the season, the date, and time of day, and this is the main reason why this path is so colourful and alive.
Seva is the most important way to attain Pushti in Pushtimarg and has been prescribed by Vallabhacharya as the fundamental tenet. All principles and tenets of Shuddhadvaita Vaishnavism stem out from here.
Baithak or Bethak, literally "seat", is the site considered sacred by the followers of the Pushtimarg for performing devotional rituals. These sites are spread across India and are chiefly concentrated in Braj region in Uttar Pradesh and in western state of Gujarat. Total 142 Baithaks are considered sacred; 84 of Vallabhacharya, 28 of his son Viththalanath Gusainji and 30 of his seven grandsons.
Pushti Marg is famous for its innumerable colourful festivals. Icons (mentioned above) are wonderfully dressed and bejeweled to suite the season and the mood of the festival. All festivals are accompanied by a wonderful vegetarian feast which is offered to the deity and later distributed to the laity. Most festivals mark
- an important event in the life of Shri Krishna
- celebrate the birth of one of Vishnu's main avatars (Ram Navami, Nrushi Jayanti, Janmashtami (Krishna), Vaman Dwadashi)
- festivals marking the change of seasons
- auspicious occasion of installing an icon at a haveli (past or present)
- birthdays of sect's leaders and their descendants
Seva is performed to treat the lord as your own child. One who performs seva must have a Brahma Sabandh and wear a Tulsi Kanthi. To perform complete sea, one must wake up prior to sunrise and bathe. After bathing, men must wear a dhoti bandi and women must wear a sari. A tilak or chandlo should be applied to the appropriate spaces. All preparations for Mangla Darshan and Mangal Bhog should be made before waking the Deity. Thakorji should be woken gently with claps or with the use of Shankhnath. Bhog is then offered and aarti is performed. Mangla kieran should be sung while Bhog is offered.
For Shringar Darshan, Thakorji is bathed and dressed in elegant clothing. Kirtan is sang through the duration of this Darshan.
During Gwal, toys should be offered to Thakorji, and the Sevak should play with the lord.
Preparations for Rajbhog should be made after Gwal Darshan closes. A lunch feast is prepared and offered. Kirtan is sang during Bhog. Thaal Aarti is performed.
Uthapan is after Thakorji's nap, so it is a simple Darshan where Surdas's Kirtan should be sang.
Bhog is a Darshan consisting of just a small meal for Thakorji.
Aarti is a Darshan where a maha aarti is performed for the lords well being.
The final Darshan of the day is preparation for Thakorji to sleep. In Shayan, steady kirtans are played to lower the mood in the mandir.
Kirtans are devotional hymns written by the asht sakhas for and about Shrinathji. The instruments played during Kirtan include zanz, manjira, dholak, pakhavaj/mrudang, daff, tampura, veena, harmonium, tabla, etc.
Major doctrine consist of works of Vallabhacharya.
Commentaries and verses (c. 1479–1531)
He wrote elaborate commentaries on Sanskrit scriptures, the Brahma-Sutras (Anubhasya), and Shreemad Bhagwatam (Shree Subodhini ji, Tattvarth Dip Nibandh).
Also, in order to help devotees on this path of devotion, he wrote 16 pieces in verse which we know as the Shodasha Granthas. These came about as answers to devotees. The verses define the practical theology of Pushtimarga.
The Shodash Granthas(doctrines) serve as a lighthouse for devotees. They speak about increasing love for Shri Krishna through Seva (service) and Smarana (remembering). These doctrines are Mahaprabhu's way of encouraging and inspiring devotees on this path of grace. The central message of the Shodasha Granthas is, total surrender to the Lord. A Goswami can initiate an eager soul to this path of Shri Krishna's loving devotion and service. The verses explain the types of devotees, the way to surrender and the reward for Seva, as well as other practical instructions. The devotee is nurtured by the Lord's grace.
- Shree Yamunastakam: An ode to Shree Yamuna Maharani
- Baala Bodhah: A guide for beginners on the path of devotion
- Siddhant-Muktavali: A string of pearls consisting of the principles/fundamentals of Pushtimarg
- Pusti-Pravaha-Maryadabhedah: The different characteristics of the different types of souls (Receptivity of the Lord’s grace)
- Siddhant-Rahasya: The Secret behind the Principles
- Navratna : Nine jewels of instructions (Priceless instructions for a devotee)
- Antah-Karan-Prabodhah: Consoling one's Heart (Request to one’s own heart)
- Vivek-Dhairy-Aashray: Of discretion, patience and surrender
- Shree Krushna Aashray: Taking Shree Krushna’s shelter
- Chatuhshloki: A Four Verses (Verser) illustrating the four principles of life; Dharma, Arth, Kaam, Moksh
- Bhakti-Vardhini: Increase of devotion
- Jal-Bhed: 21 types of Orators (Vakta).
- Pancha-Padyaani: 3 types of Listeners (Shrota)
- Sannyasa-Nirnayah: Decision on taking Renunciation
- Nirodh-Lakshanam: Identifying characteristics of detachment
- Seva-Phalam: The reward of performing seva (worship) of the Lord
Apart from Shodash Granths Shri Vallabhacharya wrote following Granths " Books :
- Anubhashya on 5 Brhamasutra(Incomplete)
- Bhashya on 6 Jaimini Sutra (Incomplete)
- Bhashya on Gayatri
- 'Subodhini' a commentary on Bhagavat Purana (Incomplete)
- 'Sukshmatika' a commentary on Bhagavat Purana (Incomplete)
- Bhagavat Dashama-skandha Anukramanika
- TATVARTHADIPNIBANDHA 1.Shastrartha-prakaranam 2.Sarvanirnaya-prakaranam 3.Bhagavatartha-prakaranam
- STOTRA: -Madhurashtakam -Parivrdhashtakam, -Shri Krishnashtakam, -SriGirirajadharyashtam, -Premamrtam -Shri Gopijanavallabhashtakam etc. -Shri Purushottama-nama-sahasrm (One thousand names of Shri Krishna from Bhagavat Purana) -Trividhalila-namavali
- E. Allen Richardson. Seeing Krishna in America: The Hindu Bhakti Tradition of Vallabhacharya in India and Its Movement to the West. Jefferson: McFarland, 2014. 240 pp. ISBN 978-0-7864-5973-5.
- The Path of Grace: Social Organization and Temple Worship in a Vaishnava Sect. By Peter Bennett. Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 1993. xi, 230 pp.
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- Pustimarg Sahitya by Mota Mandir Mumbai
- Official website of the main seat of Pushtimarg at Nathdwara
- Official website of the 1st seat of Pushtimarg
- Official website of the 2nd seat of Pushtimarg
- Official website of the 3rd seat of pushtimarg
- Official Pushtimarg Blog of Vallabhkul Acharya - Goswami Anandbava
- A collection of pushtimargiya literature and Art
- E-Repository of all Pushti Marg scriptures
- Pushtimarg dedicated to Shri Vallabh
- Pushtimarg and Modern Science
- Shrinathji Nathdwara
- Pushtimarg.info site
- Vaishnav Parivar
- Pushti Dwitiya Peeth
- Pushtikul Satsang Mandal
- Philosophical aspects of Pushti Marg
- Shri Vallabh Anugrah