The word Pax̌tō written in the Pashto alphabet
|Native to||Afghanistan and Pakistan|
|40–60 million (2007–2009)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar
Pashto (//, rarely //,[Note 1] Pashto: پښتو Pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː]), sometimes spelled Pushtu or Pushto,[Note 2] is the South-Central Asian language of the Pashtuns. It is known in Persian literature as Afghāni (افغانی) and in Urdu and Hindi literature as Paṭhānī. Speakers of the language are called Pashtuns or Pukhtuns and sometimes Afghans or Pathans. It is an Eastern Iranian language, belonging to the Indo-European family. Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan, mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country. Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are almost 100% Pashto-speaking, while it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern districts of Balochistan. Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide.
Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch, but Ethnologue lists it as Southeastern Iranian. Pashto has two main dialect groups, “soft” and “hard”, the latter known as Pakhto.
As a national language of Afghanistan, Pashto is primarily spoken in the east, south, and southwest, but also in some northern and western parts of the country. The exact numbers of speakers are unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 45–60% of the total population of Afghanistan.
In Pakistan Pashto is spoken as a first language by about 15.42% of Pakistan's 170 million people. It is the main language of the Pashtun-majority regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan. It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province and in Islamabad, as well as by Pashtuns who are found living in different cities throughout the country. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh.
Other communities of Pashto speakers are found in Tajikistan, and further in the Pashtun diaspora. There are also communities of Pashtun descent in the southwestern part of Jammu and Kashmir.
In addition, sizable Pashto-speaking communities also exist in the Middle East, especially in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, northeastern Iran (primarily in South Khorasan Province to the east of Qaen, near the Afghan border) as well as in the United States, United Kingdom, Thailand, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Qatar, Australia, Japan, Russia, New Zealand, etc.
Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, along with Dari. Since the early 18th century, all the kings of Afghanistan were ethnic Pashtuns except for Habibullah Kalakani. Persian as the literary language of the royal court was more widely used in government institutions while Pashto was spoken by the Pashtun tribes as their native tongue. King Amanullah Khan began promoting Pashto during his reign as a marker of ethnic identity and a symbol of "official nationalism" leading Afghanistan to independence after the defeat of the British colonial power in the Third Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1930s, a movement began to take hold to promote Pashto as a language of government, administration and art with the establishment of a Pashto Society Pashto Anjuman in 1931 and the inauguration of the Kabul University in 1932 as well as the formation of the Pashto Academy Pashto Tolana in 1937. Although officially strengthening the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a “sophisticated language and a symbol of cultured upbringing”. King Zahir Shah thus followed suit after his father Nadir Khan had decreed in 1933, that both Persian and Pashto were to be studied and utilized by officials. In 1936, Pashto was formally granted the status of an official language with full rights to usage in all aspects of government and education by a royal decree under Zahir Shah despite the fact that the ethnically Pashtun royal family and bureaucrats mostly spoke Persian. Thus Pashto became a national language, a symbol for Afghan nationalism.
The status of official language was reaffirmed in 1964 by the constitutional assembly when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari. The lyrics of the national anthem of Afghanistan are in Pashto.
In Pakistan, Urdu and English are the two official languages. Pashto has no official status at the federal level. On a provincial level, Pashto is the regional language of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan. The primary medium of education in government schools in Pakistan is Urdu but the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have placed more emphasis on English as the medium of instruction as of April 2014. English medium private schools in Pashto-speaking areas, however, generally do not use Pashto. The imposition of Urdu as the primary medium of education in public schools has caused a systematic degradation and decline of many of Pakistan's native languages including Pashto. This has caused growing resentment amongst Pashtuns and they also complain that Pashto is often neglected officially.
||This section appears to contradict the article Dari language. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
According to 19th-century linguist James Darmesteter and modern linguist Michael M. T. Henderson, Pashto is “descended from Avestan”, but Georg Morgenstierne says they are merely closely related. The Rabatak inscription of Emperor Kanishka written in Bactrian and Greek contains words are borrowed from Pashto language due to their proximity to the modern Pashto language.
Strabo, who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE, explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River were part of Ariana and to their east was India. Since the 3rd century CE and onward, they are mostly referred to by the name Afghan (Abgan) and their language as "Afghani".
Scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest modern Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri of Ghor in the eighth century, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana. However, this is disputed by several modern experts such as David Neil MacKenzie and Lucia Serena Loi due to lack of evidence. Pata Khazana is a Pashto manuscript claimed to be first compiled during the Hotaki dynasty (1709–1738) in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Lucia Serena Loi considers Pata Khazana a late 19th century forgery. 
From the 16th century, Pashto poetry become very popular among the Pashtuns. Some of those who wrote poetry in Pashto are Pir Roshan, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Tokhi, and Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan or the Durrani Empire.
Pashto is a subject–object–verb (SOV) language with split ergativity. Adjectives come before nouns. Nouns and adjectives are inflected for two genders (masc./fem.), two numbers (sing./plur.), and four cases (direct, oblique I, oblique II and vocative). There is also an inflection for the subjunctive mood. The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect and past perfect. The sentence construction of Pashto has similarities with some other Indo-Iranian languages such as Prakrit and Bactrian. The possessor precedes the possessed in the genitive construction. The verb generally agrees with the subject in both transitive and intransitive sentences. An exception occurs when a completed action is reported in any of the past tenses (simple past, past progressive, present perfect or past perfect). In such cases, the verb agrees with the subject if it is intransitive, but if it is transitive, it agrees with the object, therefore Pashto shows a partly ergative behavior. Like Kurdish, but unlike most other Indo-Iranian languages, Pashto uses all three types of adpositions – prepositions, postpositions and circumpositions.
Phonemes that have been borrowed, thus non-native to Pashto, are colour-coded. The phonemes /q, f/ tend to be replaced by [k], [p].
The retroflex fricatives /ʂ, ʐ/ and palatal fricatives /ç, ʝ/ represent dialectally different pronunciations of the same sound, not separate phonemes. In particular, the retroflex fricatives, which represent the original pronunciation of these sounds, are preserved in the southern/southwestern dialects (especially the prestige dialect of Kandahar), while they are pronounced as palatal fricatives in the west-central dialects. Other dialects merge the original retroflexes with other existing sounds: The southeastern dialects merge them with the postalveolar fricatives /ʃ, ʒ/, while the northern/northeastern dialects merge them with the velar phonemes in an asymmetric pattern, pronouncing them as /x, ɡ/ (not /ɣ/). Furthermore, according to Henderson (1983), the west-central voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/ actually occurs only in the Wardak Province, and is merged into /ɡ/ elsewhere in the region.
In Pashto, most of the native elements of the lexicon are related to other Eastern Iranian languages. However, a remarkably large number of words are unique to Pashto. Post-7th century borrowings came primarily from the Persian and Hindustani languages, with some Arabic words being borrowed through those two languages, but sometimes directly. Modern speech borrows words from English, French and German.
Here is an exemplary list of Pure Pashto and borrowings:
Pashto employs the Pashto alphabet, a modified form of the Perso-Arabic alphabet. It has extra letters for Pashto-specific sounds. Since the 17th century, Pashto has been primarily written in the Naskh script, rather than the Nasta'liq script used for Urdu alphabet and, to some degree, the Persian alphabet.
The Pashto alphabet consists of 45 letters and 4 diacritic marks. The following table gives the letters' isolated forms, along with the Latin equivalents and typical IPA values:
ǵ (or ẓ̌)
/ʐ, ʝ, ɡ/
x̌ (or ṣ̌)
/ʂ, ç, x/
w, ū, o
/w, u, o/
Pashto dialects are divided into two varieties, the “soft” southern variety Paṣ̌tō, and the “hard” northern variety Pax̌tō (Pakhtu). Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. The southern dialect of Wanetsi is the most distinctive Pashto dialect.
1. Southern variety
- Durrani dialect (or Southern dialect)
- Kakar dialect (or Southeastern dialect)
- Shirani dialect
- Marwat-Bettani dialect
- Wanetsi dialect
- Southern Karlani group
- Khattak dialect
- Banuchi dialect
- Dawarwola dialect
- Masidwola dialect
- Wazirwola dialect
2. Northern variety
- Central Ghilji dialect (or Northwestern dialect)
- Northern dialect (or Eastern dialect)
- Yusufzai dialect (or Northeastern dialect)
- Northern Karlani group
- Taniwola dialect
- Khosti dialect
- Zadran dialect
- Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi-Mangal dialect
- Afridi dialect
- Khogyani dialect
- Wardak dialect
Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto poets. Both of these poets belonged to the modern day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan). From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakerr with the title of Maʿrifat al-Afghānī ("The Knowledge of Afghani [Pashto]"). After that, the first grammar book of Pashto verbs was written in 1805 in India under the title of Riyāż al-Maḥabbah ("Training in Affection") through the patronage of Nawab Mohabat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, chief of the Barech. Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto words entitled ʿAjāyib al-Lughāt ("Wonders of Languages").
An excerpt from the Kalām of Rahman Baba:
زۀ رحمان پۀ خپله ګرم يم چې مين يمه
چې دا نور ټوپن مې بولي ګرم په څۀ
IPA: Zə Ra.mɑn pə xpəl.a gram jam t͡ʃe ma.jən jam.a
t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈo.pan me bo.li gram pə t͡sə
Transliteration: Zə Rahmān pə xpəla gram yam če mayən yama'
Če dā nor ṭopan me boli gram pə tsə
Translation: 'I Rahman, myself am guilty that I am a lover,
On what does this other universe call me guilty.'
اوبه په ډانګ نه بېليږي
'Water does not separate with a pole [hitting it]'
- Indo-European languages
- Eastern Iranian languages
- Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan
- Languages of Pakistan
- The only American pronunciation listed by Oxford Online Dictionaries, //, is so rare that it is not even mentioned by the American Heritage and Merriam-Webster dictionaries.
- Sometimes spelled "Pushtu" or "Pushto", and then either pronounced the same or differently. The spelling "Pakhto" is so rare that it is not even mentioned by any major English dictionaries or even recognized by major English-Pashto dictionaries such as Thepashto.com, and it is specifically listed by Ethnologue.com only as an alternative name for Northern Pashto, not Southern or Central Pashto.
- Claus, Peter J.; Diamond, Sarah; Ann Mills, Margaret (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Taylor & Francis. p. 447. ISBN 9780415939195.
- Penzl, Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009). A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Ishi Press International. p. 210. ISBN 0-923891-72-2. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million...
- Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007 (39 million)
- Pashto (2005). Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.
- Constitution of Afghanistan – Chapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
- Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976). Current Trends in Linguistics: Index. Walter de Gruyter. p. 705.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Pashto". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Pashto (less commonly Pushtu)". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "Pashto (also Pushtu)". American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "Pashto (also Pushtu)". Oxford Online Dictionaries, UK English. Oxford University Press.
- "Pashto (also Pushto or Pushtu)". Oxford Online Dictionaries, US English. Oxford University Press.
- "Pashto (also Pushtu)". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- John Leyden, Esq. M.D.; William Erskine, Esq., eds. (1921). "Events Of The Year 910 (1525)". Memoirs of Babur. Packard Humanities Institute. p. 5. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
To the south is Afghanistān. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Moghuli, Hindi, Afghani, Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni.
- India. Office of the Registrar General (1961). Census of India, 1961: Gujarat. Manager of Publications. pp. 142, 166, 177.
- Henderson, Michael. "The Phonology of Pashto" (PDF). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- Henderson, Michael (1983). "Four Varieties of Pashto". Journal of the American Oriental Society (103.595-8).
- Darmesteter, James (1890). Chants populaires des Afghans. Paris.
- "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.
- Banting, Erinn (2003). Afghanistan: The land. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 0-7787-9335-4. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
- Population by Mother Tongue, Population Census – Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan
- Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). "Pashto, Northern". SIL International. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries.
- "Pashto". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
The exact number of Pashto speakers is not known for sure, but most estimates range from 45 million to 55 million.
- Thomson, Gale (2007). Countries of the World & Their Leaders Yearbook 08. 2. European Union: Indo-European Association. p. 84. ISBN 0-7876-8108-3. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
- "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". G. Morgenstierne. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
Paṧtō undoubtedly belongs to the Northeastern Iranic branch.
- Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto."
- Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). "Pashto Family Tree". SIL International. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
- "Pashto language". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
- "Languages: Afghanistan". Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- Brown, Keith; Sarah Ogilvie (2009). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. Elsevie. p. 845. ISBN 0-08-087774-5. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
Pashto, which is mainly spoken south of the mountain range of the Hindu Kush, is reportedly the mother tongue of 60% of the Afghan population.
- "Pashto". UCLA International Institute: Center for World Languages. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
A. Official languages. Paṧtō (1) is the native tongue of 50 to 55 percent of Afghans...
- "Government of Pakistan: Population by Mother Tongue" (PDF). statpak.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy (2009-07-17). "Karachi's Invisible Enemy". PBS. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "In a city of ethnic friction, more tinder". The National. 2009-08-24. Archived from the original on 2010-01-16. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "Columnists | The Pakhtun in Karachi". Time. 28 August 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-08.
- , thefridaytimes
- "Pashto, Southern". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 14th edition. 2000. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- Walter R Lawrence, Imperial Gazetteer of India. Provincial Series, pg 36–37, Link
- "Study of the Pathan Communities in four States of India". Khyber.org. Archived from the original on 2008-05-14. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
- "Phonemic Inventory of Pashto" (PDF). CRULP. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
- "Languages of United Arab Emirates". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- "Languages of Iran". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- "Languages of United Kingdom". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- Modarresi, Yahya: “Iran, Afghanistan and Tadjikistan”. 1911 – 1916. In: Sociolinguistics, Vol. 3, Part. 3. Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, Peter Trudgill (eds.). Berlin, De Gryuter: 2006. p. 1915. ISBN 3-11-018418-4 
- Tariq Rahman. Pashto Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan. Contemporary South Asia, July 1995, Vol 4, Issue 2, p151-20.
- Lorenz, Manfred. Die Herausbildung moderner iranischer Literatursprachen. In: Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung, Vol. 36. Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR. Akademie Verlag, Berlin: 1983. P. 184ff.
- Other sources note 1933, i.e. Johannes Christian Meyer-Ingwersen. Untersuchungen zum Satzbau des Paschto. 1966. Ph.D. Thesis, Hamburg 1966.
- Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan. Burlington, Ashgate: 2005. p. 63.
- István Fodor, Claude Hagège. Reform of Languages. Buske, 1983. P. 105ff.
- Campbell, George L.: Concise compendium of the world's languages. London: Routledge 1999.
- Dupree, Louis: Language and Politics in Afghanistan. In: Contributions to Asian Studies. Vol. 11/1978. p. 131 – 141. E. J. Brill, Leiden 1978. p. 131.
- Spooner, Bryan: “Are we teaching Persian?”. In: Persian studies in North America: studies in honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Mehdi Marashi (ed.). Bethesda, Iranbooks: 1994. p. 1983.
- Septfonds, D. 2006. Pashto. In: Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. 845 – 848. Keith Brown / Sarah Ogilvie (eds.). Elsevier, Oxford: 2009.
- Rahman, Tariq (2004), Craig Baxter, ed., Education in Pakistan a Survey, Pakistan on the Brink: Politics, Economics and Society, Lexington Books, p. 172, ISBN 978-0195978056
- Rahim, Bushra (28 September 2014). "Will change in medium of instruction improve education in KP?". dawn.com. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Hywel Coleman (2010). TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PAKISTAN: THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION (Report). British Council, Pakistan. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Daniel Hallberg (1992). Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan (PDF). 4. Quaid-i-Azam University & Summer Institute of Linguistics. p. 36 to 37. ISBN 969-8023-14-3.
- "د کرښې پرغاړه (په پاکستان کې د مورنیو ژبو حیثیت)". mashaalradio.org. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Morgenstierne, Georg (1983). "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
it seems that the Old Iranic ancestor dialect of Paṧtō must have been close to that of the Gathas.
- Habib, Abdul (1967). The Two Thousand Years Old Language of Afghanistan or The Mother of Dari Language (An Analysis of the Baghlan Inscription) (PDF). Historical Society of Afghanistan. p. 6.
- "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
- "History of Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-11-22.
- Noelle-Karimi, Christine; Conrad J. Schetter; Reinhard Schlagintweit (2002). Afghanistan – a country without a state?. University of Michigan, United States: IKO. p. 18. ISBN 3-88939-628-3. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
The earliest mention of the name 'Afghan' (Abgan) is to be found in a Sasanid inscription from the third century AD, and it appears in India in the form of 'Avagana'...
- David Neil MacKenzie: David N. Mackenzie: The Development of the Pashto Script. In: Shirin Akiner (Editor): Languages and Scripts of Central Asia. School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ. of London, London 1997, ISBN 978-0-7286-0272-4.p. 142
- Lucia Serena Loi: Il tesoro nascosto degli Afghani. Il Cavaliere azzurro, Bologna 1987, p. 33
- "Pata Khazana" (pdf). Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- Lucia Serena Loi: Il tesoro nascosto degli Afghani. Il Cavaliere azzurro, Bologna 1987, p. 33
- Ehsan M Entezar (2008). Afghanistan 101: Understanding Afghan Culture. Xlibris Corporation. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-4257-9302-9.
- Carol Benson; Kimmo Kosonen (13 June 2013). Language Issues in Comparative Education: Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Non-Dominant Languages and Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-94-6209-218-1.
- Muhammad Gul Khan Momand, Hewād Afghanistan
- Emeneau, M. B. (1962) “Bilingualism and Structural Borrowing” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106(5): pp. 430–442, p. 441
- Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara (1996). A Reference Grammar of Pashto (PDF). Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 15.
- D.N. MacKenzie, 1990, “Pashto”, in Bernard Comrie, ed, The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa, p. 103
- Herbert Penzl, 1965, A Reader of Pashto, p 7
- Vladimir Kushev (1997). "Areal Lexical Contacts of the Afghan (Pashto) Language (Based on the Texts of the XVI-XVIII Centuries)". Iran and the Caucasus. Brill. 1: 159–166. JSTOR 4030748. doi:10.1163/157338497x00085.
- "Census of India, 1931, Volume 17, Part 2". Times of India. 1937. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
At the same time Pashto has borrowed largely from Persian and Hindustani, and through those languages from Arabic.
- Herbert Penzl (January–March 1961). "Western Loanwords in Modern Pashto". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 81 (1): 43–52. doi:10.2307/594900.
- Raverty, Henry George Rahman (1867). A dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or language of the Afghans (2 ed.). London: Williams and Norgate.
- John Hladczuk (1992). International Handbook of Reading Education. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 148. ISBN 9780313262531.
- Ullah, Noor (2011). Pashto Grammar. AuthorHouse. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4567-8007-4.
- Zellem, Edward (2014). Mataluna: 151 Afghan Pashto Proverbs. Cultures Direct Press. ISBN 978-0692215180.
- Bartlotti, Leonard and Raj Wali Shah Khattak, eds. 2006. Rohi Mataluna: Pashto Proverbs, (revised and expanded edition). First edition by Mohammad Nawaz Tair and Thomas C. Edwards, eds. Peshawar, Pakistan: Interlit and Pashto Academy, Peshawar University.
- Schmidt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6.
- Gusain, Lakhan (2008?) A Grammar of Pashto. Ann Arbor, MI: Northside Publishers.
- Georg Morgenstierne (1926) Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan. Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning, Serie C I-2. Oslo. ISBN 0-923891-09-9
- Daniel G. Hallberg (1992) Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 176 pp. ISBN 969-8023-14-3.
- Herbert Penzl A Grammar of Pashto: A Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan, ISBN 0-923891-72-2
- Herbert Penzl A Reader of Pashto, ISBN 0-923891-71-4
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pashto language.|
|For a list of words relating to Pashto, see the Pashto category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Pashto edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pashto phrasebook.|
- Pashto Dictionary with Phonetic Keyboard & Auto-Suggestion
- Pashto Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan
- Indo-Aryan identity of Pashto
- Henry George Raverty. A Dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or Language of the Afghans. Second edition, with considerable additions. London: Williams and Norgate, 1867.
- D. N. MacKenzie, “A Standard Pashto”, Khyber.org
- Freeware Online Pashto Dictionaries
- A Pashto Word List
- Origins of Pashto
- Resources for the Study of the Pashto Language