Putonghua Proficiency Test
|Putonghua Proficiency Test|
The Putonghua Proficiency Test or Putonghua Shuiping Ceshi (PSC) is an official test of spoken fluency in Standard Chinese intended for native speakers of Chinese language. The test was developed in October 1994 by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, the Institute of Applied Linguistics at Beijing Language and Culture University and the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television. Specified standards of achievement in the test are required for many jobs in broadcasting, education and government.
- Reading 100 monosyllabic words to test pronunciation. (10%)
- Reading 100 polysyllabic words to test pronunciation. (20%)
- Reading out the correct form from several choices, to test vocabulary and syntax. (10%)
- Reading a 400-character passage to test fluency. (30%)
- Speaking for three minutes on a topic chosen from two supplied by the examiners. (30%)
- Level 1-A (97% correct) is required for presenters in national and provincial radio and television.
- Level 1-B (92% correct) is required for Chinese-language teachers in northern China.
- Level 2-A (87% correct) is required for Chinese-language teachers in southern China.
- Level 2-B (80% correct) is required for Chinese teachers teaching other languages in China.
- Level 3-A (70% correct)
- Level 3-B (60% correct) is required for civil service jobs.
By 2010, the test had been taken more than 35 million times. As it requires strict adherence to the phonology of Standard Chinese, including such features as retroflex initials, erhua and weak syllables, the test gives an advantage to native speakers of the Beijing dialect and closely related varieties over speakers of varieties lacking these features.
There are sixty literary selections used in the fourth section of the test, including:
- the work of writer Sun Junqing (孙俊卿) of Haiyang, Shandong, who in 1962 wrote about the hope for a better year of farming in 1963 after the Great Chinese Famine.:342-343
- "Kite Capriccio" (风筝畅想曲) by Li Hengrui (李恒瑞), describing life as a child in 1950's Fengtai County, Anhui.:350-351
- "Father's Love" (父亲的爱), a Chinese translation of one of the works of American Erma Bombeck about her stepfather Albert Harris.:352-353
- a story about Hu Shi debating the merits of Written vernacular Chinese over Classical Chinese (selection 15).:362-363
- a translation of the legend of the construction of Windsor Guildhall by Sir Christopher Wren.:370-371
- an inspirational essay about the conditions in New York City schools written by Liu Yong.:378-379
- a reflection written by Yan Wenjing on the hope for friendly Sino-Japanese relations describing the author's discovery of Lotus flowers imported from China which had been planted around the portrait of Jianzhen in the Tōshōdai-ji temple in Nara, Nara, Japan.:380-381
- a reflection on the beauty of Meiyu Pond (梅雨潭) and waterfall in the Middle Yandang Mountains in Xianyan Subdistrict, Ouhai District, Wenzhou of southeastern Zhejiang province in eastern China by Zhu Ziqing after his visits to the area in 1923.:382-383
- a story from the youth of Xu Dishan in which, after the family has grown peanuts for several months, his father Xu Nanying uses an analogy to the peanut to teach a moral lesson to his children.:384-385
- a translation (by Ba Jin) of a story about a young sparrow which had fallen from its nest, written by Ivan Turgenev.:386-387
- a description of the Mogao Caves in Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Gansu:390-391
- a reminiscence on the value of keeping in close contact with friends by Liu Hsia:396-397
- a story about the wisdom displayed by Tao Xingzhi in his handling of a misbehaving elementary school student.:410-411
- a story from the childhood of famous footballer Pelé growing up in the slums of Rio de Janeiro.:414-415
- a reminiscence on the life of Mina Owczyńska, mother of author Romain Gary:416-417
- Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi, for non-native speakers, has a spoken component in addition to written and listening components.
- "Content and format of the Test". Hong Kong Putonghua Education and Assessment Centre, University of Hong Kong. 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Liang, Sihua (2014). Language Attitudes and Identities in Multilingual China: A Linguistic Ethnography. Springer International. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-3-319-12618-0.
- Ho, Kwok-cheung (2012). Comparison of tasks employed in Mandarin Chinese proficiency tests for natives conducted in China and that in Hong Kong: One Country Two Systems (PDF). International Conference on Language Proficiency Testing in the Less Commonly Taught Languages. Bangkok.
- Zhang, Qing (2013). "Language Policy and Ideology: Greater China". In Bayley, Robert; Cameron, Richard; Lucas, Ceil. The Oxford Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press. pp. 563–586. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199744084.013.0028. ISBN 978-0-199-34407-9.
- "China Language Law" (PDF). LILAMA Network. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- 普通话水平测试实施纲要. Putonghua Shuiping Ceshi Shishi Gangyao [Putonghua Proficiency Test Guide]. 北京. Beijing: 商务印书馆. The Commercial Press. 2004. p. 333-453. ISBN 7-100-03996-7.
- "海阳市筹建峻青文学艺术馆 今年10月有望开馆 (translation: Haiyang city preparing to build Junqing Literature & Art Museum, to be opened to the public this October)" (in Chinese). Fenghuang Shandong. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
"峻青，原名孙俊卿，1922年出生于烟台海阳市郭城镇西楼子村，当代著名作家、画家。" (translation: Junqing, originally named Sun Junqing, was born in Xilouzi Village, Guocheng Town, Haiyang city, Yantai in 1922, and is a well-known modern author and painter)
- 朱自清散文, 朱自清, 浙江文艺出版社, 2014, 9787533935993
- "电视文学艺术片《绿》在仙岩梅雨潭景区开机" [TV Literary Art Documentary 'Green' starts filming in Xianyan's Meiyutan Scenic Area]. “中国·瓯海”政府门户网站 (in Simplified Chinese). 瓯海区人民政府 瓯海区大数据管理中心. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2018.