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Coordinates: 02°55′48″N 101°41′24″E / 2.93000°N 101.69000°E / 2.93000; 101.69000
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Prang Besar
Federal Territory of Putrajaya
Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawiڤوتراجاي
 • Chinese布城 (Simplified)
布城 (Traditional)
Bùchéng (Hanyu Pinyin)
 • Tamilபுத்ராஜெயா
Putrājāyā (Transliteration)
From top, left to right:
Perdana Putra housing the office of Malaysia's Prime Minister, the Putra Mosque, the Putrajaya Corporation Complex, the Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin Mosque, the PICC, Seri Wawasan Bridge, High-rise ministry complexes, and Aerial view of Putrajaya
Official seal of Putrajaya
"Bandar raya Taman, Bandar raya Bestari"
("Garden City, Intelligent City")
   Putrajaya in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 02°55′48″N 101°41′24″E / 2.93000°N 101.69000°E / 2.93000; 101.69000
Country Malaysia
First settledc. 1921
Planned city established19 October 1995
Transferred from Selangor to federal jurisdiction1 February 2001
 • TypeDirect federal administration
 • Administered byPutrajaya Corporation
 • PresidentDato' Fadlun bin Mak Ujud
 • Total49 km2 (19 sq mi)
 (Q4 2023)[2]
 • Total119,500
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2022)[3]0.886 (very high) (2nd)
Time zoneUTC+8 (MST)
Calling code+603-88
ISO 3166 codeMY-16
Mean solar timeUTC+06:46:40
Vehicle registrationF and Putrajaya
Rapid Transit

Putrajaya (Malay pronunciation: [putraˈdʒaja, putrəˈdʒajə]), officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya (Malay: Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya; Jawi: ولايه ڤرسکوتوان ڤوتراجاي‎), is the administrative centre of Malaysia.[4] The seat of the federal government of Malaysia was moved in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya because of overcrowding and congestion,[5] whilst the seat of the judiciary of Malaysia was later moved to Putrajaya in 2003.[6] Kuala Lumpur remains as Malaysia's national capital city per the constitution and is still the seat of the head of state (Yang di-Pertuan Agong) and the national legislature (Parliament of Malaysia), as well as being the country's commercial and financial centre.

The establishment of Putrajaya was the idea of Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. First thought of in the 1990s, Putrajaya was envisioned to be “a laboratory for a new form of electronic government" that would emphasize new adoption of, investment in internet, media, and digital communications.[7] The development of Putrajaya began in August 1995 and was completed at an estimated cost of US$8.1 billion.[8] On 1 February 2001, Putrajaya became Malaysia's third federal territory, after Kuala Lumpur in 1974 and Labuan in 1984.[8] Putrajaya is also a part of MSC Malaysia, a special economic zone that covers Klang Valley.



Putrajaya was named after the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj. The name is derived from the Sanskrit language, which was then adopted into Malay; "putra" (पुत्र) means son and "jaya" (जया) means "success" or "victory"; hence Putrajaya means victorious men or people.[9] The name was decided in late 1994.[10]

History and design

Putrajaya precincts

Prang Besar (Jawi: ڤراڠ بسر‎, alternately Perang Besar (Malay for "Great War"), was founded in 1921 on land that was jungle, as a rubber plantation by British veterans of World War I, hence its name.[11] Its land area of 800 acres (3.2 km2) expanded to 8,000 acres (32 km2), and was merged with surrounding estates, including Estet Raja Alang, Estet Galloway and Estet Bukit Prang.

Until 1975, what is today Putrajaya, along with adjacent Cyberjaya, was under the administration of Hulu Langat District.

The vision of a new Federal Government Administrative Centre to replace Kuala Lumpur as the administrative capital emerged in the late 1980s, during the tenure of Malaysia's fourth prime minister, Mahathir bin Mohamad. A new city adjacent to Kuala Lumpur was envisioned, where the government would systematically locate its government offices within an efficient administrative hub; as opposed having government offices scattered across the congested Kuala Lumpur.[8] The new city was proposed to be located between Kuala Lumpur and the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). Two areas were proposed: Prang Besar and Janda Baik of Pahang.[12] The new name Putrajaya was chosen for the site.

The federal government negotiated with the state of Selangor on the prospect of another federal territory. In the mid-1990s, the federal government paid a substantial amount of money to Selangor for approximately 11,320 acres (45.8 km2) of land in Prang Besar, Selangor. As a result of this land purchase, Selangor now surrounds two federal territories: Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya.

Aerial view in 2016, with the world's largest roundabout at bottom right[13]

Planned as a garden city and an intelligent city, 38% of the area is green spaces in which the natural landscape is enhanced. [14] The plan incorporated a network of open spaces and wide boulevards. Construction began in August 1995; it was Malaysia's biggest project and one of Southeast Asia's largest, with an estimated final cost of US$8.1 billion. The entire project was designed and constructed by Malaysian companies, with only 10% imported materials.[14]

The 1997 Asian financial crisis somewhat slowed the development of Putrajaya. 300 members of the Prime Minister's office staff moved there in 1999, and the remaining government servants moved in 2005. On 1 February 2001, the city was formally transferred to the federal government and declared Malaysia's third federal territory.[15]

In 2002, a rail line called KLIA Transit was opened, linking Putrajaya to KLIA in Sepang. The construction of the Putrajaya Monorail, which was intended to be the city's metro system, was suspended owing to high costs. One of the monorail suspension bridges in Putrajaya remains unused.

In April 2013, the Putrajaya government signed a letter of intent (LOI) with the government of Sejong City in South Korea to mark co-operation between the two cities.[16][17]

Government and politics


Government ministries and bodies remaining in Kuala Lumpur include the Ministry of Investment, Trade and Industry (MITI),[18] Ministry of Defence (MINDEF)[19] and Ministry of Works (KKR), as well as Bank Negara Malaysia, Royal Malaysian Police and Malayan Railways. The Parliament of Malaysia also remained in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia. Foreign embassies and missions except Brunei still remain in Kuala Lumpur.

The local government in Putrajaya is the responsibility of the Putrajaya Corporation (Perbadanan Putrajaya), a unique local authority. Previously it was administered by the Sepang District Council.

Putrajaya is represented in the Parliament of Malaysia by one elected MP in the Dewan Rakyat, under the seat of Putrajaya, as well as one appointed senator in the Dewan Negara.

As with the other federal territories of Malaysia, Putrajaya does not have a territorial legislature.

Parliament Seat Name Member of Parliament Party
P125 Putrajaya Mohd Radzi Md Jidin PN (BERSATU)




Historical population
2010 68,361—    
2015 88,300+29.2%
2020 109,202+23.7%
Source: [20]
Ethnic groups in Putrajaya - 2020 Census[20]
ethnic groups percent

In 2007 the population of Putrajaya was estimated to be over 30,000, which comprised mainly government servants. Government public servants have been encouraged to relocate to the city through various government subsidy and loan programs. The population had increased to 88,300 by 2015.[21]


Religion in Putrajaya - 2020 Census[20]
religion percent
Unknown / None

As of 2020, the population of Putrajaya is 97.2% Muslim, 1.1% Hindu, 0.8% Christian, 0.5% Buddhist, 0.4% unknown and 0.1% other religions.



Most of the infrastructure in Putrajaya uses Middle Eastern architectural designs, which symbolises Malaysian Islamic Identity.[22]

Government complexes

Perdana Putra, the Prime Minister's office
Istana Melawati
Putra Mosque

Infrastructure and places of worship




Open spaces


Educational institutions


Kindergarten and Pre-School

Primary & Secondary Education in Putrajaya is provided by a few schools such as:

  • SK Putrajaya Presint 5 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 8 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 8 (2)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 9 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 9 (2)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 11 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 11 (2)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 11 (3)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 14 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 16 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 16 (2)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 17 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 18 (1)
  • SK Putrajaya Presint 18 (2)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 5 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 8 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 9
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 9 (2)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 11 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 11 (2)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 14 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 16 (1)
  • SMK Putrajaya Presint 18 (1)

There are also two elite fully residential schools in Putrajaya:

Other universities:

International Schools



By car


Major highways


Putrajaya is surrounded by federal highways 29 on the western side and 30 on the eastern side. The South Klang Valley Expressway E26, connecting Pulau Indah to Kajang, runs through the northern end of Putrajaya. ELITE E6 exit 607 serves Putrajaya and also nearby Cyberjaya. Highway 29 interchanges with Damansara–Puchong Expressway (LDP) E11 in the northwestern corner of Putrajaya, linking the city with Puchong, Subang Jaya, Kelana Jaya and to Kepong.

Within Putrajaya, the following roads serve as the main thoroughfares of the city.

List of road bridges

Seri Wawasan Bridge

Public transport




Putrajaya is served by two urban rail lines: the 7 KLIA Transit line and the 12 Putrajaya Line through the  KT3  PY41  Putrajaya Sentral transportation hub on the western border of Putrajaya. The MRT Putrajaya Line is Malaysia's fifth metro line, and the longest in the Rapid Rail network, with Putrajaya Sentral being the southern most station in the network. The KLIA Transit is one of Malaysia's two operational airport rail links, connecting KL Sentral in Kuala Lumpur to its international airport, calling at 3 stations in between including Putrajaya.[25] [26]

The national rail network Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) does not serve Putrajaya. The cancelled  HSR  Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail was meant to serve Putrajaya with a station at Kampung Dato Abu Bakar Baginda, about halfway between Precinct 14 and Bandar Baru Bangi.

Around 2003, plans for a monorail in Putrajaya were underway but were halted due to low population. Plans to revive the construction of the 14 Putrajaya Monorail, with proposed connections to Kajang, Bandar Baru Bangi and Cyberjaya, have not yet materialised.



Putrajaya Corporation provides its own stage bus services through its subsidiary Nadi Putra using natural gas-powered buses and a few electric buses. The bus service serves the entirety of Putrajaya as well as Cyberjaya and provides express bus routes to Kuala Lumpur through Puduraya and a few other nearby cities from its hubs at Putrajaya Sentral, and P&R Presint 14.[27] Bus stops in Putrajaya are very common too and serves Nadi Putra. Rapid KL, Causeway Link and Cityliner also provides bus services to other areas from Putrajaya Sentral such as Banting, Puchong, Bandar Utama and Petaling Jaya.

Intercity buses also serve bus routes from Putrajaya Sentral to the northern states.

International relations


Twin towns and sister cities


Putrajaya is twinned with these cities:



Putrajaya has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy rainfall year-round and high temperatures throughout the year. Typical cities, towns, and other geographical regions with this climate, Putrajaya does not have a true dry season. The average temperature in Putrajaya is 27.1 °C, which is measured at approximately 80.8 °F. Over the course of a yearly period, the rainfall averages 2307 mm in Putrajaya, which is approximately 90.8 inches.[30]

Climate data for Putrajaya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.5
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 168
Source: Climate-Data.org[31]
Panoramic image of Putrajaya, (from left to right) the Putra Bridge, the Ministry of Finance on the left, the Seri Wawasan Bridge, the Istana Darul Ehsan next to it
Panorama of Putrajaya from Cyberjaya Lake Gardens in December 2023.

See also



  1. ^ "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  2. ^ "Demographic Statistics, Fourth Quarter 2023". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 14 May 2024.
  3. ^ "Malaysia Human Development Index (MHDI), 2022". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 14 May 2024.
  4. ^ Moser, Sarah (1 August 2010). "Putrajaya: Malaysia's new federal administrative capital". Cities. 27 (4): 285–297. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2009.11.002. ISSN 0264-2751.
  5. ^ "The journey of Putrajaya — Malaysia's jewel capital city". The Malaysian Reserve. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  6. ^ "History of Building – CACJ". Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  7. ^ Landler, Mark (10 July 1999). "Putrajaya Journal; A Leader's Buildings Succeed, at Least in Excess". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  8. ^ a b c Landau, Esther (25 September 2020). "NST175: From Prang Besar to Putrajaya | New Straits Times". NST Online. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  9. ^ "Fanciful origins of Malaysian town names". The Star. 29 November 2015. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  10. ^ "Electric trains to run in July next year". The Straits Times. 23 December 1994. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  11. ^ "The Story of Prang Besar". Arabis.org. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  12. ^ (in Malay)Abdullah, Hasfiza (February 2012). DARI PRANG BESAR KE PUTRAJAYA. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  13. ^ http://guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/100371-largest-roundabout
  14. ^ a b "JPN Putrajaya - jpn.com.my". jpn.com.my. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  15. ^ "PM isytihar Putrajaya sebagai Wilayah Persekutuan". Utusan Malaysia. 2 February 2001. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  16. ^ "Closer ties between Putrajaya and Sejong, Korea". (Archived from the original) The Star (Malaysia). Saturday 6 April 2013. Updated on Friday 26 April 2013. Retrieved on 1 January 2014.
  17. ^ "Malaysian envoy acclaims Sejong City." (Archive) The Korea Times. 23 September 2012.
  18. ^ ALBAKRI, DANIAL (17 November 2015). "Miti moving to new HQ". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 21 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  19. ^ "BACKGROUND". MINISTRY OF DEFENCE, MALAYSIA. Retrieved 12 May 2024.
  20. ^ a b c "Key Findings of Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2020" (pdf) (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. ISBN 978-967-2000-85-3.
  21. ^ "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of Information, Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia. 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  22. ^ Post‐colonial projects of a national culture
  23. ^ "Putrajaya Botanical Garden (Taman Botani)". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  24. ^ "Heriot-Watt University Malaysia". Hw.ac.uk. 8 July 2023.
  25. ^ "KLIAtransit Schedule - KLIA Ekspres". Kliaekspres.com. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  26. ^ "Putrajaya MRT line set for full opening on March 16". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  27. ^ "PENGANGKUTAN AWAM PUTRAJAYA SDN BHD". Papsb.com.my. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  28. ^ "Международный авторитет Астаны повышают города-побратимы". inform.kz (in Russian). KazInform. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  29. ^ Yeen, Oh Ing. "Closer ties between Putrajaya and Sejong, Korea - Community | The Star Online". Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  30. ^ "Putrajaya climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Putrajaya weather averagesg". En.climate-data.org. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  31. ^ "Climate: Putrajaya". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 30 July 2020.

Further reading

  • King, Ross: Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya: Negotiating Urban Space in Malaysia, Nias Press, 2008