Putrefying bacteria use amino acids or urea as an energy source to decompose dead organisms. In the process, they produce ammonium ions. Nitrifying bacteria then convert this ammonium into nitrate, which can then be used by plants to create more proteins thus completing the nitrogen cycle.
- "4.10 Bacteria of the Nitrogen Cycle: A understanding for GCSE Biology". PMG Biology. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- Fosbery, Richard; McLean, Jean (1996). Biology. ISBN 9780435580001.
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