Pyongyang Metro

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Pyongyang Metro
A blue circle with red lettering inside it; underneath the circle is a red V
Overview
Native name 평양 지하철
P'yŏngyang Chihach'ŏl
Locale  North Korea, Pyongyang
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 2
Line number Chollima
Hyoksin
Number of stations 16
Daily ridership 98,600 (2009)[1]
Headquarters Pyongyang Metro, City Metro Unit, Railway Section, Transport and Communication Commission, Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Operation
Began operation September 9, 1973; 43 years ago (1973-09-09)
Operator(s) Transport and Communication Commission
Character Underground railway
Number of vehicles 453[2]
Technical
System length 22.5 km (14.0 mi)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Top speed 90 km/h (56 mph) (Changchun Type DK4)
70 km/h (43 mph) (Berlin Type D)
System map

Pyongyang metro 20070321.png

Pyongyang Metro
Chosŏn'gŭl
Hancha
Revised Romanization Pyeongyang Jihacheol
McCune–Reischauer P'yŏngyang Chihach'ŏl

The Pyongyang Metro (Chosŏn'gŭl평양 지하철; MRP'yŏngyang Chihach'ŏl) is the metro system in the North Korean capital Pyongyang. It consists of two lines: the Chollima Line, which runs north from Puhŭng Station on the banks of the Taedong River to Pulgŭnbyŏl Station, and the Hyŏksin Line, which runs from Kwangbok Station in the southwest to Ragwŏn Station in the northeast. The two lines intersect at Chŏnu Station. Daily ridership is estimated to be between 300,000 and 700,000.[3][4] Pyongyang Metro was built by North Korea, with rolling stock imported from East Germany and some electronic devices imported from China.[5][6]

The Pyongyang Metro has a museum devoted to its construction and history.

Construction[edit]

Construction of the metro network started in 1965, and stations were opened between 1969 and 1972 by former president Kim Il-sung.[2][7] Most of the 16 public stations were built in the 1970s, except two most grandiose stations—Puhoong and Yonggwang, which were constructed in 1987. In 1971, there was a major accident during the construction of a tunnel under the Taedong River for the Ponghwa Station. Some sources say at least 100 workers died in the accident.[8] This particular piece of tunnel was never completed; the metro network is now completely located on the western side of the river.

China claims to have provided technical aid for the metro's construction, sending experts to install the equipment made in China, including electrical equipment made in Xiangtan, Hunan[9] and an escalator with vertical height of 64m made in Shanghai,[10][11] but North Korea denies having gotten help from China.

Pyongyang Metro is among the deepest metros in the world, with the track at over 110 metres (360 ft) deep underground; the metro does not have any above-ground track segments or stations. Because of the depth of the metro and the lack of outside segments, it doubles as a bomb shelter, with blast doors in place at hallways.[12][13] It takes three and a half minutes from the ground to the platform by escalator. The metro is so deep that the temperature of the platform maintains a constant 18 °C (64 °F) all year.[14] The Saint Petersburg Metro also claims to be the deepest, based on the average depth of all its stations. The Arsenalna station on Kiev Metro's Sviatoshynsko-Brovarska Line is currently the deepest station in the world at 105.5 metres (346 ft).[15] The Porta Alpina railway station in Switzerland was supposed to be 800 m underground, but the project was indefinitely shelved in 2012.[16]

Operation[edit]

The Pyongyang Metro was designed to operate every few minutes. During rush hour, the trains can operate at a minimum interval of two minutes. The trains have the ability to play music and other recordings.[17]

The Pyongyang Metro is one of the cheapest in the world to ride, at only five won (about 0.01 USD) per ticket.[18] Instead of paper tickets, the Metro previously used an aluminium token, with the emblem of the Metro minted on it and the Korean "". It now uses a paper ticket system, with printed on it. Smoking and eating inside the Metro system is prohibited and is punishable by a large fine.

Network[edit]

The Pyongyang Metro network consists of two lines:

Unlike most systems, the majority of the stations' names do not refer to their respective locations; instead, stations are named after themes and characteristics from North Korea's revolution. However, Kaesŏn ("Triumph") is located at the Arch of Triumph.

The network is completely underground. The design of the network was based on metro networks in other communist countries, in particular the Moscow Metro.[19] Both networks share many characteristics, such as the great depth of the lines (100 meters plus) and the large distance between stations. Another common feature is the Socialist realist art that can be found in the stations such as murals and statues.[20] Staff of the Metro have a military-style uniform that is specific to these workers. Each Metro station has a free toilet for use by patrons. Stations also play state radio broadcasts and have a display of the Rodong Sinmun newspaper.

In times of war, the metro stations can serve as bomb shelters.[21] For this purpose, the stations are fitted with large steel doors.[22] Some sources claim that large military installations are connected to the stations,[23] and also that there exist secret lines solely for government use.[3][24]

One station — Kwangmyŏng — is reported to be closed since 1995, due to the mausoleum of Kim Il-Sung being located at that station. Trains do not stop at that station.

The map of the Hyŏksin line shows two additional stations after Kwangbok: Yŏngung (영웅) and Ch'ilgok (칠곡), both of which are reportedly under development. The map of the Chollima Line, on the other hand, shows four additional stations, two at each end of the line—Ryŏnmot (련못), Sŏp'o (서포), Ch'ŏngch'un (청춘) and Mangyŏngdae (만경대)—which are planned or under development.

In addition to the main system for passenger use, there is reportedly an extra system for government use, similar to Moscow's Metro-2. The secret Pyongyang system supposedly connects important government locations.[25] There is also reportedly a massive underground plaza for mobilization, as well as an underground road connecting two metro stations.[26]

Rolling stock[edit]

VOA report showing a ride on the former West German U-Bahn cars in 2013

When operation of the metro started in the 1970s, newly built cars were used. Although China claims 4 trainsets were built by China, the claim was refuted by North Korea, saying that the trainsets were imported from East Germany and that the rest were manufactured domestically. China claims the China-made rolling stocks were later sold back to China for use on the Beijing Subway, where they served in three car formations on line 13 (they have since been replaced by newer DKZ5 and DKZ6 trainsets; it is unknown if the DK4 units have been returned to Pyongyang).

North Korean people riding the Pyongyang Metro in 2012. The portraits above the door are of former leaders Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.

Since 1998, the Pyongyang Metro has used former German rolling stock from the Berlin U-Bahn. The North Korean government supposedly bought more than twice the number of trainsets required for daily use, prompting speculation that the metro might contain hidden lines and/or stations that are not open to the public.[25] There are two different types of rolling stock:

  • GI ("Gisela"), former East Berlin stock, built between 1978 and 1982.
  • D ("Dora"), former West Berlin stock, built between 1957 and 1965.

The trainsets received a new red and cream livery in Pyongyang. All advertising was removed and replaced by portraits of the deceased leaders, Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il. A BBC reporter in 2000 reported seeing "old East German trains complete with their original German graffiti."[27] Since at least 2006, travelers have mainly seen type D. The type GI trains were withdrawn from metro service in 2001, and are now operating on the railway network around Pyongyang.[28]

In 2015, Kim Jong-un rode a newly manufactured train which is reported to have been developed and built in North Korea,[29] although the cars appear to be significantly renovated Class D cars. The shunting locomotive served in Pyongyang Metro is GKD5 model manufactured by China's CNR Dalian. There are two locomotives imported from China in early 1996.[30]

Tourism[edit]

Before 2010 tourists were only allowed to travel between Puhŭng Station (left) and Yŏnggwang Station (right), sparking a conspiracy theory that the two stations comprised the entire system.

In general, tourism in North Korea is allowed only in guided groups with no diversion allowed from pre-planned itineraries. Foreign tourists used to be allowed to travel only between Puhŭng Station and Yŏnggwang Station.[31] However, foreign students were allowed to freely use the entire metro system.[32] Since 2010 tourists have been allowed to ride the metro at six stations.[33] University students traveling with the Pyongyang Project have also reported visiting every station.[34] As of 2014, it is possible for tourists on special Public Transport Tours to take metro rides through both lines, including visits to all stations.[35] In April 2014, the first tourist group visited stations on both metro lines, and it is expected that such extended visits to both metro lines will remain possible for future tourist groups.[36]

The previously limited tourist access gave rise to a conspiracy theory that the metro was purely for show. It was claimed that it only consisted of two stops and that the passengers were actors.[37][38][39]

Museum[edit]

Pyongyang Metro has its own museum. A large portion of the collection is related to President Kim Il-sung's providing "on-the-spot guidance" to the workers constructing the system. Among the exhibits are a special funicular-like vehicle which the president used to descend to a station under construction (it rode down the inclined tunnels that would eventually be used by the escalators), and a railbus in which he rode around the system.[40]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Michael Rohde. "Pyongyang". mic-ro.com. 
  2. ^ a b "The Pyongyang Metro: Trains". pyongyang-metro.com. 
  3. ^ a b Harris, Mark Edward; Cumings, Bruce (2007). Inside North Korea. Chronicle Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8118-5751-2. 
  4. ^ "CNN Special Investigations Unit: Notes from North Korea". CNN. May 11, 2008. 
  5. ^ "China Releases Details on Aid to N.Korea". Choson Ilbo. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  6. ^ "中国第一笔援助是对朝鲜提供 平壤地铁系我援建". 中国网. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  7. ^ "철도동호회 - 조선국 평양지하철도 - Daum 카페". 철도동호회 - Daum 카페. 
  8. ^ "Станция "ПОНГВА" - "Путеводный Огонь"". 
  9. ^ "湘潭电机股份有限公司地铁产品". Xiangtan Electric Manufacturing Company Limited. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  10. ^ 罗菁 (31 October 2014). "申城38年援建国外198个成套项目 平壤地铁电梯为沪产". 东方网. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  11. ^ 李永林主编. 《吉林省志·卷三十三·对外经贸志》. pp. 444–445. ISBN 7206022952. 
  12. ^ Davies, Elliott (16 April 2016). "I was part of the first group of outsiders allowed to ride the entire North Korean subway system — here's what I saw". Business Insider. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  13. ^ 平壤的表情:你不知道的朝鲜 (in Chinese). Netease. July 31, 2007. 
  14. ^ 任力波 (17 February 2005). "平壤地铁 站台内常年保持18摄氏度恒温". Xinhua. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  15. ^ Официальный сайт киевского метрополитена. Kiev Metro.
  16. ^ "World's Longest Tunnel Drilled Under Swiss Alps". DNews. 
  17. ^ One minute riding the Pyongyang metro to the tune of Rossini's "il barbiere di siviglia". YouTube. 25 April 2014. 
  18. ^ Hooi, Ng Si (September 6, 2008). "A world of its own". The Star (Malaysia). 
  19. ^ Korea: North-South nuclear issues : hearing before the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, second session, July 25, 1990. U.S. G.P.O. 1991. p. 85. 
  20. ^ Ishikawa, Shō (1988). The country aglow with Juche: North Korea as seen by a journalist. Foreign languages Pub. House. p. 65. 
  21. ^ Robinson, Martin; Bartlett, Ray; Whyte Rob (2007). Korea. Lonely Planet. p. 364. ISBN 978-1-74104-558-1. 
  22. ^ Springer, Chris (2003). Pyongyang: the hidden history of the North Korean capital. Entente Bt. p. 125. ISBN 978-963-00-8104-7. 
  23. ^ Min, Park Hyun (August 20, 2007). "Pyongyang Subway Submerged in Water". Daily NK. 
  24. ^ "Kim Jong-il 'Has Secret Underground Escape Route'". The Chosun Ilbo. March 1, 2011. 
  25. ^ a b "The Pyongyang Metro: Statistics". pyongyang-metro.com. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  26. ^ "Mammoth Underground Square and Road in Pyongyang". Digital Chosunilbo (English Edition) : Daily News in English About Korea. Archived from the original on 2005-02-07. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  27. ^ Lister, Richard (October 8, 2000). "Life in Pyongyang". BBC News. 
  28. ^ "Metro News". pyongyangmetro.com. 2006. 
  29. ^ North Korea Leadership Watch (19 November 2015). "Kim Jong Un Rides the PY Subway". Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  30. ^ 李炳华. "大连机车车辆厂为朝鲜地铁工程提供GKD5型调车内燃机车". 内燃机车 (1997年第01期). Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  31. ^ Burdick, Eddie (2010). Three Days in the Hermit Kingdom: An American Visits North Korea. McFarland. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7864-4898-2. 
  32. ^ Abt, Felix (2014). A Capitalist in North Korea: My Seven Years in the Hermit Kingdom. Tuttle Publishing. p. 226. ISBN 9780804844390. 
  33. ^ "North Korea". testroete.com. 
  34. ^ Pyongyang metro - 6 stops visited in April 2014. YouTube. 25 April 2014. 
  35. ^ Pyongyang Travel. "Public Transport Tours - Information Page". pyongyang-travel.com. 
  36. ^ "Tourists granted rare access to nearly all stations on Pyongyang metro network". nknews.org. 
  37. ^ Kate Whitehead (13 September 2013). "Touring North Korea: What's real, what's fake?". CNN. 
  38. ^ Hamish Macdonald (2 May 2014). "Tourists granted rare access to nearly all stations on Pyongyang metro network". NK News. 
  39. ^ Maeve Shearlaw (13 May 2014). "Mythbusters: uncovering the truth about North Korea". The Guardian. 
  40. ^ The forbidden railway: Vienna - Pyongyang 윈 - 모스크바 - 두만강 - 평양. vienna-pyongyang.blogspot.com. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Pyongyang Metro, Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1980
  • Пхеньянский метрополитен. Путеводитель. — КНДР: Издательство «Корея», 1988.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]