Pyrantel

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Pyrantel
Pyrantel.png
Clinical data
Trade names Pin-X, Combantrin, others[1]
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
ATC code P02CC01 (WHO) QP52AF02 (WHO)
Identifiers
CAS Number 15686-83-6  YesY
PubChem (CID) 708857
ChemSpider 618121
UNII 4QIH0N49E7
KEGG D08451
ChEBI CHEBI:8654
ChEMBL CHEMBL1626223
ECHA InfoCard 100.036.143
Chemical and physical data
Formula C11H14N2S
Molar mass 206.31 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

Pyrantel is a medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infections. This includes ascariasis, hookworm infections, enterobiasis (pinworm infection), trichostrongyliasis, and trichinellosis. It is taken by mouth.[2]

Side effects include nausea, headache, dizziness, trouble sleeping, and rash. A lower dose should be used in people with liver disease.[2] While there is no evidence of harm if used during pregnancy it has not been studied for this use.[3] It is unclear if it is safe for use during breastfeeding.[2] It is in the antihelmintic family of medications. It works by paralyzing worms.[4]

Pyrantel was initially described in 1965.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medication needed in a basic health system.[6] Pyrantel is available as a generic medication.[4] It costs less than 25 USD per course of treatment in the United States.[1] It may also be used to treat worms in a number of other animals.[5]

Pregnancy and breastfeeding[edit]

Pyrantel pamoate is considered a Pregnancy category C drug for use during pregnancy for humans, but is in category A for canines and felines. Pyrantel is considered safe to use in nursing animals.[7]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Pyrantel pamoate acts as a depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, thereby causing sudden contraction, followed by paralysis, of the helminths. This has the result of causing the worm to "lose its grip" on the intestinal wall and be passed out of the system by natural process. Since Pyrantel is poorly absorbed by the host's intestine, the host is unaffected by the small dosage of medication used. Spastic (tetanic) paralyzing agents, in particular pyrantel pamoate, may induce complete intestinal obstruction in a heavy worm load.[8] This obstruction is usually in the form of a worm impaction and happens when a very small, but heavily parasitized animal is treated and tries to pass a large number of dislodged worms at once. Worms usually pass in normal stool or with diarrhea, straining, and occasional vomiting.

Names[edit]

There are a number of brands, including "Reese's Pinworm Medicine", "Pin-X", "Pin-Rid","PYRANTRIN" formally called "COMBANTRIN", "Anthel", "Helmintox", "Helmex" and Drontal Cat.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 54. ISBN 9781284057560. 
  2. ^ a b c WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. pp. 89, 608. ISBN 9789241547659. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  3. ^ "Pyrantel Use During Pregnancy | Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "Pyrantel Pamoate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b Maddison, Jill E.; Page, Stephen W.; (BVSc.), David Church (2008). Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 209. ISBN 0702028584. 
  6. ^ "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  7. ^ Plumb, D. C. (2005). Plumb's veterinary drug handbook. Stockholm, Wis: PharmaVet. ISBN 0-8138-0518-X. 
  8. ^ Salman, A. B. (1997). "Management of intestinal obstruction caused by ascariasis". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 32 (4): 585–587. doi:10.1016/S0022-3468(97)90712-0. PMID 9126759.