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Pyrgotella chagnoni.jpg
Pyrgotella chagnoni
Scientific classification

Schiner, 1868

see text

Female of species of Pyrgotidae, showing the prominent ovipositor
Dorsal aspect of same fly; note the absence of the ocelli

The Pyrgotidae are an unusual family of flies (Diptera), one of only two families of Cyclorrhapha that lack ocelli. Most species are "picture-winged" (i.e, have patterns of bands or spots on the wings), as is typical among the Tephritoidea, but unlike other tephritoids, they are endoparasitoids; the females pursue scarab beetles in flight, laying an egg on the beetle's back under the elytra where the beetle cannot reach it. The egg hatches and the fly larva enters the body cavity of the beetle, feeding and eventually killing the host before pupating. In the United States, some species of Pyrgota and Sphecomyiella can be quite common in areas where their host beetles (typically the genus Phyllophaga, or "June beetles") are abundant. Like their host beetles, these flies are primarily nocturnal, and are often attracted to artificial lights.[1][2]

List of genera[edit]


  1. ^ Korneyev, V. A. (2012). "Revision of the genus Pyrgotomyia Hendel (Diptera: Pyrgotidae)". African Invertebrates. Pietermaritzburg: Pensoft Publishers on behalf of the Council of the KwaZulu-Natal Museum (South Africa. 53 (1): 187–203. doi:10.5733/afin.053.0112. ISSN 2305-2562. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  2. ^ Korneyev, V.A. (2004). "Genera of Palaearctic Pyrgotidae (Diptera, Acalyptrata), with nomenclatural notes and a key" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 38 (1): 19–46. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d Hendel, Friedrich (1913). "Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Pyrgotinen" (PDF). Archiv für Naturgeschichte. Abteilung A: Original-Arbeiten. 79 (11): 77–117, pl. 1. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  4. ^ Waga, A. (1842). "Adapsilia. Genre de Dipteres apparenant a la sous-tribu Dolichoceres de Macquart, voisin de Sepedon et Tetanocera". Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. II (1): 279–282.
  5. ^ a b c Paramonov, S J. (1958). "A review of Australian Pyrgotidae (Diptera)". Australian Journal of Zoology. 6: 89–137. doi:10.1071/zo9580089.
  6. ^ Korneyev, V. A. (2015). "Pyrgotid Flies Assigned to Apyrgota. III. Species of Afropyrgota gen. n. and Tylotrypes (Diptera, Pyrgotidae)" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 49 (1): 25–40. doi:10.1515/vzoo-2015-0003.
  7. ^ Hardy, D. E. (1954). "Notes and descriptions on Australian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)". Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 15: 327–333.
  8. ^ Steyskal, G. C. (1978). "Synopsis of the North American Pyrgotidae (Diptera)". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. The Entomological Society of Washington. 80: 149–155.
  9. ^ a b Aczél, M. L. (1956). "Revisión parcial de las Pyrgotidae neotropicales y antárticas, con sinopsis de los géneros y especies (Diptera, Acalyptratae). Parte I". Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 4: 161–184.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Enderlein, G. (1942). "Klassifikation der Pyrogotiden". Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin. 2: 98–134.
  11. ^ a b Hendel, Friedrich (1908). "Acht neue Pyrgotinen (Dipt.)". Wiener entomologische Zeitung. 27: 145–153.
  12. ^ Hendel, Friedrich (1907). "Nomina nova fur mehrere Gattungen der acalyptraten Musciden". Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. 26: 98. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.5119. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  13. ^ Hendel, Friedrich (1909). "Diptera. Fam. Muscaridae. Subfam. Pyrgotinae". Genera Insectorum. 79: 1–33.
  14. ^ Korneyev, V. A. (2014). "Pyrgotid flies assigned to Apyrgota. I. New species and synonyms in Eupyrgota (s. str.) (Diptera, Pyrgotidae), with the description of a new subgenus" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 48 (2): 111–128. doi:10.2478/vzoo-2014-0012.
  15. ^ Korneyev, V. A. (2014). "Pyrgotid flies assigned to Apyrgota. II. New synonyms in Eupyrgota (Subgenus Taeniomastix) (Diptera, Pyrgotidae), with key to subgenera and species" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 48 (3): 211–220. doi:10.2478/vzoo-2014-0024.
  16. ^ a b c Malloch, J. R. (1929). "Appendix, pp. 20-31. In Bezzi, M., Australian Pyrgotidae (Diptera)". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 54: 1–31. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  17. ^ a b Vanschuytbroeck, P. (1963). "Pyrgotidae (Diptera Otitoidae)" (PDF). Exploration du Parc National de la Garamba. 38: 1–76.
  18. ^ a b Bezzi, Mario (1929). "Australian Pyrgotidae (Diptera). With an Appendix by J.R. Malloch". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 54: 1–31. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  19. ^ a b c d e Hendel, Friedrich (1934). "Übersicht über die Gattungen der Pyrgotiden, nebst Beschreibung neuer Gattungen und Arten". Encyclopédie Entomologique. Serie B. II. Diptera. 7: 141–156.
  20. ^ Curran, Charles Howard (1934). The families and genera of North American Diptera. New York: Ballou Press. pp. 512 pp. 2 pls.
  21. ^ Malloch, John Russell (1930). "Exotic Muscaridae (Diptera). XXIX". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 10 (5): 465–484.
  22. ^ Bezzi, Mario (1914). "Indian Pyrgotinae (Diptera)". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 8 (14): 153–163.

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