Pyridoxine

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Pyridoxine
Pyridoxine structure ver2.svg
Pyridoxine ball-and-stick.png
Pyridoxine
Clinical data
Synonyms vitamin B6,[1] pyridoxol[2] pyridoxine hydrochloride
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
Pregnancy
category
  • US: A (No risk in human studies) and C
Routes of
administration
by mouth, IV, IM, subQ
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.548 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C8H11NO3
Molar mass 169.18 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point 159 to 162 °C (318 to 324 °F)

Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[3][1] It is used by mouth or by injection.[3]

It is usually well tolerated.[3] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[3] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[3] Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[3] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[3] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[4]

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[5][6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] Pyridoxine is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[3] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.59 to 3.54 USD per month.[8] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[4]

Medical uses[edit]

As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[3][1] Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a type of rare epilepsy that does not improve with typical antiseizure medications.[9] Pyridoxine is used by mouth or by injection.[3]

Side effects[edit]

It is usually well tolerated.[3] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[3] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[3]

Mechanism[edit]

Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[3] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[3] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[4]

History and culture[edit]

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[5][6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] Pyridoxine is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[3] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.59 to 3.54 USD per month.[8] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. 496. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  2. ^ Dryhurst, Glenn (2012). Electrochemistry of Biological Molecules. Elsevier. p. 562. ISBN 9780323144520. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Pyridoxine Hydrochloride". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Office of Dietary Supplements - Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B6". ods.od.nih.gov. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b Squires, Victor R. (2011). The Role of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Human Nutrition - Volume IV. EOLSS Publications. p. 121. ISBN 9781848261952. 
  6. ^ a b Harris, Harry (2012). Advances in Human Genetics 6. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 39. ISBN 9781461582649. 
  7. ^ a b "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Vitamin B6". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  9. ^ Abend, NS; Loddenkemper, T (July 2014). "Management of pediatric status epilepticus". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 16 (7): 301. doi:10.1007/s11940-014-0301-x. PMC 4110742Freely accessible. PMID 24909106. 

External links[edit]