Pyrrole

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Pyrrole
Explicit structural formula of pyrrole, with aromaticity indicated by dashed bonds
Numbered skeletal formula of pyrrole
Ball-and-stick model of the pyrrole molecule
Space-filling model of the pyrrole molecule
Names
IUPAC name
1H-Pyrrole
Other names
Azole
Identifiers
109-97-7 YesY
1159
ChEBI CHEBI:19203 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL16225 YesY
ChemSpider 7736 YesY
EC Number 203-724-7
1705
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
Interactive image
PubChem 8027
RTECS number UX9275000
UNII 86S1ZD6L2C YesY
UN number 1992, 1993
Properties
C4H5N
Molar mass 67.09 g·mol−1
Density 0.967 g cm−3
Melting point −23 °C (−9 °F; 250 K)
Boiling point 129 to 131 °C (264 to 268 °F; 402 to 404 K)
Vapor pressure 7 mmHg at 23 °C
Viscosity 0.001225 Pa s
Thermochemistry
1.903 J K−1 mol−1
108.2 kJ mol−1 (gas)
2242 kJ mol−1
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g., diesel fuel Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 33.33 °C (91.99 °F; 306.48 K)
550 °C (1,022 °F; 823 K)
Explosive limits 3.1–14.8%
Related compounds
Related compounds
Phosphole, arsole, bismole, stibole
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Pyrrole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH.[1] It is a colorless volatile liquid that darkens readily upon exposure to air. Substituted derivatives are also called pyrroles, e.g., N-methylpyrrole, C4H4NCH3. Porphobilinogen, a trisubstituted pyrrole, is the biosynthetic precursor to many natural products such as heme.[2]

Pyrroles are components of more complex macrocycles, including the porphyrins of heme, the chlorins, bacteriochlorins, chlorophyll, and porphyrinogens.[3]

Properties[edit]

Pyrrole is a colorless volatile liquid that darkens readily upon exposure to air, and is usually purified by distillation immediately before use.[4] Pyrrole is a 5-membered aromatic heterocycle, like furan and thiophene. Unlike furan and thiophene, it has a dipole in which the positive end lies on the side of the heteroatom, with a dipole moment of 1.58 D. In CDCl3, it has chemical shifts at 6.68 (H2, H5) and 6.22 (H3, H4). Pyrrole is weakly basic, with a conjugate acid pKa of −3.8. The most thermodynamically stable pyrrolium cation (C4H6N+) is formed by protonation at the 2 position. Substitution of pyrrole with alkyl substituents provides a more basic molecule—for example, tetramethylpyrrole has a conjugate acid pKa of +3.7. Pyrrole is also weakly acidic at the N–H position, with a pKa of 17.5.

Resonance contributors of pyrrole

History[edit]

Pyrrole was first detected by F. F. Runge in 1834, as a constituent of coal tar.[5] In 1857, it was isolated from the pyrolysate of bone. Its name comes from the Greek pyrrhos (πυρρός, “fiery”), from the reaction used to detect it—the red color that it imparts to wood when moistened with hydrochloric acid.[6]

Occurrence in nature[edit]

Heme b

Pyrroles are found in a variety of biological contexts, as parts of cofactors and natural products. Common naturally produced molecules containing pyrroles include vitamin B12, bile pigments like bilirubin and biliverdin, and the porphyrins of heme, chlorophyll, chlorins, bacteriochlorins, and porphyrinogens.[3] Other pyrrole-containing secondary metabolites include PQQ, makaluvamine M, ryanodine, rhazinilam, lamellarin, prodigiosin, myrmicarin, and sceptrin. Pyrroles are also found in several drugs, including atorvastatin, ketorolac, and sunitinib.

One of the first syntheses of pyrrole-containing molecules was that of haemin, synthesized by Emil Fischer in 1929.[7]

Synthesis[edit]

Pyrrole is prepared industrially by treatment of furan with ammonia in the presence of solid acid catalysts, like SiO2 and Al2O3.[6]

Synthesis of pyrrole from furan

Pyrrole can also be formed by catalytic dehydrogenation of pyrrolidine.

Laboratory routes[edit]

Several syntheses of the pyrrole ring have been described.[8]

Hantzsch pyrrole synthesis[edit]

The Hantzsch pyrrole synthesis is the reaction of β-ketoesters (1) with ammonia (or primary amines) and α-haloketones (2) to give substituted pyrroles (3).[9][10]

The Hantzsch pyrrole synthesis

Knorr pyrrole synthesis[edit]

The Knorr pyrrole synthesis involves the reaction of an α-amino ketone or an α-amino-β-ketoester with an activated methylene compound.[11][12][13] The method involves the reaction of an α-aminoketone (1) and a compound containing a methylene group α to (bonded to the next carbon to) a carbonyl group (2).[14]

The Knorr pyrrole synthesis

Paal–Knorr pyrrole synthesis[edit]

In the Paal–Knorr pyrrole synthesis, a 1,4-dicarbonyl compound reacts with ammonia or a primary amine to form a substituted pyrrole.[15][16]

The Paal–Knorr pyrrole synthesis

Van Leusen reaction[edit]

Main article: Van Leusen reaction

The Van Leusen reaction can be used to form pyrroles, by reaction of tosylmethyl isocyanide (TosMIC) with an enone in the presence of base, in a Michael addition. A 5-endo cyclization then forms the 5-membered ring, which reacts to eliminate the tosyl group. The last step is tautomerization to the pyrrole.[citation needed]

Mechanism of the Van Leusen reaction to form pyrroles

Barton–Zard synthesis[edit]

The Barton–Zard synthesis proceeds in a manner similar to the Van Leusen synthesis. An isocyanoacetate reacts with a nitroalkene in a 1,4-addition, followed by 5-endo-dig cyclization, elimination of the nitro group, and tautomerization.[17]

Barton-Zard reaction.png

Piloty–Robinson pyrrole synthesis[edit]

The starting materials in the Piloty–Robinson pyrrole synthesis, named for Gertrude and Robert Robinson and Oskar Piloty, are two equivalents of an aldehyde and hydrazine.[18][19] The product is a pyrrole with substituents at the 3 and 4 positions. The aldehyde reacts with the diamine to an intermediate di-imine (R–C=N−N=C–R). In the second step, a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement takes place between. Addition of hydrochloric acid leads to ring closure and loss of ammonia to form the pyrrole. The mechanism was developed by the Robinsons.

In one modification, propionaldehyde is treated first with hydrazine and then with benzoyl chloride at high temperatures and assisted by microwave irradiation:[20]

Piloty–Robinson reaction[20]

Cycloaddition-based routes[edit]

Pyrroles bearing multiple substituents are obtained from the reaction of münchnones and alkynes. The reaction mechanism involves 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition followed by loss of carbon dioxide by a retro-Diels–Alder process. Similar reactions can be performed using azalactones.

Synthesis of pyrroles via Diels–Alder cyclization

Pyrroles can be prepared by silver-catalyzed cyclization of alkynes with isonitriles, where R2 is an electron-withdrawing group, and R1 is an alkane, aryl group, or ester. Examples of disubstituted alkynes have also been seen to form the desired pyrrole in considerable yield. The reaction is proposed to proceed via a silver acetylide intermediate. This method is analogous to the azide–alkyne click chemistry used to form azoles.

Synthesis of pyrrole via silver click chemistry

Other methods[edit]

One synthetic route to pyrrole involves the decarboxylation of ammonium mucate, the ammonium salt of mucic acid. The salt is typically heated in a distillation setup with glycerol as a solvent.[21]

Synthesis of pyrrole from ammonium mucate

Biosynthesis of pyrroles[edit]

The de novo biosynthesis of pyrrole rings begins with aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which is synthesized from glycine and succinyl-CoA. ALA dehydratase catalyzes the condensation of two ALA molecules via a Knorr-type ring synthesis to form porphobilinogen (PBG). This later reacts to form, for example, the macrocycles heme and chlorophyll.[22]

Mechanism of biosynthesis of porphobilinogen

Reactions and reactivity[edit]

Due to its aromatic character, pyrrole is difficult to hydrogenate, does not easily react as a diene in Diels–Alder reactions, and does not undergo usual olefin reactions. Its reactivity is similar to that of benzene and aniline, in that it is easy to alkylate and acylate. Under acidic conditions, pyrroles polymerize easily, and thus many electrophilic reagents that are used in benzene chemistry are not applicable to pyrroles. In contrast, substituted pyrroles (including protected pyrroles) have been used in a broad range of transformations.[8]

Reaction of pyrrole with electrophiles[edit]

Pyrroles generally react with electrophiles at the α position (C2 or C5), due to the highest degree of stability of the protonated intermediate.

Pyrrole electrophilic substitution

Pyrroles react easily with nitrating (e.g. HNO3/Ac2O), sulfonating (Py·SO3), and halogenating (e.g. NCS, NBS, Br2, SO2Cl2, and KI/H2O2) agents. Halogenation generally provides polyhalogenated pyrroles, but monohalogenation can be performed. As is typical for electrophilic additions to pyrroles, halogenation generally occurs at the 2-position, but can also occur at the 3-position by silation of the nitrogen. This is a useful method for further functionalization of the generally less reactive 3-position.[citation needed]

Acylation[edit]

Acylation generally occurs at the 2-position, through the use of various methods. Acylation with acid anhydrides and acid chlorides can occur without a catalyst; alternatively, a Lewis acid may be used. 2-Acylpyrroles are also obtained from reaction with nitriles, by the Houben–Hoesch reaction. Pyrrole aldehydes can be formed by a Vilsmeier–Haack reaction. N-Acylation of simple pyrrole does not occur.[citation needed]

Vilsmeier–Haack formylation of pyrrole

Alkylation[edit]

Electrophilic alkylation of simple pyrrole is uncommon. Alkylation to form enones at C2 has been seen.[citation needed]

Reaction of deprotonated pyrrole[edit]

The NH proton in pyrroles is moderately acidic with a pKa of 16.5. Pyrrole can be deprotonated with strong bases such as butyllithium and sodium hydride. The resulting alkali pyrrolide is nucleophilic. Treating this conjugate base with an electrophile such as iodomethane gives N-methylpyrrole. N-Metallated pyrrole can react with electrophiles at the N or C positions, depending on the coordinating metal. More ionic nitrogen–metal bonds (such as with Li, Na, and K) and more solvating solvents lead to N-alkylation. Nitrophilic metals, such as MgX, lead to alkylation at C (mainly C2), due to a higher degree of coordination to the nitrogen atom. In the cases of N-substituted pyrroles, metallation of the carbons is more facile. Alkyl groups can be introduced as electrophiles, or by cross-coupling reactions.[citation needed]

Pyrrole C-metallation

Substitution at C3 can be achieved through the use of N-substituted 3-bromopyrrole, which can be synthesized by bromination of N-silylpyrrole with NBS.[citation needed]

Reductions[edit]

Pyrroles can undergo reductions to pyrrolidines and to pyrrolines. For example, Birch reduction of pyrrole esters and amides produced pyrrolines, with the regioselectivity depending on the position of the electron-withdrawing group.[citation needed]

Cyclization reactions[edit]

Pyrroles with N-substitution can undergo cycloaddition reactions such as [4+2]-, [2+2]-, and [2+1]-cyclizations. Diels-Alder cyclizations can occur with the pyrrole acting as a diene, especially in the presence of an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen. Vinylpyrroles can also act as dienes.[citation needed]

Pyrrole DA

Pyrroles can react with carbenes, such as dichlorocarbene, in a [2+1]-cycloaddition. With dichlorocarbene, a dichlorocyclopropane intermediate is formed, which breaks down to form 3-chloropyridine (the Ciamician–Dennstedt rearrangement).[23][24][25]

Ciamician–Dennstedt rearrangement

Commercial uses[edit]

Pyrrole is essential to the production of many different chemicals. N-Methylpyrrole is a precursor to N-methylpyrrolecarboxylic acid, a building-block in pharmaceutical chemistry.[6] Although there is a claim that pyrrole is used as an additive to cigarettes[citation needed], it is typically listed as a constituent of tobacco smoke and not as an ingredient.[26]

Analogs and derivatives[edit]

Structural analogs of pyrrole include:

  • Pyrroline, a partially saturated analog with one double bond
  • Pyrrolidine, the saturated hydrogenated analog

Derivatives of pyrrole include indole, a derivative with a fused benzene ring.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Loudon, Marc G. (2002). "Chemistry of Naphthalene and the Aromatic Heterocycles". Organic Chemistry (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1135–1136. ISBN 0-19-511999-1. 
  2. ^ Cox, Michael; Lehninger, Albert L.; Nelson, David R. (2000). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 1-57259-153-6. 
  3. ^ a b Jusélius, Jonas; Sundholm, Dage (2000). "The aromatic pathways of porphins, chlorins and bacteriochlorins". Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2 (10): 2145–2151. doi:10.1039/b000260g. open access publication - free to read
  4. ^ Armarego, Wilfred L. F.; Chai, Christina L. L. (2003). Purification of Laboratory Chemicals (5th ed.). Elsevier. p. 346. 
  5. ^ Runge, F. F. (1834). "Ueber einige Produkte der Steinkohlendestillation" [On some products of coal distillation]. Annalen der Physik und Chemie 31: 65–78.  open access publication - free to read See especially pages 67–68, where Runge names the compound Pyrrol (fire oil) or Rothöl (red oil).
  6. ^ a b c Harreus, Albrecht Ludwig (2005), "Pyrrole", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_453 
  7. ^ Emil, Fischer. "Nobel Prize Lecture" (PDF). 
  8. ^ a b Lubell, W.; Saint-Cyr, D.; Dufour-Gallant, J.; Hopewell, R.; Boutard, N.; Kassem, T.; Dörr, A.; Zelli, R. (2013). "1H-Pyrroles (Update 2013)". Science of Synthesis 2013 (1): 157–388. 
  9. ^ Hantzsch, A. (1890). "Neue Bildungsweise von Pyrrolderivaten" [New methods of forming pyrrole derivatives]. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 23: 1474–1476.  open access publication - free to read
  10. ^ Feist, Franz (1902). "Studien in der Furan- und Pyrrol-Gruppe" [Studies in the furan and pyrrole groups]. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 35: 1537–1544.  open access publication - free to read
  11. ^ Knorr, Ludwig (1884). "Synthese von Pyrrolderivaten" [Synthesis of pyrrole derivatives]. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 17 (2): 1635–1642. doi:10.1002/cber.18840170220.  open access publication - free to read
  12. ^ Knorr, L. (1886). "Synthetische Versuche mit dem Acetessigester" [Synthesis experiments with the [ethyl] ester of acetoacetic acid]. Annalen der Chemie 236: 290–332.  open access publication - free to read
  13. ^ Knorr, L.; Lange, H. (1902). "Ueber die Bildung von Pyrrolderivaten aus Isonitrosoketonen" [On the formation of pyrrole derivatives from isonitrosketones]. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 35 (3): 2998–3008. doi:10.1002/cber.19020350392.  open access publication - free to read
  14. ^ Corwin, Alsoph Henry (1950). "Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Pyrrole and its Derivatives". In Elderfield, Robert Cooley. Heterocyclic Compounds 1. New York, NY: Wiley. p. 287. 
  15. ^ Paal, C. (1884), "Ueber die Derivate des Acetophenonacetessigesters und des Acetonylacetessigesters", Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 17: 2756–2767, doi:10.1002/cber.188401702228  open access publication - free to read
  16. ^ Knorr, Ludwig (1884), "Synthese von Furfuranderivaten aus dem Diacetbernsteinsäureester" [Synthesis of furan derivatives from the [diethyl] ester of 2,3-diacetyl-succinic acid], Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 17: 2863–2870, doi:10.1002/cber.188401702254  open access publication - free to read
  17. ^ Li, Jie Jack (2013). Heterocyclic Chemistry in Drug Discovery. New York: Wiley. ISBN 9781118354421. 
  18. ^ Piloty, Oskar (1910). "Synthese von Pyrrolderivaten: Pyrrole aus Succinylobernsteinsäureester, Pyrrole aus Azinen" [Synthesis of pyrrole derivatives: pyrrole from diethyl succinyl succinate, pyrrole from azines]. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 43 (1): 489–498. doi:10.1002/cber.19100430182.  open access publication - free to read
  19. ^ Robinson, Gertrude Maud; Robinson, Robert (1918). "LIV.—A new synthesis of tetraphenylpyrrole". J. Chem. Soc. 113: 639. doi:10.1039/CT9181300639. 
  20. ^ a b Milgram, Benjamin C.; Eskildsen, Katrine; Richter, Steven M.; Scheidt, W. Robert; Scheidt, Karl A. (2007). "Microwave-Assisted Piloty–Robinson Synthesis of 3,4-Disubstituted Pyrroles" (Note). J. Org. Chem. 72 (10): 3941–3944. doi:10.1021/jo070389+. PMC 1939979. PMID 17432915. 
  21. ^ Vogel (1956). Practical Organic Chemistry (PDF). p. 837. 
  22. ^ Walsh, Christopher T.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Howard-Jones, Annaleise R. "Biological formation of pyrroles: Nature's logic and enzymatic machinery". Natural Product Reports 23 (4): 517. doi:10.1039/b605245m. 
  23. ^ Ciamician, G. L.; Dennstedt, M. (1881). "Ueber die Einwirkung des Chloroforms auf die Kaliumverbindung Pyrrols" [On the reaction of chloroform with the potassium compound of pyrrole]. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 14: 1153–1162. 
  24. ^ Corwin, Alsoph Henry (1950). Elderfield, Robert Cooley, ed. Heterocyclic Compounds 1. New York, NY: Wiley. p. 309. 
  25. ^ Mosher, H. S. (1950). Elderfield, Robert Cooley, ed. Heterocyclic Compounds 1. New York, NY: Wiley. p. 475. 
  26. ^ Fowles, Jefferson; Bates, Michael; Noiton, Dominique (March 2000). "The Chemical Constituents in Cigarettes and Cigarette Smoke: Priorities for Harm Reduction" (PDF). Porirua, New Zealand: New Zealand Ministry of Health. pp. 20, 49–65. Retrieved 2012-09-23. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Jones, R. Jones, ed. (1990). Pyrroles. Part I. The Synthesis and the Physical and Chemical Aspects of the Pyrrole Ring. The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds 48. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/recl.19911100712. ISBN 0-471-62753-4. 
  • Jolicoeur, Benoit; Chapman, Erin E.; Thompson, Alison; Lubell, William D. (2006). "Pyrrole protection". Tetrahedron 62 (50): 11531–11563. doi:10.1016/j.tet.2006.08.071. 

External links[edit]