Pyruvate synthase

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pyruvate synthase
Identifiers
EC number 1.2.7.1
CAS number 9082-51-3
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO

In enzymology, a pyruvate synthase (EC 1.2.7.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and acetyl-CoA. It is also called pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR).

The relevant equilibrium catalysed by PFOR is:

pyruvate + CoA + oxidized ferredoxin acetyl-CoA + CO2 + reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+

The 3 substrates of this enzyme are pyruvate, CoA, and oxidized ferredoxin, whereas its 4 products are acetyl-CoA, CO2, reduced ferredoxin, and H+.

Function[edit]

This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: pyruvate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, butanoate metabolism, and reductive carboxylate cycle (CO2 fixation).

Its major role is the extraction of reducing equivalents by the decarboxylation. In aerobic organisms, this conversion is catalysed by pyruvate dehydrogenase, also uses thiamine pyrophosphate but relies on lipoate as the electron acceptor. Unlike the aerobic enzyme complex PFOR transfers reducing equivalents to flavins or iron-sulflur clusters. This process links glycolysis to the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway.

Nomenclature[edit]

This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is pyruvate:ferredoxin 2-oxidoreductase (CoA-acetylating). Other names in common use include:

  • pyruvate oxidoreductase,
  • pyruvate synthetase,
  • pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and
  • pyruvic-ferredoxin oxidoreductase.

Inhibitors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Di Santo N, Ehrisman J (2013). "Research perspective: potential role of nitazoxanide in ovarian cancer treatment. Old drug, new purpose?". Cancers (Basel). 5 (3): 1163–1176. doi:10.3390/cancers5031163. PMC 3795384Freely accessible. PMID 24202339. Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths.  ... Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a main compound of a class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds named thiazolides. It is composed of a nitrothiazole-ring and a salicylic acid moiety which are linked together by an amide bond ... NTZ is generally well tolerated, and no significant adverse events have been noted in human trials [13]. ... In vitro, NTZ and tizoxanide function against a wide range of organisms, including the protozoal species Blastocystis hominis, C. parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, G. lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis [13] 
  2. ^ "Nitazoxanide Prescribing Information" (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Romark Pharmaceuticals. 3 March 2004. pp. 1–9. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  3. ^ Warren CA, van Opstal E, Ballard TE, Kennedy A, Wang X, Riggins M, Olekhnovich I, Warthan M, Kolling GL, Guerrant RL, Macdonald TL, Hoffman PS (August 2012). "Amixicile, a novel inhibitor of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase, shows efficacy against Clostridium difficile in a mouse infection model". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56 (8): 4103–11. doi:10.1128/AAC.00360-12. PMC 3421617Freely accessible. PMID 22585229. 
  4. ^ Hoffman PS, Bruce AM, Olekhnovich I, Warren CA, Burgess SL, Hontecillas R, Viladomiu M, Bassaganya-Riera J, Guerrant RL, Macdonald TL (2014). "Preclinical studies of amixicile, a systemic therapeutic developed for treatment of Clostridium difficile infections that also shows efficacy against Helicobacter pylori". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 58 (8): 4703–12. doi:10.1128/AAC.03112-14. PMC 4136022Freely accessible. PMID 24890599. 

Further reading[edit]