Pythion (Greek: Πύθιον) or Pythium was an ancient city of Perrhaebia in Thessaly, situated at the foot of Mount Olympus, and forming a Tripolis with the two neighbouring towns of Azorus and Doliche. Pythion derived its name from a temple of Apollo Pythius situated on one of the summits of Olympus, as we learn from an epigram of Xeinagoras, a Greek mathematician, who measured the height of Olympus from these parts (ap. Plut. Aemil. Paul. 15). Games were also celebrated here in honour of Apollo. (Steph. B. s. v. Πύθιον.) Pythion commanded an important pass across Mount Olympus. This pass and that of Tempe are the only two leading from Macedonia into the northeast of Thessaly. The site is occupied by a modern town of the same name, but virtually no remains of the ancient town have been discovered there. (Liv. xlii. 53; Plut., Steph. B., ll. cc.; Ptol. iii. 13; § 42)
During the reign of Amyntas III or Philip II, Tripolis (Perrhaebia) was annexed to Macedon. According to Theagenes the inhabitants of Balla (Pieria) were relocated to Pythion. So we find in 3rd century BC one Philarchos son of Hellanion, Macedonian Elimiote from Pythion, proxenos in Delphi.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Pythium". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
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