Pyxicephalus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Pyxicephalus
Pyxicephalus adspersus 1.jpg
African bull frog
Pyxicephalus adspersus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Pyxicephalidae
Subfamily: Pyxicephalinae
Genus: Pyxicephalus
Tschudi, 1838
Synonyms[1]

Maltzania Boettger, 1881
Phrynopsis Pfeffer, 1893

Pyxicephalus (πυξίς, pyxis = "(round) box," κεφαλή, kephalē = "head") is a genus of true frogs from Sub-Saharan Africa, commonly referred to as African bull frogs or bull frogs.[1] They are very large (P. adspersus) to large (remaining species) frogs, with females significantly smaller than males.[2] They may take decades to reach their full size potential and they are some of the longest-living frogs, possibly able to reach ages as high as 45 years.[3]

These bulky and voracious predators will eat any animal (including small vertebrates and conspecifics) they can fit in their large mouth that has two fang-like projections on the lower jaw, but they are themselves commonly eaten by humans, predatory birds, mammals and monitor lizards. They remain hidden—they are fossorial—for much of the year, but emerge to breed in temporary pools after rains. The tadpoles often are guarded by the male.[2][3]

Species[edit]

There are four recognized species:[1][4]

P. edulis has long been confused with P. adspersus, and species limits between them are not fully understood.[2] Additionally, P. angusticeps was only revalidated in 2013,[2] and some authorities still do not recognize it.[5] Another sometimes used name is P. cordofanus Steindachner, 1867, but it is a nomen dubium.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Pyxicephalus Tschudi, 1838". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Scott, E.; J.D. Visser; C.A. Yetman; L. Oliver; D.G. Broadley (2013). "Revalidation of Pyxicephalus angusticeps Parry, 1982 (Anura: Natatanura: Pyxicephalidae), a bullfrog endemic to the lowlands of eastern Africa". Zootaxa. 3599 (3): 201–228. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3599.3.1. hdl:2263/57608. PMID 24613871.
  3. ^ a b Channing, A.; K.M. Howell (2006). Amphibians of East Africa. Cornell University Press. pp. 318–324. ISBN 9783930612536.
  4. ^ "Pyxicephalidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  5. ^ "Pyxicephalus Tschudi, 1838". African Amphibians. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  6. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Anura". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 March 2017.