Q3 (New York City bus)

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For additional information on the current bus service, see List of bus routes in Queens § Q3.
Q3
Farmers Boulevard – JFK Airport
NYC Transit logo.svg
Metro Transit Authority-Orion VII Next generation (5189017146).jpg
A Q3 bus stopped within John F. Kennedy Airport.
Overview
System MTA Regional Bus Operations
Operator New York City Transit Authority
Garage Jamaica Depot
Vehicle
Began service 1919
Route
Locale Queens
Communities served Jamaica, Hollis, St. Albans, Springfield Gardens
Start Jamaica, Queens – 165th Street Bus Terminal Bay 1
Via Hillside Avenue, Farmers Boulevard
End JFK International Airport – Terminal 5
Length [1][2]
Service
Operates 24 hours[3]
Daily ridership 3,101,830 (2015)[4]
Fare $2.75 (MetroCard or coins)
Cash Coins only (exact change required)
Transfers Yes
Timetable Q3
← Q2  {{{system_nav}}}  Q4 →

The Q3 bus route constitutes a public transit line in Queens, New York City, United States,

Route description and service[edit]

The Q3 starts from Bay 1 at the 165th Street Bus Terminal in Jamaica, Queens. It then goes via Hillside Avenue, until it turns south onto Farmers Boulevard via either 187th Place or 188th Street based on the direction of travel. The route continues through the neighborhoods of Hollis, stopping at the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) station there. It then passes through St. Albans, before stopping at the LIRR station at Locust Manor. Then it continues, passing through Springfield Gardens before finally crossing Rockaway Boulevard, and then entering John F. Kennedy International Airport via North Boundary Road, passing by the North Cargo Area and Central Terminal Area before terminating at Terminal 5, where a connection to the AirTrain JFK is available.[3][5]

A majority of the ridership of the Q3 is formed from airport employees from JFK.[6] Upon the route's extension to JFK Airport, more riders began to use the Q3, there were increased employment opportunities in Queens, airport hires were encouraged to move to Queens, and road congestion was relieved.[7]

History[edit]

The bus was originally operated by the Saint Albans Improvement Association by permit. The route was put under the supervision of the New York City Department of Plant & Structures in 1921 and it was established as Route 76, Saint Albans–Hollis–Jamaica on March 27, 1922.[8] The route ran from Saint Marks Avenue, now 119th Avenue, via Farmers Avenue, Seminole Avenue and Villard Avenue, which are both now 190th Street, and Hillside Avenue to Union Hall Street.[9]

Because the majority of the Q3's route ran via Farmers Boulevard, it was known as the Farmers Boulevard Line.[10]

The Q3 Hillside Avenue-Farmers Blvd bus was then transferred to Bee Line Bus in 1923.[11] Bee Line originally operated from 163rd Street and Jamaica Avenue in the Jamaica business district.[12] On October 1, 1930,[13] the Bee Line routes began terminating at the newly constructed Jamaica Union Bus Terminal near its former terminus. The new bus terminal was located at Jamaica Avenue and New York Boulevard (now Guy R. Brewer Boulevard), adjacent to the now-closed Union Hall Street Long Island Rail Road station.[13][14][15][16]

On August 11, 1936, the Bee-Line routes were moved to the newly opened 165th Street Bus Terminal (then the Long Island Bus Terminal).[17][18][19] In May 1939, Bee-Line relinquished its Queens routes.[20] The bus was assumed by the North Shore Bus Company on May 22, 1939. These routes began operation from the terminal under North Shore Bus Company on June 25, 1939,[21] as part of the company's takeover of nearly all routes in Zone D (Jamaica and Southeast Queens).[22][23][24] The route was extended to Rockaway Boulevard on July 1, 1939. The route was cut back to the 165th Street Bus Terminal from 163rd Street and Jamaica Avenue on October 27, 1939.[11]

On March 30, 1947, North Shore Bus would be taken over by the New York City Board of Transportation (later the New York City Transit Authority), making the bus route city operated.[25][26][27][28]

Q3 service was extended from Rockaway Boulevard to JFK International Airport on December 6, 1987.[7][29] Prior to the extension, the Q3 only operated during weekday morning and evening peak periods. However, once the route was extended, the route was expanded to 21 hours per day, 7 days a week.[7] This extension was not designed for air travelers, as evident by the route's roundabout routing, but it was instead intended for airport employees, those at JFK Airport. In the areas of southeast Queens where the Q3 operates, there is a high concentration of airport workers, and before the extension, they had no direct access via public transportation.[2] The headways during peak-periods were shortened from 20–25 minutes to 15 minutes, and new midday, evening, and weekend service was provided every 30 minutes. The new extensions, was extensively advertised through the use of brochures and timetables, which were the first for a local bus in Queens. These were distributed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to its employees at JFK, and articles were written about the extension in airport newspapers and newsletters. All households in southeast Queens got mailings. A special inaugural bus with local dignitaries ran on December 6, 1987, with a celebration at JFK. Additional service was added to the route because of increased patronage of the route. A majority of the people who started using the Q3 to get to the airport previously to travel by car.[2]

24-hour service was added to the Q3 on April 11, 2004. At the same time, service to all JFK terminals except Terminal 4 was replaced by AirTrain JFK.[30][31] The route's JFK Terminus was moved to Terminal 5 on May 30, 2012, due to construction at Terminal 4.[31][32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Transit & Bus Committee Meeting: January 2016" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "Transportation Research Record No. 1373 Aviation Airport Landside Operations and Planning" (PDF). Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. 1992. Retrieved June 19, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b Q3 bus schedule MTA Regional Bus Operations.
  4. ^ "Facts and Figures". mta.info. 2011-08-28. Retrieved 2016-06-19. 
  5. ^ "Queens Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 
  6. ^ Boyle, Daniel K.; Gawkowski, Paul R. (1992-01-01). "PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION FOR AIRPORT EMPLOYEES: Q3 EXTENSION INTO JOHN F. KENNEDY INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT". Transportation Research Record (1373). ISSN 0361-1981. 
  7. ^ a b c Diamond, Bob. Electric Transportation For The City of New York In The 21st Century Volume 1. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781329682542. 
  8. ^ "NEW YORK CITY TRANSIT ROUTES". www.chicagorailfan.com. Retrieved 2015-12-31. 
  9. ^ "Old New York". Motor Coach Age (January – June 2013). 2013. 
  10. ^ North Shore Bus Company (July 29, 1942). "For the Convenience of Queens Bus Riders" (PDF). Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. p. 4. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  11. ^ a b "Queens Issue". Motor Coach Age (April – May 1977). 1977. 
  12. ^ "Bee Line Runs Many Routes: Has Large Central Garage and Headquarters at Rockville Centre" (PDF). Brooklyn Standard Union. Fultonhistory.com. November 18, 1929. p. 18. Retrieved 11 March 2016. 
  13. ^ a b "Jamaica Opens Terminal Today: Bus Station Triples Service: 50,000 Passengers To Be Handled Daily By New Plan" (PDF). The Nassau Daily Review. Fultonhistory.com. October 1, 1930. p. 9. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  14. ^ "Bus Routes Over Which Companies Are Battling" (PDF). Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. July 15, 1931. p. 4. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  15. ^ "$1,500,000 Bus Terminal Started: Service To Begin In 30 Days, Say Depot Builders" (PDF). Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. August 12, 1930. p. 1. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  16. ^ "Green Line to Use New York Ave. Depot As Bee Buses Shift to 165th St. Terminal" (PDF). Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. August 12, 1936. p. 2. Retrieved 20 February 2016. 
  17. ^ "At Midnight...Tuesday, August 11, 1936". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. August 11, 1936. p. 4. Retrieved 20 February 2016 – via Newspapers.com. 
  18. ^ "Bee Bus Line Will Use New Jamaica Station: To Remove to $1,500,000 Terminal Tuseday Night". New York Herald Tribune. August 10, 1936. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  19. ^ "Jamaica's Bus Terminal Open: Bee Line and Four Shops Lease Space-Centrally Located". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. August 16, 1936. Retrieved 9 July 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  20. ^ Hall, Charles (May 23, 1939). "Bee Line Quits Zone D As Police Jail Drivers: Ousted 'Wildcat' Presses Fight In Courts" (PDF). Long Island Daily Press (72). Fultonhistory.com. p. 1. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  21. ^ "North Shore Buses Start From Terminal Today" (PDF). Long Island Star-Journal. Fultonhistory.com. June 25, 1939. p. 3. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  22. ^ "North Shore May Take Over Z & M And Schenck Lines on Saturday: Franchise for Zone D Area Is Legalized" (PDF). Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. June 27, 1939. p. 1. Retrieved 20 February 2016. 
  23. ^ Abelman, Lester (February 2, 1939). "Court Upholds Bus Permit; City Defeats Bee Line In Zone D Fight; Way Cleared for North Shore to Take Over Routes in Jamaica Area" (PDF). Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. p. 1. Retrieved 20 February 2016. 
  24. ^ "31 BUS FRANCHISES AWARDED BY CITY; 26 Grants in Manhattan Made to Forestall Stopping of Emergency Lines. UNIFIED SYSTEM HELD UP New York Railways Will Take Over Madison Av. Lines Today -- 2-Cent Transfer Points Fixed.". The New York Times. 1932-12-17. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-06-19. 
  25. ^ "Major Improvements Ordered in Zone D" (PDF). Long Island Star-Journal. Fultonhistory.com. April 10, 1947. p. 2. Retrieved 19 February 2016. 
  26. ^ Sparberg, Andrew J. (1 October 2014). From a Nickel to a Token: The Journey from Board of Transportation to MTA. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-6190-1. 
  27. ^ "CITY TAKES OVER BUS LINE: O'Connor Selected to Operate North Shore System". The New York Times. March 30, 1947. Retrieved 27 March 2016. 
  28. ^ "120-Passenger Vehicles Added For Next Week: 10 City Lines Will Have All New Equipment by Wednesday" (PDF). Fultonhistory.com. Long Island Star-Journal. December 31, 1948. p. 2. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
  29. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/19980127010654/http://www.mta.nyc.ny.us/nyct/Bus/busfacts.htm Department of Buses history NYC Transit
  30. ^ "Bus Service Advisories: Queens". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2004. Archived from the original on 2004-12-05. Retrieved 20 February 2016. 
  31. ^ a b "Transit Committee Meeting June 2012" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-13. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  32. ^ "mta.info | Planned Service Notices: JFK Airport Terminal 4 Bus Stop Relocation". 2012-05-31. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved 2015-12-30.