QF 4 inch Mk V naval gun
|Ordnance QF 4 inch gun Mk V|
Coastal defence gun
|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|In service||1914 - 1940s|
|Used by||British Empire|
|Wars||World War I
World War II
|Weight||Barrel & breech: 4,890 lb (2,220 kg)|
|Barrel length||Bore: 15 ft (4.6 m)
Total: 15 ft 8 in (4.8 m)
|Shell||31 lb (14.1 kg) fixed QF or Separate-loading QF|
|Calibre||4-inch (101.6 mm)|
|Breech||horizontal sliding block|
|Recoil||hydro-pneumatic or hydro-spring 15 inches (380 mm)|
|Muzzle velocity||2,350 ft/s (716 m/s)|
|Maximum firing range||Surface: 16,300 yd (15,000 m)
AA: 28,750 ft (8,800 m)
|Filling weight||5 pounds (2.27 kg)|
The QF 4 inch Mk V gun[note 1] was a Royal Navy gun of World War I which was adapted on HA (i.e. high-angle) mountings to the heavy anti-aircraft role both at sea and on land, and was also used as a coast defence gun.
This QF gun was introduced to provide a higher rate of fire than the BL 4 inch Mk VII. It first appeared in 1914 as secondary armament on Arethusa class cruisers, was soon adapted to a high-angle anti-aircraft role. It was typically used on cruisers and heavier ships, although V and W class destroyers of 1917 also mounted the gun.
Mk V was superseded by the QF 4 inch Mk XVI as the HA (i.e. anti-aircraft) gun on new warships in the 1930s, but it continued to serve on many ships such as destroyers, light and heavy cruisers in World War II.
Army anti-aircraft gun
Early in World War I several guns were supplied by the Navy for evaluation as anti-aircraft guns for the home defence of key installations in Britain. They were mounted on static platforms and proved fairly successful after a fixed round was developed to replace the original separate round, and more followed. The AA mounting allowed elevation to 80° but loading was not possible above 62°, which slowed the maximum rate of fire. At the Armistice a total of 24 guns were employed in AA defences in Britain and 2 in France. After World War I the guns were returned to the Navy.
Coast Defence gun
From 1915 to 1928 several guns were mounted in forts to guard the estuary of the River Humber.
The following table compares the gun's performance with the other British World War I anti-aircraft guns:-
|Gun||m/v ft/s||Shell (lb)||Time to 5,000 ft (1,500 m) at 25° (seconds)||Time to 10,000 ft (3,000 m) at 40° (seconds)||Time to 15,000 ft (4,600 m) at 55° (seconds)||Max. height (ft)|
|QF 13 pdr 9 cwt||1990||12.5||10.1||15.5||22.1||19,000|
|QF 12 pdr 12 cwt||2200||12.5||9.1||14.1||19.1||20,000|
|QF 3 inch 20 cwt 1914||2500||12.5||8.3||12.6||16.3||23,500|
|QF 3 inch 20 cwt 1916||2000||16||9.2||13.7||18.8||22,000|
|QF 4 inch Mk V World War I||2350||31 (3 c.r.h.)||4.4??||9.6||12.3||28,750|
|QF 4 inch Mk V World War II ||2350||31 (4.38/6 c.r.h.)||?||?||?||31,000|
Ammunition for the original low-angle guns introduced in World War I was Separate QF i.e. the shell and cartridge were separate items, but in World War II most guns used Fixed QF ammunition i.e. a single unit. The fixed Mk V ammunition was 44.3 inches (1.13 m) long and weighed 56 pounds (25 kg), while the projectile was 31 pounds (14 kg).
Crew storing fixed rounds on the Kingfisher class sloop HMS Widgeon, August 1943
Weapons of comparable role, performance and era
- Cannon 102/45 Italian copy of the QF Mk V made under license
- 10.5 cm SK L/45 naval gun Approximate German equivalent firing slightly heavier shell
- Mk V = Mark 5. Britain used Roman numerals to denote Marks (models) of ordnance until after World War II. Mark V indicates this was the fifth model of QF 4-inch gun.
- Tony DiGiulian quotes 283 Mk VC built for the navy during WWII; 554 earlier types built for the navy; about 107 earlier types built for the Army in WWI.
- Hogg & Thurston 1972, Page 101
- WWI 3 c.r.h. HE shell. Tony DiGiulian, "British 4"/45 (10.2 cm) QF Mark V and Mark XV"
- Tony DiGiulian's webpage provides comprehensive information on this gun's Naval service. Tony DiGiulian (January 13, 2008). "British 4"/45 (10.2 cm) QF Mark V and Mark XV". Retrieved 2008-03-29.
- Hogg & Thurston 1972, Page 100
- Routledge 1994, Page 27
- Hogg & Thurston 1972, Page 98
- Routledge 1994, Page 9
- Hogg & Thurston 1972, Page 234-235
- Routledge 1994, Page 13
- WWII details from Tony DiGiulian's website
- Campbell, Naval Weapons of WWII, p.58.
- Tony DiGiulian, British 4"/45 (10.2 cm) QF Mark V and Mark XV
- I.V. Hogg & L.F. Thurston, British Artillery Weapons & Ammunition 1914-1918. London: Ian Allan, 1972.
- Brigadier N.W. Routledge, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. Anti-Aircraft Artillery, 1914-55. London: Brassey's, 1994. ISBN 1-85753-099-3
- Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to QF 4 inch Mk V naval gun.|
- Gun drill for 4-inch Q.F. gun mark V (land Service) 1924 at State Library of Victoria