QF 4-inch naval gun Mk XVI
|Ordnance QF 4 inch gun Mk XVI|
Naval anti-aircraft gun
|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|Used by||Royal Navy|
Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
South African Navy Royal Malaysian Navy
|Wars||World War II|
|Variants||Mk XVI* and Mk XXI|
|Mass||Barrel & breech 4,495 lb (2,039 kg)|
|Barrel length||180 inches (4,572 mm) (45 cal)|
|Shell||Fixed QF 35 pounds (15.88 kg) HE|
38.25 pounds (17.35 kg) S.A.P.
|Calibre||4-inch (101.6 mm)|
|Recoil||hydro - pneumatic 831 millimetres (33 in)|
|Elevation||mounting dependent (-10 to 80 deg on H.A. twin mark XIX mount)|
|Rate of fire||15–20 rounds per minute|
|Muzzle velocity||2,660 feet per second (811 m/s)|
|Maximum firing range||19,850 yards (18,150 m) at 45 degrees elevation|
AA Range: 39,000 feet (11,890 m) at 80 degrees elevation
|Filling weight||9 pounds (4.08 kg)|
The Mk XVI superseded the earlier QF 4 inch Mk V naval gun on many Royal Naval ships during the late 1930s and early 1940s. The ammunition fired by the Mk V gun and the Mk XVI guns was different. The Mk V ammunition was 44.3 inches (1.13 m) long and weighed 56 pounds (25 kg), while the ammunition fired by the Mk XVI gun was 42.1 inches (1.07 m) long and weighed 66.75 pounds (30.28 kg). The weight of the high-explosive projectile grew from 31 pounds (14 kg) for the Mk V to 35 pounds (16 kg) for the Mk XVI.
There were three variants of the gun produced with differing construction methods. The original Mk XVI had an A tube, jacket to 63.5 inches (1.61 m) from the muzzle and a removable breech ring. The Mk XVI* replaced the A tube with an autofretted loose barrel with a sealing collar at the front of the jacket. The Mk XXI was a lighter version with an autofretted monobloc barrel and a removable breech ring. The total number of Mk XVI and XVI* guns produced was 2,555 while there were 238 Mk XXI guns produced. Of those totals 604 Mk XVI* and 135 of the Mk XXI guns were produced in Canada and 45 of the Mk XVI* were produced in Australia. These guns were usually mounted on HA/LA Mark XIX twin mountings, although several Australian frigates and corvettes had single-gun Mk XX mountings.
The last Royal Navy ship to operate with a Mark XIX twin mounting was HMS Mermaid (F76), which had originally been designed for the Ghana Navy and so required a simple and inexpensive main armament. Acquired by the British Government in 1972, she served until 1977 when she was purchased by the Royal Malaysian Navy and renamed KD Hang Tuah.
List of equipped vessels
As secondary armament (list not complete)
- Aircraft carriers: HMS Furious, HMS Unicorn
- Escort carriers: Nairana-class escort carriers, HMS Pretoria Castle, HMS Activity
- HMS Hood
- HMS Rodney
- C-class cruisers (converted to anti-aircraft cruisers)
- HMS Barham, HMS Malaya, HMS Warspite
- Revenge-class battleships
- County-class cruisers
- HMS Exeter
- Swiftsure-class cruisers
- Crown Colony-class cruisers
- Edinburgh-class cruisers
- Southampton-class cruisers (Town-class)
- Arethusa-class cruisers
- Perth-class cruisers
- Leander-class cruisers
- HMS Effingham
- HMS Danae (ORP Conrad)
As main armament (list not complete)
- Abdiel-class minelayers
- HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck
- Tribal-class destroyers
- L and M-class destroyer (the first series L: HMS Gorham, Lance, Legion, Lively)
- HMS Petard (modified)
- Weapon-class destroyers
- V and W-class destroyers (after WAIR modification – 15 ships)
- HMS Wallace (after WAIR modification)
- Hunt-class destroyers
- Some Bathurst-class corvettes (single-gun Mk XX mounting)
- Black Swan-class sloops
- Egret-class sloops
- Bittern-class sloop (modified)
- Grimsby-class sloop (modified)
- Bay-class frigates
- River-class frigates (part of Canadian-built)
- 8 auxiliary AA defence ships
- Some landing ships
Allied ships modified in the United Kingdom
- ORP Błyskawica (Polish)
- HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (Dutch)
- HNLMS Isaac Sweers (Dutch)
- 4 French Elan-class avisos and Chamois-class avisos
Twin guns of HMAS Swan bombarding shore positions in New Guinea, February 1945
Single Mk XX mounting on HMAS Barcoo, 1945
Gunners of HMS Glasgow clearing empty cartridges after a shoot
Gunners of V-class destroyer HMS Vivien displaying anti-aircraft rounds, 1940 A round in a fuze setter on HMS Belfast
- QF 4 inch Mk V naval gun : Royal Navy anti-aircraft predecessor
- List of naval anti-aircraft guns
- List of naval guns
- On HMCS Haida, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
- Naval Museum of Alberta, Canada
- Trenton Park, Trenton, Nova Scotia, Canada
- On HMS Belfast, London, which retains four twin guns.
- Explosion! Museum of Naval Firepower, Gosport, Hampshire, UK
- On ORP Błyskawica, Gdynia (re-bored to 100 mm).
- A pair at South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg
- A pair in a turret from INS Haifa (K-38), at Clandestine Immigration and Naval Museum, Haifa, Israel.
- Two single guns on HMAS Diamantina, Brisbane, Australia
- One twin gun at the Marinemuseet, Horten, Norway.
- One twin gun in the Aldhurst military vehicles collection, Surrey England. Further research has proven the left gun was installed on the heavy cruiser HMS Devonshire from 1943 till she was scrapped in 1954.
- Mk XVI = Mark 16. Britain used Roman numerals to denote marks (models) of ordnance until after World War II. Mark XVI indicates this was the sixteenth model of QF 4 inch gun.
- "British 4"/45 (10.2 cm) QF HA Marks XVI, XVII, XVIII and XXI". NavWeaps. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- Campbell, Naval Weapons of WWII, p.56.
- "THE 4-in. Q.F. MARK XVI* GUNS ON THE H.A. TWIN MARK XIX MOUNTING". maritime.org. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- Marriott, Leo (1990). Royal Navy Frigates since 1945, Second Edition. London: Ian Allan Ltd. p. 102. ISBN 0-7110-1915-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to QF 4 inch Mk XVI naval gun.|
- B.R. 257. Handbook for the 4 inch Q.F. Mark XVI* Gun on the H.A. Twin Mark XIX And Single Mark XX Mountings. G3821/41 Naval Ordnance Department, Admiralty, July 1941.
- Tony DiGiulian, British 4"/45 (10.2 cm) QF HA Marks XVI, XVII, XVIII and XXI
- Youtube video clip of demonstration of loading and firing on HMS Belfast
- Youtube video clip of demonstration of loading and firing on HMS Belfast : closeup Note : for safety reasons, cartridges are seen being loaded without the normal attached shell.