Qadan culture

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Qadan Culture
Upper Egypt- shows the spread of Qadan Culture along the Nile River (approx. 15,000 years ago)
Geographical range Upper Egypt
Period Mesolithic
Dates 13,000 B.C.E. — 9,000 B.C.E.
Major sites Cemetery 117
Preceded by Sebilian
Followed by Harifian

The Qadan culture (13,000-9,000 BC) was an ancient culture that, archaeological evidence suggests, originated in Northeast Africa approximately 15,000 years ago,[1][2] specifically in Upper Egypt (present day south Egypt). This way of life is estimated to have persisted for approximately 4,000 years, and was characterized by hunting, as well as a unique approach to food gathering that incorporated the preparation and consumption of wild grasses and grains.[1][2] Systematic efforts were made by the Qadan people to water, care for, and harvest local plant life, but grains were not planted in ordered rows. [3]

Sites from this period span from the Second Cataract of the Nile to Tushka, situated approximately 250 kilometers upriver from Aswan.[4]

In archaeological terms, the Qadan culture is generally viewed as a cluster of Mesolithic Stage communities living in Nubia in the upper Nile Valley prior to 9000 BC. At a time of relatively high water levels in the Nile, it is characterized by a diverse stone tool industry that is taken to represent increasing degrees of specialization and locally differentiated regional groupings.[3] Large numbers of grinding stones and blades have been found with glossy films of silica on them, which could possibly be the result of cutting grass stems on their surfaces. [5] There is some evidence of conflict between the groups, suggesting periods of invasion or intense inter-tribal war.[3] In fact, about 40 percent of individuals buried in the Jebel Sahaba cemetery near the border of Sudan on the Nile river show signs of fatal wounds caused by projectiles,[6] from weapons such as spears, darts, or arrows.[5] The remains found in the cemeteries suggest that ritual burials were practiced.[5]

The Qadan economy was based on fishing, hunting, and, as mentioned, the extensive use of wild grain.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Phillipson, DW: African Archaeology, page 149. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  2. ^ a b Shaw, I & Jameson, R: A Dictionary of Archaeology, page 136. Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 2002.
  3. ^ a b c d Darvill, T: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology, Copyright © 2002, 2003 by Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. p. 777. 
  5. ^ a b c "Egypt: History - The Upper Paleolithic". Tour Egypt. Tour Egypt. June 20, 2011. Archived from the original on January 12, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2014. 
  6. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. p. 777.