Qareen

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A Qareen/Hamzad (Arabic: قرينqarīn literally meaning: 'constant companion'), is a spiritual double of human, either part of the human himself or a complementary creature in a parallel dimension.[1][2] Due to its ghostly nature, the Qareen/Hamzad is classified among the Jinn-type creatures, although usually not actually a Jinni.[3] The Hamzad as an accompanying spirit should not be confused with the Qarinah as a female "childbed demon" also existing in Middle Eastern faith.

Qareen/Hamzad in Islam[edit]

Qareen/Hamzad are mentioned in Sūrat az-Zukhruf: "And whosoever turns away from remembering and mentioning the Most Beneficent, we appoint for him Shayatin to be a Qareen/hamzad to him." [4] Several opinions exist on the exact nature of the Qareen. According to one opinion, the Hamzad is actually a Shaitan, who incites humans with waswās ("evil suggestions"), but can became good in accordance with humans good deeds.[5] For example, it is said, that the Hamzad of Muhammad became Muslim.[6] However it is uncertain, whether or not, a hamzad besides those of Muhammad, can actually become good.

Another opinion holds, that Qareen/Hamzad refers to any type of spirit accompanying humans. Here, the Qareen/Hamzad refers to both demons, who cast evil suggestions, but also to angels, who advises to do good deeds.[7][8]

Further the Qareen/Hamzad is depicted as the other self: An integral spiritpart of the person. A dissent between the inner Qareen and the behavior may cause the same symptoms as Jinn-possession.[9][10]

In Hadith[edit]

With regard to the hadith of Muhammad, "There is none of you who does not have a companion (Qareen/Hamzad) appointed for him from among the jinn." They said, "Even you?" He said, "Even me, but Allah helped me against him fa aslama [or fa aslamu], so he only tells me to do that which is good."

There are two well-known views that have been reported. Those who read the phrase as fa aslamu said that it means, "So I am safe [aslamu] from his evil and temptation." Those who read it as fa aslama said that it means, "The Qareen/Hamzad became Muslim [aslama] and became a believer, so he only tells me to do that which is good."[11]

They differed as to which view is correct. Al-Khattaabi said: The correct version is fa aslamu [so I am safe]. Al-Qaadi Iyaad thought that fa aslama [so he became Muslim] was correct, and this is the preferred version, because he then said, "so he only tells me to do that which is good." (Reported by Muslim, 2814). And they differed concerning the report that says fa aslama. It was said that it means he submitted in the sense of surrendering, and it appears in this form (fa astaslama – so he surrendered) in reports narrated elsewhere than in Saheeh Muslim. And it was said that it means that he become a Muslim and a believer. This is the apparent meaning.[11]

Abu Na’eem al-Asbahaani said in Dalaa’il al-Nubuwwah (1/185): It was said aslama meaning he believed. Muhammad was the only one whose Qareen became a Muslim and a believer.[11]

Based on this, having one's Qareen/Hamzad become a Muslim was something that was unique to Muhammad.[11]

Furthermore, there is no evidence that the Companions (Sahaba) ever tried to convert their Qareen/Hamzaad to become a Muslim.

Other sources[edit]

The concept of a Qareen/Hamzad appears in pre-Islamic literature as well, and reminds to the Greek daimones and the Christian guardian angel.[12] In Pre-Islamic Arabian the Qareen/Hamzad is said to be able to inspire poets for their works.[13]

One of the seven mu'allaqat—Arabic poems recognized as masterpieces during the pre-Islamic period—uses the word as a metaphor. To describe his tribe's excellence in battle, poet Amr bin Kulthum says that "every tribe has taken fear of us as a qarin (or "constant companion")," meaning that their fear of Amr's tribe is always present. This goes further to show the origin of the word qareen, as described in the Arabic dictionary as a 'companion'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anwer Mahmoud Zanaty Glossary Of Islamic Terms IslamKotob page 184
  2. ^ Kelly Bulkeley, Kate Adams, Patricia M. Davis Dreaming in Christianity and Islam: Culture, Conflict, and Creativity Rutgers University Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-813-54610-0 page 144
  3. ^ Veena Das, Clara Han Living and Dying in the Contemporary World: A Compendium Univ of California Press 2015 ISBN 978-0-520-27841-7 page 145
  4. ^ Quran 43:36
  5. ^ Majmū‘ al-Fatāwá. 1. pp. 359–361.
  6. ^ [1]IslamQA: "Every person has a constant companion from among the jinn"
  7. ^ Kelly Bulkeley, Kate Adams, Patricia M. Davis Dreaming in Christianity and Islam: Culture, Conflict, and Creativity Rutgers University Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-813-54610-0 page 144
  8. ^ Medlink, Students (23 May 2007). "Medlink Students on Qareen". www.medlinkstudents.com.
  9. ^ audouin Dupret Standing Trial: Law and the Person in the Modern Middle East I.B.Tauris 2004 ISBN 978-1-860-64997-4 page 154
  10. ^ Veena Das, Clara Han Living and Dying in the Contemporary World: A Compendium Univ of California Press 2015 ISBN 978-0-520-27841-7 page 145
  11. ^ a b c d Islam Question and Answer - Praying for Jinn Companion to Become Muslim
  12. ^ Rosemary Ellen Guiley, Philip J. Imbrogno The Vengeful Djinn: Unveiling the Hidden Agenda of GeniesLlewellyn Worldwide 2011 ISBN 978-0-738-72881-0 page 117
  13. ^ Baudouin Dupret Standing Trial: Law and the Person in the Modern Middle East I.B.Tauris 2004 ISBN 978-1-860-64997-4 page 153