Qashqai language

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Qaşqay dili
Native to Iran
Region Fars, Isfahan, Bushehr, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Khuzestan
Ethnicity Qashqai
Native speakers
923,000 (2014)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 qxq
Glottolog qash1240[1]
Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-a

Qashqai (also spelled Qashqay, Kashkai, Kashkay, Qašqāʾī,[2][3] and Qashqa'i) is a Oghuz Turkic language spoken by the Qashqai people, an ethnic group living mainly in the Fars region of southern Iran. In the Encyclopaedia Iranica Qashqai is also regarded as an independent third group of dialects within the southwestern Turkic languages.[4] It is known to speakers as Turki.[5] Estimates of the number of Qashqai speakers vary. Ethnologue gives a figure of 923,000 in 2014.[6]

The Qashqai language is closely related to Azerbaijani. However, some Qashqai varieties namely the variety spoken in the Sheshbeyli tribe share features with Turkish, too.[7] Some linguists argue that[further explanation needed] it is a dialect of the Azerbaijani language.[8] In a sociopolitical sense, though, Qashqai must be considered as a language on its own right.[9]

Like other Turkic languages spoken in Iran, such as the Azerbaijani language, known also as Azeri, Qashqai uses a modified version of the Perso-Arabic script.







Sample texts[edit]


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Qashqa'i". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Qašqāʾī tribal confederacy: Language at Encyclopædia Iranica, by Michael Knüppel
  3. ^ Azeri Turkish at Encyclopædia Iranica, by Gerhard Doerfer
  4. ^ "QAŠQĀʾI TRIBAL CONFEDERACY ii. LANGUAGE". In: Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
  5. ^ Qašqāʾi Tribal Confederacy, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  6. ^ Ethnologue
  7. ^ Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2016. Le qashqay: langue turcique d'Iran. CreateSpace: Independent Publishing Platform
  8. ^ Caferoglu & Gerhard Doerfer, 1959
  9. ^ Dolatkhah Sohrab, Csato Eva. 2014. Vocalism in two Kashkay varieties of the Amaleh Tribe. Turcologica 100, Wiesbaden: Harrossowitz Verlag

Further reading[edit]

  • Csató Éva Ágnes, 2001. Present in Kashkay. In: Turkic Languages, Vol. 5: 104-119.
  • Csató Éva Ágnes, 2005. On copying in Kashkay. In: Éva Á. Csató, Bo Isakssons & Carina Jahani (eds.) Linguistic Conversion and areal diffusion: Case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, London, Routledge Curzon, 271-283.
  • Csató Éva Ágnes. 2006. Gunnar Jaring's Kashkay materials, In Lars Johanson & Christiane Bulut (eds.), Turkic-Iranian contact areas. Historical and linguistic aspect. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. 209-225.
  • Doerfer Gerhard, et al. 1990. Qašqā’ī-Gedichte aus Fīrūz-ābād (=Südoghusisch). In: Oghusica aus Iran, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, pp. 67–132.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab, Csató Éva Á. & Karakoç Birsel. 2016. On the marker -(y)akï in Kashkay. In: Éva Á. Csató, Lars Johanson, András Róna-Tas, and Bo Utas (eds.) Turks and Iranians: Interactions in Language and History, pp. 283–301. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2016. Parlons qashqay "Let's speak Qashqay". Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2015. Qashqay Folktales: transcription, translation, glossary. Charleston, SC: CreateSpace Independent publishing platform.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2012. Elements for a grammar of Kashkay: a Turkic language of Iran. PhD dissertation. Paris: Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
  • Dolatkhah Sohrab. 2007. Présentation et documentation du folklore qashqai:langue turcique du sud d’Iran. Master thesis. Paris: Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
  • Gharakhalou-Narrei, Mehdi. 1996. Migration and cultural change in urban communities of the Qashqa'i of Iran. PhD thesis. Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
  • Jurie Étienne. 2005. Qashqa’i : derniers nomades d’Iran. Paris : Voyages Zellidja.
  • Mardâni R. Assadollâh, 2000. Asanaklar : Tarânehâye torkiye qašqâ’ī "Qashqai folksongs" [in Perso-Arabic script]. Iran: Nakhlhâ-ye Sorkh Publishers.
  • Mardâni R. Assadollâh, 2007. Qašqayı sözlügü [Qashqai Dictionary]. [in Azerbaijani and Perso-Arabic script with explications in Persian] Shiraz: Rahgosha Publishers.
  • Menges, Karl Heinrich, 1990. Drei Qašqā’ī Text. In: Doerfer et al. (eds.), pp. 135–138.
  • Shahbâzi, Habib. (ed.). 1989/1368 A.H., Qašqâ’ï še’ri [Qashqai poetry] [in Perso-Arabic script], Shiraz: Shahbazi.
  • Soper, John David, 1987. Loan Syntax in Turkic and Iranian: The Verb Systems of Tajik, Uzbek, and Qashqay. Doctoral dissertation, Los Angeles: University of California

External links[edit]