Qi of Xia
ca. 2146 BC – 2117 BC
Qi the Chinese King
|Parent(s)||Yu the Great
Yu married Nu Jiao and stayed at home for only three days before going back to stop a flood. While Yu was stopping the flood, Yu's wife bore a son. He named the boy Qi. After nine years, Yu had finished stopping the flood. When he finally went home, little Qi was very happy and rushed into his father's arms.
Yu died 45 years into his reign. Qi's succession to the throne is unclear.
According to the historian Sima Qian, Yu did not want his son to become king and intended to give the throne to Gao Yao, his Minister of Justice, but when Gao died Yu designated as his heir Yi (also known as Boyi), his former companion for thirteen years fighting the flood and his current Minister of Animal Husbandry. But due to Yu's great influence, all the leaders of the Xia states came to admire Qi instead of Yi, so Yi had no choice but to pass up the throne to Qi at the end of three years of mourning for Yu.
The Bamboo Annals also mention that Yu appointed Yi as his successor, but mention nothing of Yi's reigning, stating only that Yu's son Qi took the throne of Xia after the 3 years of mourning for Yu. It relates that Boyi (Yi or Yih) died in Qi's 6th year and that Qi "appointed a sacrifice for him". However, in a footnote, translator James Legge observes: "This account does not agree with the account of the death of Yih, which is often attributed to the Annals, and which was no doubt in some of the Bamboo Books; viz. that 'Yih was aiming at the throne, and K'e [Qi] put him to death'."
After Qi's rule, Qi's son Tai Kang succeeded him as king.
Events during his reign
The Bamboo Annals record the following events for Qi's reign:
- In his first year, he held great feasts in both the former capital, and his new one.
- In the second year, Boyi "left the court and went to his state". Qi led his army to fight the rebellious prince of Hu County at the Battle of Gan (background of the "Speech at Gan" chapter in the Shang shu).
- In the sixth year, Boyi died, and Qi "appointed a sacrifice" to memorialize him.
- In the eighth year of his reign, Qi sent Mengtu, one of his ministers to Ba 'to preside over litigations'.
- In the tenth year, he "made a tour of inspection, and celebrated a complete service of Shun's music" in Damu. Some sources may add that he created a dance named Nine Shao (see Jiu Ge).
- In his 11th year, Qi banished his youngest son Wuguan 'beyond the western Ho', i.e., to Xihe.
- In the 15th year, Wuguan led a rebellion on the western Ho. Qi sent one of his ministers, Shou to lead an army to punish Wuguan, when Wuguan surrendered.
Qi of Xia
Yu the Great
|King of China
ca. 2146–2117 BC