Qiam 1

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Qiam 1
Qiam1.PNG
TypeSRBM
Service history
In service2010–present
Used byIran
Production history
ManufacturerIran
No. built>24[1]
Specifications
Weight6,155 kg (13,569 lb)[1]
Length11.5 m (38 ft)[1]
Diameter0.88 m (2.9 ft) (body) 0.60 m (2.0 ft) (warhead)[1]
Warhead750 kg (1,650 lb) High explosive (HE) fragmentation, submunitions, nuclear possible[1]

EngineLiquid fuel rocket
Operational
range
750 km (470 mi) [2]
Guidance
system
Inertial navigation system
Accuracy500 m (1,600 ft) circular error probable (CEP)[1]
Launch
platform
Multiple[3]

The Qiam 1 (Persian: قیام-١, "Uprising-1") is a short-range ballistic missile designed and built by Iran. It was developed from the Iranian Shahab-2,[1] a licensed copy of the North Korean Hwasong-6, all of which are versions of the Soviet Scud-C missile.[4] The Qiam 1 entered service in 2010, with a range of 750 km (470 mi) and 500 m (1,600 ft) (CEP) accuracy.[1] [5]

Development[edit]

The Qiam 1 was first seen in footage of an August 2010 test, then publicly displayed in a parade in October 2010.[1] On 22 May 2011, Iranian Defense Minister Ahmad Vahidi announced that the missile was being delivered to the Aerospace Force of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, although a US report noted deliveries in May 2010.[5][6]

Design[edit]

The Qiam 1 is a variant of the Scud missile. Its lack of fins reduces the missile's radar signature,[3][1] particularly during ascent when fins can act as radar reflectors.[7][1] Removing fins from a missile also reduces the structural mass, so the payload weight or missile range can be increased.[7][1] Without the fins and associated drag, the missile can be more responsive to changes in trajectory.[7]

Iranian sources cite an improved guidance system on the missile, and analysts note that adjusting the missile's in-flight trajectory without fins requires a highly responsive guidance system.[3][1][7] The Qiam 1's accuracy is also improved with the addition of a separable warhead—since only the warhead needs to survive re-entry most missiles have structurally weak bodies which can cause an attached warhead to tumble as the body breaks apart.[7][8] Attachments visible in pictures of the warhead may show antennas for controlling the missile's trajectory by radio.[7]

The shape of the warhead on the Qiam 1 resembles that used on Iran's Shahab-3.[1] The "baby-bottle" design can shift the center of gravity and center of pressure to compensate for changes in payload weight from earlier cone-shaped warheads; can increase drag which results in increased stability during reentry (at the expense of range) and, potentially, increase accuracy; and can increase the terminal velocity of the warhead, making it harder to intercept.[9][1][10]

In an interview with the Fars News Agency, General Farahi reported "that the range of Qiam differs in accordance with its mission, meaning that the missile can hit targets in different distances according to its mission plan."[3]

Multiple platforms may be used to launch the Qiam 1, and its launch and preparation time have been reduced compared to other Scud variants.[3] The integration of GPS or another navigation system could be used to reduce preparation time and improve accuracy by better locating the missile in relation to its target.[7]

Operational history[edit]

Test launches of the Qiam 1 occurred on 20 August 2010, 10 February 2014, and 9 March 2016.[11][1][12] The Qiam 1 was used in combat for the first time on 18 June 2017 when Iran targeted Islamic State militants in Syria as retaliation for earlier attacks in Tehran.[13]

One Qiam 1 was part of a salvo of missiles fired at militants in Syria on 18 June 2017, as retaliation for attacks on Tehran earlier that month.[1]

Potential Use in Yemen[edit]

Houthi forces in Yemen have unveiled two Scud-based mobile short-range ballistic missiles: the Burkan 1 and Burkan 2-H.[14][15] On 4 November 2017, Saudi Arabia claimed to have intercepted a Burkan 2-H over its capital, Riyadh, with a MIM-104 Patriot. It reportedly was aimed at King Khalid International Airport. [16] According to the US State Department, the missile was actually a Qiam.[17] Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Culture and Information supplied the Associated Press with pictures from a military briefing of what it claimed were components from the missile bearing Iranian markings matching those on other pictures of the Qiam 1.[18] Joint Forces Command of the Arab Coalition detailed the evidence.[19] There have also been reports of previous attempts by Iran to send missiles to Yemen.[18]

Operators[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Qiam 1". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  2. ^ "Commander-in-Chief Visits the Arsenal of Achievements of the Scientific Jihad and the Defenses of the Armed Forces [بازدید فرمانده كل قوا از نمایشگاه دستاوردهای جهادی علمی و اقتدار دفاعی نیروهای مسلح]". Khamenei.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Iran Test-Fires New Surface-to-Surface Missile". Fars News Agency. 25 August 2010. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  4. ^ Arthur, Michael (11 June 2014). "Hwasong-6 (Scud-C Variant)". Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b "The Launch of a Massive Rocket "Uprising 1" by the Air Force Corps [آغاز تحویل انبوه موشک قیام 1 به نیروی هوافضای سپاه]". IRIB News. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
  6. ^ Hildreth, Steven (6 December 2012). "Iran's Ballistic Missile and Space Launch Programs" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Wright, David (25 August 2010). "Iranian Qiam-1 Missile Test". Union of Concerned Scientists: [Blog] All Things Nuclear. Retrieved 14 November 2017.[unreliable source?]
  8. ^ Pollack, Joshua (23 August 2010). "Iran's New Missile". Arms Control Wonk. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  9. ^ Rubin, Uzi (24 August 2008). "Iran's New "Baby Bottle" Shihab". Middle East Missile Monitor. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  10. ^ Eisenstadt, Michael (November 2016). "Research Notes" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  11. ^ "Iran broadcasts missile launch on state television". The Telegraph. 20 August 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  12. ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of Security Council resolution 2231 (2015)". United Nations Security Council. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  13. ^ "US Air Force official: Missile targeting Saudis was Iranian". Ledger-Enquirer. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  14. ^ Brügge, Norbert (10 November 2017). "The Soviet "Scud" Missile Family". Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  15. ^ Yemeni rebels enhance ballistic missile campaign (PDF). Jane's Defence Weekly (Report). IHS. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  16. ^ Lister, T; Albadran, A; Al-Masmari, H; Sirgany, SE; Levenson, E (4 November 2017). "Saudi Arabia intercepts ballistic missile over capital". CNN. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  17. ^ "Press Release: Ambassador Haley on Weapons of Iranian Origin Used in Attack on Saudi Arabia". United States Mission to the United Nations. 7 November 2017.
  18. ^ a b Gambrell, Jon (11 November 2017). "Q&A: US, Saudi Arabia accuse Iran over Yemen missile launch". Washington Post. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  19. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (17 November 2017). "Dossier shows 'Iranian' missile that landed in Saudi Arabia". Jane's Defence Weekly. IHS. Retrieved 19 December 2017.