Qishan (Manchu official)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Qishan
First Class Marquis
Viceroy of Liangjiang
In office
1825–1827
Preceded by Wei Yuanyu
Succeeded by Jiang Youxian
Viceroy of Sichuan (first term)
In office
1829–1831
Preceded by Dai Sanxi
Succeeded by Eshan
Viceroy of Zhili
In office
1837–1840
Preceded by Mujangga
Succeeded by Na'erjing'e
Viceroy of Liangguang (acting)
In office
1840–1841
Preceded by Lin Zexu
Succeeded by Qitian
Imperial Resident in Tibet
In office
1843–1847
Preceded by Mengbao
Succeeded by Ruiyuan
Viceroy of Sichuan (second term)
In office
1846–1849
Preceded by Gioro-Baoxing
Succeeded by Xu Zechun
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
In office
1849–1851
Preceded by Buyantai
Succeeded by Yuqian
Personal details
Born (1786-01-18)18 January 1786
Beijing
Died 3 August 1854(1854-08-03) (aged 68)
Yangzhou
Relations Chengde (father)
Posthumous name Wenqin (文勤)
Known for Negotiating the Convention of Chuanbi
Qishan
Chinese 琦善
Jing'an
Traditional Chinese 靜庵
Simplified Chinese 静庵

Qishan[a] (Möllendorff: Kišan; Abkai: Kixan; 18 January 1786 – 3 August 1854), courtesy name Jing'an, was a Mongol nobleman and official of the late Qing dynasty. Although he was of Mongol descent, his family was under the Plain Yellow Banner of the Manchu Eight Banners. He is best known for negotiating the Convention of Chuanbi on behalf of the Qing government with the British during the First Opium War of 1839–42.

Life[edit]

Qishan was a Khalkha Mongol by birth and was from the Borjigit clan. His ancestor had led his followers to submit to the Manchu-led Qing Empire and received a hereditary first class marquis peerage in return. Qishan inherited the peerage from his ancestor. His father, Chengde (成德), served as a general in Hangzhou and dutong (都統; a military commander) in Rehe Province.

In 1806, Qishan obtained the position of a yinsheng (蔭生; or shengyuan 生員) in the entry-level imperial examination and was recruited into the civil service as a yuanwailang (員外郎; assistant director) in the Ministry of Justice. In 1819, he was promoted to xunfu (provincial governor) of Henan Province but was later demoted to zhushi (主事) and put in charge of river works. Since then, he served in a number of appointments, including Viceroy of Liangjiang (1825–1827), Sichuan (1829–1831) and Zhili (1831–1840), and Grand Scholar of Wenyuan Cabinet (文淵閣大學士).

Encampment at Toong-Koo, one of several places where Qishan met British Plenipotentiary Charles Elliot.

In 1840, during the First Opium War, the Daoguang Emperor ordered Qishan to replace Lin Zexu as the acting Viceroy of Liangguang (covering Guangdong and Guangxi provinces). Qishan was also tasked with negotiating for peace with the British. Upon witnessing British naval power, he ordered his troops to evacuate from the artillery batteries, and sent Bao Peng (鮑鵬) to meet the British at Chuanbi (穿鼻; present-day Humen, Guangdong Province) and call for a peace settlement. On 20 January 1841, without seeking approval from the Qing imperial court, Qishan signed the Convention of Chuanbi with the British. Among other things, the convention required the Qing Empire to pay the British an indemnity of six million silver coins and cede Hong Kong Island. The Daoguang Emperor was furious when he found out later that Qishan had agreed to the convention without his permission. He ordered Qishan to be arrested and escorted as a criminal to Beijing for trial; Qishan had his properties and assets confiscated and was sentenced to military service.

Qishan was pardoned later and reinstated as an official in 1842. He was subsequently appointed as Imperial Resident in Tibet (1843–1847), a second term as Viceroy of Sichuan (1846–1849), and Viceroy of Shaan-Gan (1849–1851).

In 1852, during the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor, Qishan was appointed as an Imperial Commissioner to oversee Qing imperial forces in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion. He set up the "Jiangbei Camp" (江北大營) on the northern bank of the Yangtze River at Yangzhou, with 18,000 troops stationed there. He died in the autumn of 1854 in camp. The Qing government granted him the posthumous name "Wenqin" (文勤).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The British referred to him as "Keshen". Later usage was "Ch'i Shan" and the pinyin is "Qíshàn".[1][2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck, Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China Waters. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. p. xviii. ISBN 0-7007-1145-7. 
  2. ^ Tsang, Steve (2007). A Modern History of Hong Kong. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 11. ISBN 1-84511-419-1. 
Government offices
Preceded by
Wei Yuanyu
Viceroy of Liangjiang
1825-1827
Succeeded by
Jiang Youxian
Preceded by
Dai Sanxi
Viceroy of Sichuan (first term)
1829-1831
Succeeded by
Eshan
Preceded by
Mujangga
Viceroy of Zhili
1837-1840
Succeeded by
Na'erjing'e
Preceded by
Lin Zexu
Viceroy of Liangguang (acting)
1840-1841
Succeeded by
Qitian
Preceded by
Mengbao
Imperial Resident in Tibet
1843-1847
Succeeded by
Ruiyuan
Preceded by
Gioro-Baoxing
Viceroy of Sichuan (second term)
1846-1849
Succeeded by
Xu Zechun
Preceded by
Buyantai
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
1849-1851
Succeeded by
Yuqian