Qishan (Manchu official)

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This is a Chinese name; the family name is Borjigit.
Borjigit Qishan
Viceroy of Liangjiang
In office
Preceded by Wei Yuanyu
Succeeded by Jiang Youxian
Viceroy of Sichuan
In office
Preceded by Dai Sanxi
Succeeded by E Shan
Viceroy of Zhili
In office
Preceded by Tu Zhishen
Viceroy of Liangguang
In office
Preceded by Lin Zexu
Succeeded by Qitian
Personal details
Born 1786
Died 1854 (aged 67–68)
Relations Chengde (father)
Posthumous name Wenqin 文勤
Major work Negotiated Convention of Chuenpi

Qishan[a] (Chinese: 琦善; Manchu: ᡴᡳᡧᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: Kišan; Abkai: Kixan; 1786–1854) was a Manchu nobleman and high official during the late Qing dynasty known for his role during the First Opium War.

Early career[edit]

Qishan came from the Borjigit clan and belonged to the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner in the Eight Banners. In 1808, he joined the Board of Punishment as an assistant department director and he subsequently held a number of important positions in the Qing government including the Viceroy of Liangjiang from 1825 to 1827.

First Opium War[edit]

Encampment at Toong-Koo, one of several places where Qishan met British Plenipotentiary Charles Elliot.

Following Lin Zexu's failure to push back the British in the First Opium War, the Daoguang Emperor ordered Qishan to replace Lin as the Governor-General of Guangdong and Guangxi and entrusted him with the delicate task of negotiating a peace treaty with the British. Without getting appropriate sanction from the throne, Qishan agreed to the abortive Convention of Chuenpi with the British on 20 January 1841. Among other things, the convention ceded Hong Kong Island to the British and that the Qing Empire pay an indemnity of 6 million dollars to the British. Because of this, Qishan was dismissed from his post and condemned to death, but the sentence was later commuted to banishment.

Later career[edit]

Following the Opium War, Qishan was reinstated in 1842 and subsequently held a number of prominent positions in the government, including a spell as the Qing imperial resident in Lhasa. After the outbreak of the Taiping Rebellion, Qishan took an active part in the suppression of the rebel forces, dying on the battlefield in 1854 while trying to prevent the Taipings from capturing Jiangsu.


  1. ^ The British referred to him as "Keshen". Later usage was "Ch'i Shan" and the pinyin is "Qíshàn".[1][2]
  1. ^ Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck; Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China Waters. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. p. xviii. ISBN 0-7007-1145-7.
  2. ^ Tsang, Steve (2007). A Modern History of Hong Kong. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 11. ISBN 1-84511-419-1.


  • Hummel, Arthur William, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912). 2 vols. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1943.
Government offices
Preceded by
Wei Yuanyu
Viceroy of Liangjiang
Succeeded by
Jiang Youxian
Preceded by
Lin Zexu
Viceroy of Liangguang
Succeeded by