From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
North American arcade flyer
Developer(s)Taito America
Atari, Inc. (Atari 8-bit, 5200)
Atari Corporation (Lynx)
Nintendo (Game Boy)
Designer(s)Randy Pfeiffer
Sandy Pfeiffer
Platform(s)Arcade, Amiga, Apple II, Apple IIGS, Atari 8-bit, Atari 5200, Lynx, Commodore 64, MS-DOS, FM-7, Game Boy, NES, Mobile phone
  • NA: October 1981
  • JP: November 1981[1][2]
  • UK: November 1981
  • AU: January 1982
Mode(s)1-2 players alternating turns

Qix[a] (/ˈkɪks/ KIKS[b]) is a 1981 puzzle video game developed by husband and wife team Randy and Sandy Pfeiffer and published in arcades by Taito America. Qix is one of a handful of games made by Taito's American division (another is Zoo Keeper).[4] At the start of each level, the playing field is a large, empty rectangle, containing the Qix, an abstract stick-like entity that performs graceful but unpredictable motions within the confines of the rectangle. The objective is to draw lines that close off parts of the rectangle to fill in a set amount of the playfield.

Qix was ported to the contemporary Atari 5200 (1982), Atari 8-bit family (1983),[5] and Commodore 64 (1983), then was brought to a wide variety of systems in the late 1980s and early 1990s: MS-DOS (1989), Amiga (1989), another version for the C64 (1989), Apple IIGS (1990), Game Boy (1990), Nintendo Entertainment System (1991), and Atari Lynx (1991).

Multiple home and arcade sequels followed and the concept was widely cloned. In the Gals Panic series from Kaneko, each captured area is not filled with a color, but reveals part of an image of a woman.


57% of the screen captured, mostly with Fast Draw (blue). The Qix is just below the center, and the player's marker above and to the left. One Sparx is directly below the marker, another above on the right side of the map.

Controls consist of a four-direction joystick and two buttons: "Slow Draw" and "Fast Draw".

The player controls a diamond-shaped marker that initially moves along the edges of the playfield. Holding down one of the draw buttons allows the marker to draw a line (Stix) in unclaimed territory in an attempt to create a closed shape. Once an area is captured, it is filled with color and points are awarded based on the area claimed and drawing speed. Areas captured entirely with Slow Draw (orange-red in the screenshot) are worth double. The titular Qix is a colorful geometric figure in constant and random motion. The Qix will not actively seek out the marker, and it will not harm the marker if it collides with it while the marker is traversing the edge of the playfield or of any captured area. However, if the Qix collides with the marker as it is drawing a Stix before a new area is captured (or it touches the exposed Stix), one life is lost.

The marker cannot cross or backtrack along the line being drawn. If the marker stops while drawing, a fuse appears and burns along the line toward the marker; if it reaches the marker, the player loses one life. The fuse disappears once the marker is moved. If the player draws into a position where it cannot proceed any further, the fuse is triggered. The attract mode calls this a "Spiral Death Trap".

Sparx are enemies that traverse all playfield edges except unfinished Stix. A life is lost if one hits the marker. A meter at the top of the screen counts down to the release of additional Sparx and the mutation of all Sparx into Super Sparx, which can chase the marker along uncompleted Stix.

To complete a level, the player must claim a 75% percentage of the playfield (adjustable to be between 50% and 90%). If a level is completed by exceeding the minimum area percentage, a bonus is awarded for every 1% beyond the threshold.

Starting in level three, the player faces two Qixes. Splitting the playfield into two regions, each containing one Qix, ends the level. No immediate bonus is awarded for this, but a bonus multiplier is applied to the scoring in all subsequent levels. This multiplier starts at one before the first time that the Qix are split and increases by one for every additional splitting of the Qix, to a maximum of nine. Levels also add additional Sparx and the eventual appearance of only Super Sparx.


Upon release, Qix was a commercial hit. In 1983, Electronic Games reported that the game exceeded Taito's expectations, quickly rising to being one of the most popular titles of the year. The magazine attributes the game's success to it being unlike any other game at the time, specifically for its unique premise and gameplay mechanics. A year after its debut, its popularity declined and the game became largely forgotten. Keith Egging, Taito's "Director of Creativity",[8] told Electronic Games: "Qix was conceptually too mystifying for gamers. [...] It was impossible to master and once the novelty wore off, the game faded".[9] In Japan, it was the fifth highest-grossing arcade game of 1981.[10] The game has since been dubbed a sleeper hit.[11]

Qix and its home conversions have received largely positive reviews. The game was praised for its original concept and ideas, and has been described as a cultural phenomenon.[11] Video, who reviewed the Atari 5200 release, applauded its gameplay and bizarre yet interesting premise. They reported similar reactions from players, who enjoyed its mechanics and gameplay.[11] Video staff described the game as being a "cult phenomenon loved by a few and ignored by" more hardcore gamers. The home computer versions of Qix were praised by Russel Sipe of Computer Gaming World for its fascinating gameplay and for welcoming newcomers.[12] In How to Beat the Video Games Michael Blanchet said that 'Qix is probably the most complicated video game to emerge in years, yet its simplicity is beautiful. I think of it as electronic real estate. [...] Qix is a state of the art "Etch a Sketch."'[13]

Retrospective coverage of Qix has also been positive. AllGame's Brett Alan Weiss commended Qix for its addictive gameplay, technological accomplishments, and responsive controls. While he believed the graphics and sound effects were overly simplistic and crude, he said the game as a whole is "abstract minimalism at its videogame best".[6] Retro Gamer staff enjoyed Qix particularly for its addictive nature. They also compared its concept to that of the Etch A Sketch, a toy that allowed its user to draw straight lines across a small screen. The staff believed the game's simplicity was also one of its strong points, alongside its sound effects for being satisfying to hear.[14]


At the 5th annual Arkie Awards in 1984, Qix received the Certificate of Merit in the category of "1984 Best Videogame Audio-Visual Effects (16K or more ROM)".[15] In 1995, Flux magazine ranked the game 94th on their "Top 100 Video Games."[16] In 1997, the staff at Electronic Gaming Monthly listed the Nintendo Entertainment System version at #100 on their "100 Best Games of All Time" for its risk-versus-reward system and scoring.[17] The Killer List of Videogames listed it as #27 in their "Top 100 Video Games" list.[18]



Qix II: Tournament (1982) is a version of the original Qix with a new color scheme and which awards an extra life when 90% or more of the screen is enclosed.[19] Super Qix was released in 1987. Another sequel, Twin Qix, reached a prototype stage in 1995, but was never commercially released.[19][20] The later game Volfied, also known as Ultimate Qix on Sega Genesis or Qix Neo on PlayStation, was also released on several mobile phones.

The 1990 Game Boy port of Qix was published by Nintendo with intermissions in which Mario is involved. In one, he is seen in a desert wearing Mexican clothing and playing a guitar with a vulture looking on.[21] The outfit later appears as a costume that Mario can wear in Super Mario Odyssey.[22] The Game Boy port was released as a Nintendo 3DS Virtual Console title in Japan on June 15, 2011,[23] and in North America and Europe on July 7.[24][25]

In 1999, a remake for the Game Boy Color was released called Qix Adventure. The player travels on a map screen, taking on opponents which appear on the playing field. Although optional, enclosing an opponent in the box opens a treasure chest, which can also be enclosed, giving the player an item.[26] Battle Qix was released for the PlayStation in 2002 by Success, under their Super 1500 Lite budget title series. It includes a remake of the original Qix alongside a competitive multiplayer mode.[27] Taito released a new version of Qix for the Xbox Live Arcade and PlayStation Portable Qix++ in December 2009.[28]


  • Fill 'Er Up (1983, Atari 8-bit, ANALOG Computing)[29]
  • Stix (1983, Commodore 64)[30]
  • Styx (1983, IBM PC, Windmill Software)
  • Frenzy (1984, Acorn Electron and BBC Micro, Micro Power)
  • Xonix (1984, MS-DOS)
  • Qiks (1984, Tandy Color Computer, Spectral Associates)[31]
  • Quix (1984, Tandy Color Computer, Tom Mix Software)[32]
  • Torch 2081 (1986, Amiga, Digital Concepts)[33]
  • Zolyx (1987, Commodore 64, Commodore 16/Plus-4, Amstrad CPC, and ZX Spectrum, Firebird)[34]
  • Maniax (1988, Atari ST, Kingsoft)
  • Gals Panic (1990, arcade, Kaneko), which started a subgenre of adult-themed "uncover the image" games.
  • Cacoma Knight in Bizyland (1992-1993, Super NES/Famicom, Datam Polystar/Seta USA)
  • Super Xonix (1996, IBM PC), a 2 player version
  • Dancing Eyes (1996, arcade, Namco), a 3D version of the eroge subgenre, similar to the above Gals Panic
  • Prometheus/Qrax (1997, MacOS, Quarter Note Software)
  • AirXonix (2000-2001, Microsoft Windows, AxySoft)
  • Qyx (2022, Atari 2600, Champ Games)[35][36]

In 2011, Den of Geek included Qix on a list of the top 10 most cloned video games.[37]


  1. ^ Japanese: クイックス, Hepburn: Kuikkusu
  2. ^ As seen on the North American promotional flyer.[3]


  1. ^ "クイックスアップライト筺体版" [Qix upright cabinet version]. Media Arts Database (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  2. ^ "クイックス TT テーブル筺体版" [Qix TT table cabinet version]. Media Arts Database (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  3. ^ Qix North American promotional flyer. United States of America: Taito America Corporation. October 1981. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  4. ^ "MobyGames: Game Browser: Games Developed By: Taito America Corporation". MobyGames. Retrieved 2020-09-09.
  5. ^ I Break for Arcadians: Good news, bad news - new games, joystick reviewed: Qix, By Joaquin Boaz, InfoWorld, 8 Aug 1983, Page 23
  6. ^ a b Alan Weiss, Brett (1998). "Qix - Review". AllGame. All Media. Archived from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  7. ^ Michael Brown, William (June 1983). "Qix - Atari/Atari 5200". Vol. 1, no. 8. Fun & Games Publishing. Electronic Fun with Computer & Games. p. 55. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  8. ^ Morgan, John (1 January 2001). "The Story of Zoo Keeper". Giant List of Classic Game Programmers.
  9. ^ Pearl, Rick (June 1983). "Closet Classics". Electronic Games. p. 82. Retrieved 2015-01-06.
  10. ^ ""Donkey Kong" No.1 Of '81 — Game Machine's Survey Of "The Year's Best Three AM Machines" —" (PDF). Game Machine. No. 182. Amusement Press, Inc. 15 February 1982. p. 30.
  11. ^ a b c Kunkel, Bill; Katz, Arnie (November 1983). "Arcade Alley: Wintertime Winners". Video. 7 (8). Reese Communications: 38–39. ISSN 0147-8907.
  12. ^ Sipe, Russell (October 1989). "What Do You Do For Qix". Computer Gaming World. No. 64. p. 39.
  13. ^ Blanchet, Michael (1982). How to Beat the Video Games. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 54–60. ISBN 0671453750. p. 54: Qix is probably the most complicated video game to emerge in years, yet its simplicity is beautiful. I think of it as electronic real estate. It may remind some of you of the old "connect the dots and claim the squares" game. Qix is a state of the art "Etch a Sketch."
  14. ^ Retro Gamer Staff (2 July 2009). "Qix". Retro Gamer. Imagine Publishing. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  15. ^ Kunkel, Bill; Katz, Arnie (January 1984). "Arcade Alley: The Arcade Awards, Part 1". Video. 7 (10). Reese Communications: 40–42. ISSN 0147-8907.
  16. ^ "Top 100 Video Games". Flux (4). Harris Publications: 32. April 1995.
  17. ^ "100 Best Games of All Time". Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 100. Ziff Davis. November 1997. p. 102. Note: Contrary to the title, the intro to the article explicitly states that the list covers console video games only, meaning PC games and arcade games were not eligible.
  18. ^ McLemore, Greg; Staff, KLOV (2010). "The Top Coin-Operated Videogames of All Time". Killer List of Videogames. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  19. ^ a b Thomasson, Michael (November 2017). "Get Your Kicks From QIX". No. 1. Old School Gamer Magazine. pp. 20–21. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  20. ^ "Twin Qix - Videogame by Taito". Killer List of Videogames. International Arcade Museum. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  21. ^ Orland, Kyle (February 4, 2011). "The Strange Career Path of Super Mario". 1UP.com. IGN. p. 18. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  22. ^ Plunkett, Luke (June 13, 2017). "Super Mario Odyssey's Outfits Are A Nice Throwback". Kotaku. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  23. ^ Bivens, Danny (June 15, 2011). "Japan eShop Round-Up (06/15/2011)". Nintendo World Report. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  24. ^ Langley, Ryan (July 7, 2011). "NA Nintendo Update - Fortified Zone, QIX, Roller Angels And More". GameSetWatch. UBM plc. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  25. ^ Langley, Ryan (July 7, 2011). "EU Nintendo Update - QIX, Fortified Zone, ANIMA: Ark of Sinners And More". GameSetWatch. UBM plc. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  26. ^ IGN Staff (16 November 2000). "Qix Adventure". IGN. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  27. ^ "SuperLite 1500 シリーズ バトルクイックス (PS)". Famitsu (in Japanese). Kadokawa Corporation. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  28. ^ Hatfield, Daemon (9 December 2009). "Qix++ Review". IGN. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  29. ^ Hudson, Tom (March 1983). "Fill 'Er Up". ANALOG Computing (10): 100.
  30. ^ Dillon, Roberto (2014). Ready: A Commodore 64 Retrospective. Springer. p. 141.
  31. ^ Boyle, L. Curtis. "Qiks".
  32. ^ Boyle, L. Curtis. "Quix".
  33. ^ "Torch 2081". Lemon Amiga.
  34. ^ "Zolyx". Lemon64.
  35. ^ "How Champ Games tricks old hardware with new cartridges on the Atari 2600".
  36. ^ "Champ Games".
  37. ^ Lambie, Ryan (May 6, 2011). "The top 10 most cloned video games". Den of Geek.

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