Qixi Festival

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Qixi Festival
Niulang and Zhinv (Long Corridor).JPG
Also calledQiqiao Festival
Observed byChinese
Date7th day of 7th month
on the Chinese lunisolar calendar
2020 date25 August[1]
2021 date14 August
Related toTanabata (Japan), Chilseok (Korea), Thất Tịch (Vietnam)
Qixi
Chinese七夕[2]
Literal meaning"Evening of Sevens"
Qiqiao
Chinese乞巧[2]
Literal meaning"Beseeching Skills"

The Qixi Festival (simplified Chinese:七夕节; traditional Chinese: 七夕節) also known as the Qiqiao Festival, is a Chinese festival celebrating the annual meeting of the cowherd and weaver girl in mythology.[2][3][4][5] The festival is celebrated on the seventh day of the seventh lunisolar month on the Chinese calendar.[2][3][4][5]

The festival was derived from worship of the natural astrology. It is the birthday of the seventh elder sister in the traditional significance. It is called "Qixi Festival" because of the worship of the seventh elder sister held on the seventh night of the seventh lunar month.[6] Gradually, people celebrated for the romantic legend of two lovers, Zhinü and Niulang,[3][5] who were the weaver girl and the cowherd, respectively. The tale of The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl has been celebrated in the Qixi Festival since the Han dynasty.[7] The earliest-known reference to this famous myth dates back to over 2600 years ago, which was told in a poem from the Classic of Poetry.[8] The Qixi festival inspired the Tanabata festival in Japan, Chilseok festival in Korea, and Thất Tịch festival in Vietnam.

The festival has variously been called the Double Seventh Festival,[5] the Chinese Valentine's Day,[9] the Night of Sevens,[3][10] or the Magpie Festival.[citation needed]

Origin[edit]

The general tale is a love story between Zhinü (织女, the weaver girl, symbolizing Vega) and Niulang (牛郎, the cowherd, symbolizing Altair).[3] Niulang was an orphan who lived with his brother and sister-in-law. He was often abused by his sister-in-law. They eventually kicked him out of the house, and gave him nothing but an old cow. One day, the old cow suddenly spoke out, telling Niulang that a fairy will come, and that she is the heavenly weaver. It said the fairy will stay here if she fails to go back to heaven before morning. In accordance with what the old cow said, Niulang saw the beautiful fairy and fell in love with her, then they got married. The emperor of heaven(玉皇大帝, The Jade Emperor) found out about this and was furious, so he sent minions to escort the heavenly weaver back to heaven. Niulang was heartbroken and decided to chase after them. However, the Queen Mother of the West drew a Silver River (The Milky Way) in the sky and blocked his way. Meanwhile, the love between Niulang and the weaver moved the magpie, and they built a bridge of magpies over the Silver River for them to meet. The Emperor of Heaven was also moved by the sight, and allowed this couple to meet on the Magpie Bridge[11] once a year on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month. That was the origin of the Qixi Festival.[12]

Traditions[edit]

During the Han dynasty, the practices were conducted in accordance with formal ceremonial state rituals.[2] Over time, the festival activities also included customs that the common people partook in.[2]

Girls take part in worshiping the celestials (拜仙) during rituals.[4] They go to the local temple to pray to Zhinü for wisdom.[5] Paper items are usually burned as offerings.[13] Girls may recite traditional prayers for dexterity in needlework,[5][14] which symbolizes the traditional talents of a good spouse.[5] Divination could take place to determine the possible dexterity in needlework.[13] They make wishes for marrying someone who would be a good and loving husband.[3] During the festival, girls make a display of their domestic skills.[3] Traditionally, there would be contests amongst those who attempted to be the best in threading needles under low-light conditions, like the glow of an ember or of a half moon.[13] Today, girls sometimes gather toiletries in honour of the seven maidens.[13]

The festival also held an importance for newlywed couples.[4] Traditionally, they would worship the celestial couple for the last time and bid farewell to them (辭仙).[4] The celebration stood as a symbol for a happy marriage and showed that the married woman was treasured by her new family.[4]

On this day, the Chinese gaze up at the sky to look for Vega and Altair shining in the Milky Way, while Deneb, a third star, forms a symbolic bridge between the two stars.[7] It was said that if it rains on this day, that it was caused by a river sweeping away the magpie bridge or that the rain is the tears of the separated couple.[15] Based on the legend of a flock of magpies forming a bridge to reunite the couple, a pair of magpies came to symbolize conjugal happiness and faithfulness.[16]

The eating customs of Qixi Festival vary from place to place, and it is called eating Qiao food. The most famous traditional food people eat on Qixi Festival is Qiao Guo. The main material is flour, oil and honey, sometimes adding sesame, peanuts, kernels, roses and other different ingredients. After mixing those ingredients, they are then deep-fried. Qiao Guo has a history of more than one thousand years since it became popular during the Song Dynasty. Beyond that, people would eat crunchy candy, refreshments and fruits together, expressing the people's pursuit of ingenuity, family health, happy life wishes.

In some places people gather together and build a four meter long bridge(花桥) with big incense sticks and decorate them with colourful flowers. They burn the bridge at night and wish to bring happiness in life.[citation needed]

Literature[edit]

Due to the romance, elegance, and beautiful symbolic meaning of the festival, many pieces of literature, such as poems, popular songs and operas, have been written for this festival since the Zhou Dynasty. Many describe the atmosphere of the festival or narrate related stories. This has left a valuable literary legacy which helps modern scholars better understand ancient Chinese customs, feelings, and opinions relating to the festival.

迢迢牽牛星–佚名(東漢) Far, Far Away, the Cowherd – Anonymous(Han Dynasty[edit]

迢迢牽牛星, Far, far away, the Cowherd,
皎皎河漢女。 Fair, fair, the Weaving Maid,
纖纖擢素手, Nimbly move her slender white finger,
札札弄機杼。 Click-clack goes her weaving-loom.
終日不成章, All day she weaves, yet her web is still not done.
泣涕零如雨。 And her tears fall like rain.
河漢清且淺, Clear and shallow the Milky Way,
相去復幾許? They are not far apart!
盈盈–水間, But the stream brims always between.
脈脈不得語。 And, gazing at each other, they cannot speak.

(翻譯:楊憲益戴乃迭) (Translated by Yang Xianyi, Dai Naidie)

秋夕–杜牧(唐朝) An Autumn Night – Du Mu (Tang Dynasty)[edit]

銀燭秋光冷畫屏, A candle flame flickers against a dull painted screen on a cool autumn night,
輕羅小扇撲流螢。 She holds a small silk fan to flap away dashing fireflies.
天階夜色涼如水, Above her hang celestial bodies as frigid as deep water,
坐看牽牛織女星。 She sat there watching Altair of Aquila and Vega of Lyra pining for each other in the sky.

(翻譯:曾培慈[17] (Translated by Betty Tseng])

鵲橋仙–秦觀(宋朝) Immortals at the Magpie Bridge – Qin Guan (Song Dynasty)[edit]

纖雲弄巧, Clouds float like works of art,
飛星傳恨, Stars shoot with grief at heart.
銀漢迢迢暗渡。 Across the Milky Way the Cowherd meets the Maid.
金風玉露一相逢, When Autumn’s Golden Wind embraces Dew of Jade,
便勝却人間無數。 All the love scenes on earth, however many, fade.
柔情似水, Their tender love flows like a stream;
佳期如夢, Their happy date seems but a dream.
忍顧鶴橋歸路。 How can they bear a separate homeward way?
兩情若是久長時, If love between both sides can last for aye,
又豈在朝朝暮暮。 Why need they stay together night and day?

(翻譯:許淵沖) (Translated by Xu Yuanchong)

Gallery[edit]

Ladies on the ‘Night of Sevens’ Pleading for Skills by Ding Guanpeng, 1748

Other[edit]

Interactive Google doodles have been launched since the 2009 Qixi Festival to mark the occasion.[18] The latest was launched for the 2020 Qixi Festival.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Raitisoja, Geni. "Story of Qixi Festival". GBTIMES. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Zhao 2015, 13.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Brown & Brown 2006, 72.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Poon 2011, 100.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Melton & Baumann 2010, 912–913.
  6. ^ "七夕节的由来和风俗简介_七夕节的来历和风俗特点". www.xuexi.la. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  7. ^ a b Schomp 2009, 70.
  8. ^ Schomp 2009, 89.
  9. ^ Welch 2008, 228.
  10. ^ Chester Beatty Library, online Archived 2014-10-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ "Saint Valentine's Day: The Legend of Magpie Bridge". www.novareinna.com. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  12. ^ "七夕节的由来和风俗简介_七夕节的来历和风俗特点". www.xuexi.la. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  13. ^ a b c d Stepanchuk & Wong 1991, 83
  14. ^ Kiang 1999, 132.
  15. ^ Stepanchuk & Wong 1991, 82
  16. ^ Welch 2008, 77.
  17. ^ "English Translation of Chinese Poetry – 中文詩詞英譯". 28utscprojects.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2020-02-13.
  18. ^ "QiXi Festival 2009". Archived from the original on 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2019-08-05 – via www.google.com.
  19. ^ "Qixi Festival 2020". www.google.com.

Bibliography[edit]

Hard copy

  • Brown, Ju; Brown, John (2006). China, Japan, Korea: Culture and customs. North Charleston: BookSurge. ISBN 1-4196-4893-4.
  • Kiang, Heng Chye (1999). Cities of aristocrats and bureaucrats: The development of medieval Chinese cityscapes. Singapore: Singapore University Press. ISBN 9971-69-223-6.
  • Lai, Sufen Sophia (1999). "Father in Heaven, Mother in Hell: Gender politics in the creation and transformation of Mulian's mother". Presence and presentation: Women in the Chinese literati tradition. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-21054-X.
  • Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2010). "The Double Seventh Festival". Religions of the world: A comprehensive encyclopedia of beliefs and practices (2nd ed.). Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6.
  • Poon, Shuk-wah (2011). Negotiating religion in modern China: State and common people in Guangzhou, 1900–1937. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong. ISBN 978-962-996-421-4.
  • Schomp, Virginia (2009). The ancient Chinese. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. ISBN 978-0-7614-4216-5.
  • Stepanchuk, Carol; Wong, Charles (1991). Mooncakes and hungry ghosts: Festivals of China. San Francisco: China Books & Periodicals. ISBN 0-8351-2481-9.
  • Welch, Patricia Bjaaland (2008). Chinese art: A guide to motifs and visual imagery. North Clarendon: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8048-3864-1.
  • Zhao, Rongguang (2015). A History of Food Culture in China. SCPG Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-1-938368-16-5.

Online