Xong language

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Xong[1]
Xiong, Western Xiangxi Miao
Xonb, Meo
Pronunciation [ɕõ˧˥]
Native to China
Region Hunan, Guizhou, Hubei, Guangxi and Chongqing
Ethnicity Xiangxi Miao or Xiangxi Hmong
Native speakers
~900,000 (2005)[2]
Hmong–Mien
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
mmr – Western Xiangxi Miao
muq – Eastern Xiangxi Miao
Glottolog nort2748[3]

Xong language (Xonb), is a dialect of Hmong in South-central China with 0.9 million speakers. It is called Western Xiangxi Miaoyu (湘西苗语) in Chinese, literally Hmong language in Western Hunan. It is also the north most Hmong Language. The official written script was adopted in 1956.

Distribution[edit]

Xong language was spoken in Hunan, Guizhou, Hubei, Guangxi provinces and Chongqing municipality in China.

Local varieties[edit]

Xong has three varieties spreaded in its speakers.[4][6]

  • Xong
    • Lect 1 (autonym: qo˧˥ɕoŋ˧˥): Jiwei, Huayuan County; 769,000 speakers in the counties of Fenghuang (except Baren), most of Huayuan, southern Jishou, Xinhuang, Mayang, Songtao, parts of Rongjiang, parts of Ziyun, Xiushan, parts of Nandan, parts of Hechi, and parts of Du'an.
    • Lect 2 (autonym: qo˥˦ɕoŋ˥˦): Yangmeng, Jishou; 120,000 speakers in the counties of eastern Huayuan, western and northern Jishou, eastern Baojing, southwestern Guzhang, Fenghuang (in Baren), and Xuan'en.
    • Lect 3 (autonym: o˥ɕaŋ˥): Zhongxin, Baojing County; 30,000 speakers in southeastern Baojing County.


Phonology and script[edit]

A written standard based on the Western dialect in Làyǐpíng village and Jíwèi town, Huāyuán county, Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture was established in 1956.

Consonants
p ⟨b⟩ ⟨p⟩ mp ⟨nb⟩ mpʰ ⟨np⟩ f ⟨f⟩ m ⟨m⟩ m̥ʰ ⟨hm⟩
⟨bl⟩ pɹʰ ⟨pl⟩ mpɹʰ ⟨npl⟩ ⟨ml⟩
t ⟨d⟩ ⟨t⟩ nt ⟨nd⟩ ntʰ ⟨nt⟩ l̥ʰ ⟨hl⟩ n ⟨n⟩ n̥ʰ ⟨hn⟩
ts ⟨z⟩ tsʰ ⟨c⟩ nts ⟨nz⟩ ntsʰ ⟨nc⟩ s ⟨s⟩
tɕʰ ⟨q⟩ ntɕ ⟨nj⟩ ntɕʰ ⟨nq⟩ ɕ ⟨x⟩ ʑ ⟨j⟩
ʈ ⟨zh⟩ ʈʰ ⟨ch⟩ ɳʈ ⟨nzh⟩ ɳʈʰ ⟨nch⟩ ʂ ⟨sh⟩ ʐ ⟨r⟩ ɳ ⟨nh⟩
k ⟨g⟩ ⟨k⟩ ŋk ⟨ngg⟩ ŋkʰ ⟨nk⟩
q ⟨gh⟩ ⟨kh⟩ ɴq ⟨ngh⟩ ɴqʰ ⟨nkh⟩
w ⟨w⟩ h ⟨h⟩ j ⟨y⟩

[dubious ][are we missing consonants, such as l ? (y might fill in for z)]

Vowels
i ⟨i⟩
iu ⟨iu⟩
ɑ ⟨a⟩ ⟨ia⟩ ⟨ua⟩
o ⟨o⟩ io ⟨io⟩
e ⟨e⟩ ie ⟨ie⟩ ue ⟨ue⟩
a ⟨ea⟩ ia ⟨iea⟩ ua ⟨uea⟩
ei ⟨ei⟩ uei ⟨ui⟩
ɔ ⟨ao⟩ ⟨iao⟩
ɤ ⟨eu⟩ ⟨ieu⟩ ⟨ueu⟩
ɯ ⟨ou⟩ ⟨iou⟩ ⟨uou⟩
ɛ̃ ⟨an⟩ iɛ̃ ⟨ian⟩ uɛ̃ ⟨uan⟩
en ⟨en⟩ ien ⟨in⟩ uen ⟨un⟩
ɑŋ ⟨ang⟩ iɑŋ ⟨iang⟩ uɑŋ ⟨uang⟩
⟨ong⟩ ioŋ ⟨iong⟩
Tones
Tone IPA Letter
high rising, 45 ˦˥ ⟨b⟩
low falling, 21 ˨˩ ⟨x⟩
high, 4 ˦ ⟨d⟩
low, 2 ˨ ⟨l⟩
high falling, 53 ˥˧ ⟨t⟩
falling, 42 ˦˨ ⟨s⟩

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sposato, Adam (22 May 2015). "A Grammar of Xong". Graduation dissertation: 1.
  2. ^ Western Xiangxi Miao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Eastern Xiangxi Miao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North Hmongic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ a b Yang, Zaibiao (2004). Comparison of Eastern Hmong Dialect. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House. ISBN 9787105063277.
  5. ^ Guangxi Minority Languages Orthography Committee (2008). 'Vocabularies of Guangxi ethnic languages. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House.
  6. ^ Li, Jinping; Li, Tianyi (2012). A comparative study of Miao dialects. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University Press.

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External links[edit]