Qo Xiong language

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Qo Xiong
Xong, Xiangxi Miao
Red Miao, Meo
Pronunciation [qo˧˥ɕõ˧˥]
Native to China
Region mostly Hunan
Ethnicity incl. Gejia
Native speakers
900,000 (1995)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
mmr – Western Xiangxi Miao
muq – Eastern Xiangxi Miao
Glottolog nort2748[2]

The Xong language (dut Xongb, spoken by Qo Xiong people), also known as Xiangxi Miao (湘西 Western Hunan Miao), Eastern Miao, Meo, Red Miao, and North Hmongic, is a dialect cluster of Hmongic languages of China. Xong was given as a branch of Hmongic in Strecker (1987). Matisoff (2001) split it into two languages, reflected in Ethnologue, but Matisoff (2006) lists only one.

The best studied dialect is that of Layiping 腊乙坪, Jiwei Township 吉卫镇, Huayuan County, Hunan Province, China (see Xiang 1999).


Yang (2004)[edit]

Yang Zaibiao (2004)[3] divides Qo Xiong into six varieties, with representative data points listed respectively. The speaker populations and locations are from Li Jinping & Li Tianyi (2012).[4]

  • Western
    • Lect 1 (autonym: qo˧˥ɕoŋ˧˥): Jiwei 吉卫, Huayuan County; 769,000 speakers in the counties of Fenghuang (except Baren 叭仁乡), most of Huayuan, southern Jishou, Xinhuang, Mayang, Songtao, parts of Rongjiang, parts of Ziyun, Xiushan, parts of Nandan, parts of Hechi, and parts of Du'an.
    • Lect 2 (autonym: qo˥˦ɕoŋ˥˦): Yangmeng 阳孟, Jishou; 120,000 speakers in the counties of eastern Huayuan, western and northern Jishou, eastern Baojing, southwestern Guzhang, Fenghuang (in Baren 叭仁乡), and Xuan'en.
    • Lect 3 (autonym: o˥ɕaŋ˥): Zhongxin 中心, Baojing County; 30,000 speakers in southeastern Baojing County.
  • Eastern
    • Lect 4 (autonym: te˥˧suɑŋ˥˧): Xiaozhang 小章, Luxi County; 6,000 speakers in and around Xiaozhang, Luxi County
    • Lect 5 (autonym: ɡɔ˧˥sɤ˥˧): Danqing 丹青, Jishou; 48,000 speakers in the counties of northwestern Luxi, eastern Jishou, and southeastern Guzhang.
    • Lect 6 (autonym: bja˨sã˦nɤ˦): Dengshang 蹬上, Longshan County; 300 speakers in southern Longshan County and Yongshun County (in Shouche 首车乡).

He Fuling (2009) describes a western Qo Xiong dialect of Gouliang Ethnic Miao Village, Ala Township, Fenghuang County (凤凰县阿拉镇勾良苗寨).

Xiang (1999)[edit]

Xiang (1999) divides Qo Xiong into Western and Eastern dialects, and lists the following counties with Qo Xiong speakers.

Phonology and script[edit]

A written standard based on the Western dialect[6] was established in 1956.

p ⟨b⟩ ⟨p⟩ mp ⟨nb⟩ mpʰ ⟨np⟩ f ⟨f⟩ m ⟨m⟩ m̥ʰ ⟨hm⟩
⟨bl⟩ pɹʰ ⟨pl⟩ mpɹʰ ⟨npl⟩ ⟨ml⟩
t ⟨d⟩ ⟨t⟩ nt ⟨nd⟩ ntʰ ⟨nt⟩ l̥ʰ ⟨hl⟩ n ⟨n⟩ n̥ʰ ⟨hn⟩
ts ⟨z⟩ tsʰ ⟨c⟩ nts ⟨nz⟩ ntsʰ ⟨nc⟩ s ⟨s⟩
tɕʰ ⟨q⟩ ntɕ ⟨nj⟩ ntɕʰ ⟨nq⟩ ɕ ⟨x⟩ ʑ ⟨j⟩
ʈ ⟨zh⟩ ʈʰ ⟨ch⟩ ɳʈ ⟨nzh⟩ ɳʈʰ ⟨nch⟩ ʂ ⟨sh⟩ ʐ ⟨r⟩ ɳ ⟨nh⟩
k ⟨g⟩ ⟨k⟩ ŋk ⟨ngg⟩ ŋkʰ ⟨nk⟩
q ⟨gh⟩ ⟨kh⟩ ɴq ⟨ngh⟩ ɴqʰ ⟨nkh⟩
w ⟨w⟩ h ⟨h⟩ j ⟨y⟩

[dubious ][are we missing consonants, such as l ? (y might fill in for z)]

i ⟨i⟩
iu ⟨iu⟩
ɑ ⟨a⟩ ⟨ia⟩ ⟨ua⟩
o ⟨o⟩ io ⟨io⟩
e ⟨e⟩ ie ⟨ie⟩ ue ⟨ue⟩
a ⟨ea⟩ ia ⟨iea⟩ ua ⟨uea⟩
ei ⟨ei⟩ uei ⟨ui⟩
ɔ ⟨ao⟩ ⟨iao⟩
ɤ ⟨eu⟩ ⟨ieu⟩ ⟨ueu⟩
ɯ ⟨ou⟩ ⟨iou⟩ ⟨uou⟩
ɛ̃ ⟨an⟩ iɛ̃ ⟨ian⟩ uɛ̃ ⟨uan⟩
en ⟨en⟩ ien ⟨in⟩ uen ⟨un⟩
ɑŋ ⟨ang⟩ iɑŋ ⟨iang⟩ uɑŋ ⟨uang⟩
⟨ong⟩ ioŋ ⟨iong⟩
Tone IPA Letter
high rising, 45 ˦˥ ⟨b⟩
low falling, 21 ˨˩ ⟨x⟩
high, 4 ˦ ⟨d⟩
low, 2 ˨ ⟨l⟩
high falling, 53 ˥˧ ⟨t⟩
falling, 42 ˦˨ ⟨s⟩


  1. ^ Western Xiangxi Miao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Eastern Xiangxi Miao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "North Hmongic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ 杨再彪,《苗语东部方言土语比较》,民族出版社,2004年。
  4. ^ Li Jinping, Li Tianyi [李锦平, 李天翼]. 2012. A comparative study of Miao dialects [苗语方言比较研究]. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University Press.
  5. ^ Guangxi Minority Languages Orthography Committee. 2008. Vocabularies of Guangxi ethnic languages [广西民族语言方音词汇]. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House [民族出版社].
  6. ^ Làyǐpíng village (腊乙坪村) in Jíwèi town (吉卫乡) in Huāyuán county (花垣县) of the Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
  • He Fuling [贺福凌]. 2009. Comparative Chinese and Miao languages of Fenghuang County, Hunan [湖南省凤凰县汉语方言与苗语的调查和比较]. Changsha: Hunan Normal University Press [湖南师范大学出版社].
  • Xiang Rizheng [向日征]. 1999. A Study of Jiwei Miao [吉卫苗语硏究]. Chengdu: Sichuan Nationalities Publishing House.

External links[edit]