Xong language

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Xong
Xiangxi Miao
Xonb, Meo
Pronunciation[ɕõ˧˥]
Native toChina
RegionHunan, Guizhou, Hubei, Guangxi and Chongqing
EthnicityQo Xiong
Native speakers
~900,000 (2005)[1]
Hmong–Mien
Dialects
  • Western (Xong proper)
  • Eastern (Suang)
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
mmr – Western Xiangxi Miao
muq – Eastern Xiangxi Miao
Glottolognort2748[2]

The Xong language (Dut Xonb [tu˥˧ɕõ˧˥]),[3] is the northern-most Hmongic language, spoken in south-central China by ca 0.9 million people. It's called Xiangxi Miaoyu (湘西苗语), Western Hunan Miao, in Chinese. In Western sources, it's been called Eastern Miao, Meo, Red Miao and North Hmongic. The official alphabet was adopted in 1956.

Distribution[edit]

Xong is spoken in Hunan, Guizhou, Hubei, Guangxi provinces and Chongqing municipality in China. Xong-speaking communities, by county, are,[4]

Classification[edit]

Xong was classified in its own branch of the Hmongic family in Strecker (1987). Xiang (1999)[4] divided Xong into western and eastern dialects. Matisoff (2001) considered these to be two distinct languages, but Matisoff (2006) consolidated them into one. Yang Zaibiao (2004)[6] divides each of these dialects into three subdialects, as listed below. Speaker populations and locations are from Li & Li (2012).[7]

  • Western (includes standardized Xong)
    • Lect 1 (autonym: qo˧˥ɕoŋ˧˥): Jiwei 吉卫, Huayuan County; 769,000 speakers in the counties of Fenghuang (except Baren 叭仁乡), most of Huayuan, southern Jishou, Xinhuang, Mayang, Songtao, parts of Rongjiang, parts of Ziyun, Xiushan, parts of Nandan, parts of Hechi, and parts of Du'an.
    • Lect 2 (autonym: qo˥˦ɕoŋ˥˦): Yangmeng 阳孟, Jishou; 120,000 speakers in the counties of eastern Huayuan, western and northern Jishou, eastern Baojing, southwestern Guzhang, Fenghuang (in Baren 叭仁乡), and Xuan'en.
    • Lect 3 (autonym: o˥ɕaŋ˥): Zhongxin 中心, Baojing County; 30,000 speakers in southeastern Baojing County.
  • Eastern
    • Lect 4 (autonym: te˥˧suɑŋ˥˧): Xiaozhang 小章, Luxi County; 6,000 speakers in and around Xiaozhang, Luxi County
    • Lect 5 (autonym: ɡɔ˧˥sɤ˥˧): Danqing 丹青, Jishou; 48,000 speakers in the counties of northwestern Luxi, eastern Jishou, and southeastern Guzhang.
    • Lect 6 (autonym: bja˨sã˦nɤ˦): Dengshang 蹬上, Longshan County; 300 speakers in southern Longshan County and Yongshun County (in Shouche 首车乡).

He Fuling (2009) describes a western Qo Xiong dialect of Gouliang Ethnic Miao Village, Ala Township, Fenghuang County (凤凰县阿拉镇勾良苗寨).

Chen (2009)[8] describes a western Qo Xiong dialect of Daxing Town 大兴镇, Songtao County, Guizhou.

Phonology and script[edit]

A written standard based on the Western dialect in Làyǐpíng village and Jíwèi town, Huāyuán county, Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture was established in 1956.

Consonants
p ⟨b⟩ ⟨p⟩ mp ⟨nb⟩ mpʰ ⟨np⟩ f ⟨f⟩ m ⟨m⟩ m̥ʰ ⟨hm⟩
⟨bl⟩ pɹʰ ⟨pl⟩ mpɹʰ ⟨npl⟩ ⟨ml⟩
t ⟨d⟩ ⟨t⟩ nt ⟨nd⟩ ntʰ ⟨nt⟩ l̥ʰ ⟨hl⟩ n ⟨n⟩ n̥ʰ ⟨hn⟩
ts ⟨z⟩ tsʰ ⟨c⟩ nts ⟨nz⟩ ntsʰ ⟨nc⟩ s ⟨s⟩
tɕʰ ⟨q⟩ ntɕ ⟨nj⟩ ntɕʰ ⟨nq⟩ ɕ ⟨x⟩ ʑ ⟨j⟩
ʈ ⟨zh⟩ ʈʰ ⟨ch⟩ ɳʈ ⟨nzh⟩ ɳʈʰ ⟨nch⟩ ʂ ⟨sh⟩ ʐ ⟨r⟩ ɳ ⟨nh⟩
k ⟨g⟩ ⟨k⟩ ŋk ⟨ngg⟩ ŋkʰ ⟨nk⟩
q ⟨gh⟩ ⟨kh⟩ ɴq ⟨ngh⟩ ɴqʰ ⟨nkh⟩
w ⟨w⟩ h ⟨h⟩ j ⟨y⟩

[dubious ][are we missing consonants, such as l ? (y might fill in for z)]

Vowels
i ⟨i⟩
iu ⟨iu⟩
ɑ ⟨a⟩ ⟨ia⟩ ⟨ua⟩
o ⟨o⟩ io ⟨io⟩
e ⟨e⟩ ie ⟨ie⟩ ue ⟨ue⟩
a ⟨ea⟩ ia ⟨iea⟩ ua ⟨uea⟩
ei ⟨ei⟩ uei ⟨ui⟩
ɔ ⟨ao⟩ ⟨iao⟩
ɤ ⟨eu⟩ ⟨ieu⟩ ⟨ueu⟩
ɯ ⟨ou⟩ ⟨iou⟩ ⟨uou⟩
ɛ̃ ⟨an⟩ iɛ̃ ⟨ian⟩ uɛ̃ ⟨uan⟩
en ⟨en⟩ ien ⟨in⟩ uen ⟨un⟩
ɑŋ ⟨ang⟩ iɑŋ ⟨iang⟩ uɑŋ ⟨uang⟩
⟨ong⟩ ioŋ ⟨iong⟩
Tones
Tone IPA Letter
high rising, 45 ˦˥ ⟨b⟩
low falling, 21 ˨˩ ⟨x⟩
high, 4 ˦ ⟨d⟩
low, 2 ˨ ⟨l⟩
high falling, 53 ˥˧ ⟨t⟩
falling, 42 ˦˨ ⟨s⟩

References[edit]

  1. ^ Western Xiangxi Miao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Eastern Xiangxi Miao at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North Hmongic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Sposato, Adam (22 May 2015). "A Grammar of Xong". Graduation dissertation: 1.
  4. ^ a b Xiang Rizheng [向日征]. 1999. A Study of Jiwei Miao [吉卫苗语硏究]. Chengdu: Sichuan Nationalities Publishing House.
  5. ^ Guangxi Minority Languages Orthography Committee. 2008. Vocabularies of Guangxi ethnic languages [广西民族语言方音词汇]. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House [民族出版社].
  6. ^ 杨再彪,《苗语东部方言土语比较》,民族出版社,2004年。
  7. ^ Li Jinping, Li Tianyi [李锦平, 李天翼]. 2012. A comparative study of Miao dialects [苗语方言比较研究]. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University Press.
  8. ^ Chen, Hong [陈宏]. 2009. Guizhou Songtao Daxingzhen Miaoyu yanjiu [贵州松桃大兴镇苗语研究]. Ph.D. dissertation. Guangzhou: Nankai University [南开大学].

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External links[edit]