Quadrangular castle

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Bolton Castle, in England.

A quadrangular castle or courtyard castle is a type of castle characterised by ranges of buildings which are integral with the curtain walls, enclosing a central ward or quadrangle, and typically with angle towers. There is no keep and frequently no distinct gatehouse. The quadrangular form predominantly dates from the mid to late fourteenth century and signals the transition from defensively to domestically oriented great houses. The four walls are also known as ranges.

Quadrangular castles typically display a sophisticated and complex approach to the planning of internal social spaces.[1][2] There are many quadrangular castles around Britain, for example: Bodiam Castle in East Sussex, and Bolton Castle.

The 27 quadrangular castles identified by John Rickard as being built in England consist roughly 10% of the castles built in the country between 1272 and 1422. No castles of this design were built in Wales.[3]

One of the earliest quadrangular castles in Germany is Neuleiningen, of which substantial ruins remain.

List of quadrangular castles[edit]

Name Location Coordinates Constructed Built for Designed by Significant events Heritage status Image
Beverston Castle Cotswold 51°38′39″N 2°12′05″W / 51.6442°N 2.20139°W / 51.6442; -2.20139 1225 Maurice de Gaunt
Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley
anonymous siege
conflagration
Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Beverston Castle.jpg
Bodiam Castle East Sussex 51°00′08″N 0°32′37″E / 51.00226°N 0.54353°E / 51.00226; 0.54353 1385 Edward Dalyngrigge anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Bodiam-castle-10My8-1197.jpg
Bolton Castle Richmondshire 54°19′20″N 1°57′00″W / 54.3221°N 1.94991°W / 54.3221; -1.94991 1379 Richard le Scrope, 1st Baron Scrope of Bolton John Lewyn Slighting Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Bolton Castle.JPG
Caverswall Castle Staffordshire Moorlands 52°58′57″N 2°04′29″W / 52.9826°N 2.0746°W / 52.9826; -2.0746 1275 William de Caverswall anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
Caverswall Castle.jpg
Cawood Castle Selby 53°49′53″N 1°07′40″W / 53.8313°N 1.1278°W / 53.8313; -1.1278
53°49′53″N 1°07′47″W / 53.8313°N 1.12974°W / 53.8313; -1.12974
1378 John Kemp anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Cawood Castle.jpg
Chideock Castle West Dorset 50°44′03″N 2°49′06″W / 50.7343°N 2.81825°W / 50.7343; -2.81825 1370s Sir John Chideock anonymous Licence to crenellate scheduled monument
Chillingham Castle Northumberland 55°31′34″N 1°54′18″W / 55.526°N 1.905°W / 55.526; -1.905 1344 Sir Thomas Heton anonymous Licence to crenellate
siege
Grade I listed building
Chillingham Castle.jpg
Cooling Castle Medway 51°27′20″N 0°31′22″E / 51.4555°N 0.522732°E / 51.4555; 0.522732 1380s John de Cobham, 3rd Baron Cobham Henry Yevele Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Cooling Castle, 2011.jpg
Danby Castle North Yorkshire 54°27′20″N 0°53′43″W / 54.4555°N 0.895197°W / 54.4555; -0.895197 1302 William Latimer, 1st Lord Latimer anonymous Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Danby Castle 1.jpg
Farleigh Hungerford Castle Mendip 51°19′03″N 2°17′13″W / 51.3174°N 2.2869°W / 51.3174; -2.2869 1383 Thomas Hungerford anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Farleigh Hungerford Castle gate.JPG
Ford Castle Northumberland 55°37′53″N 2°05′25″W / 55.6314°N 2.09025°W / 55.6314; -2.09025 1338 Sir William Heron anonymous Licence to crenellate
military offensive
conflagration
Grade I listed building
Ford Castle - geograph.org.uk - 365306.jpg
Fyvie Castle Aberdeenshire 57°26′36″N 2°23′42″W / 57.4433°N 2.3949°W / 57.4433; -2.3949 1300s anonymous anonymous category A listed building
Fyvie Castle, Geograph.jpg
Greys Court South Oxfordshire 51°32′42″N 0°57′22″W / 51.545°N 0.956164°W / 51.545; -0.956164 1348 John de Grey, 2nd Baron Grey de Rotherfield
Francis Knollys, 1st Viscount Knollys
Baron Lovel
anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Greys Court.jpg
Greystoke Castle Eden
Cumbria
54°40′12″N 2°52′37″W / 54.66998°N 2.87705°W / 54.66998; -2.87705 1353 William de Greystoke, 2nd Baron Greystoke anonymous Licence to crenellate
conflagration
Grade II* listed building
Greystoke Castle.jpg
Hartley Castle Cumbria 54°28′09″N 2°20′12″W / 54.4691°N 2.33655°W / 54.4691; -2.33655 1353 Thomas de Musgrave
Sir Richard Musgrave, 1st Baronet
anonymous Licence to crenellate
demolition
scheduled monument
Grade II listed building
Hartley Castle.jpg
Hemyock Castle Mid Devon 50°54′45″N 3°13′54″W / 50.9125°N 3.23156°W / 50.9125; -3.23156 1380 William Asthorpe
Margaret Asthorpe
anonymous Licence to crenellate scheduled monument
Grade II* listed building
Hemyock Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1491334.jpg
Hever Castle Hever 51°11′13″N 0°06′50″E / 51.186944°N 0.113889°E / 51.186944; 0.113889 1271 William de Hever anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
Hever Castle.jpg
Inverlochy Castle Highland 56°49′57″N 5°04′52″W / 56.8326°N 5.081°W / 56.8326; -5.081 1270s Clan Cumming anonymous category B listed building
Inverlochy 1.jpg
Lumley Castle County Durham 54°51′17″N 1°33′11″W / 54.8547°N 1.55293°W / 54.8547; -1.55293 1389 Ralph de Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley John Lewyn
John Vanbrugh
Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
Lumley Castle Hotel - geograph.org.uk - 579104.jpg
Maxstoke Castle Warwickshire 52°29′58″N 1°40′18″W / 52.4994°N 1.67167°W / 52.4994; -1.67167 1345 William de Clinton, 1st Earl of Huntingdon anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Maxstoke Castle, 2010.jpg
Moor End Castle Northamptonshire 52°05′42″N 0°54′01″W / 52.0949°N 0.900155°W / 52.0949; -0.900155 1347 Edward III of England
Thomas de Ferrers
anonymous Licence to crenellate scheduled monument
Raby Castle County Durham 54°35′27″N 1°48′06″W / 54.59092°N 1.80175°W / 54.59092; -1.80175 1378 House of Neville John Lewyn Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
Raby Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1523038.jpg
Ravensworth Castle Tyne and Wear 54°55′34″N 1°38′18″W / 54.9262°N 1.6384°W / 54.9262; -1.6384 1350s Marmaduke Lumley anonymous Grade II* listed building
scheduled monument
Ravensworth Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1558897.jpg
Sheriff Hutton Castle North Yorkshire
Ryedale
54°05′17″N 1°00′19″W / 54.0881°N 1.00519°W / 54.0881; -1.00519 1382 John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby John Lewyn Licence to crenellate Grade II* listed building
scheduled monument
Sheriff hutton castle.jpg
Shirburn Castle South Oxfordshire 51°39′27″N 0°59′38″W / 51.6576°N 0.9938°W / 51.6576; -0.9938 1377 Warin de Lisle Henry Yevele
anonymous
Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
Shirburn Castle - geograph.org.uk - 93436.jpg
Somerton Castle North Kesteven 53°07′03″N 0°34′34″W / 53.1174°N 0.57616°W / 53.1174; -0.57616 1281 Antony Bek anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Somerton Castle-Geograph-1055605-by-Richard-Croft.jpg
Starborough Castle Surrey 51°10′42″N 0°02′19″E / 51.1783°N 0.0386396°E / 51.1783; 0.0386396 1341 Reginald de Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham anonymous Licence to crenellate
Slighting
scheduled monument
Grade II* listed building
Starborough Castle.jpg
Westenhanger Castle Kent
Shepway
51°05′40″N 1°01′53″E / 51.0944°N 1.03144°E / 51.0944; 1.03144 1343 John de Criol
Edward Poynings
anonymous Licence to crenellate
military offensive
demolition
scheduled monument
Grade I listed building
Westenhanger Castle - geograph.org.uk - 889584.jpg
Wingfield Castle Mid Suffolk 52°20′52″N 1°15′41″E / 52.3479°N 1.2614°E / 52.3479; 1.2614 1384 Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
Wingfield Castle - geograph.org.uk - 354164.jpg
Woodcroft Castle Cambridgeshire 52°37′35″N 0°19′02″W / 52.6263°N 0.3172°W / 52.6263; -0.3172 1280 anonymous anonymous Grade II* listed building
WoodcroftCastle.jpg
Woodsford Castle West Dorset 50°42′45″N 2°20′38″W / 50.7126°N 2.34389°W / 50.7126; -2.34389 1336 William de Whitefield
Guy de Bryan, 1st Baron Bryan
anonymous Licence to crenellate Grade I listed building
Woodsford Castle - geograph.org.uk - 924711.jpg
Wressle Castle East Riding of Yorkshire 53°46′32″N 0°55′45″W / 53.7755°N 0.929291°W / 53.7755; -0.929291 1390s Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester
Henry Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland
John Lewyn Slighting
archaeological field survey
conflagration
Grade I listed building
scheduled monument
Wressle-Castle-29042011.jpg

References[edit]

  1. ^ Faulkner, P (1958). "Domestic planning from the 12th to the 14th centuries". Archaeological Journal. 115: 150–83. 
  2. ^ Faulkner, P (1963). "Castle planning in the fourteenth century". Archaeological Journal. 120: 215–35. 
  3. ^ Rickard, John (2002). The castle community: the personnel of English and Welsh castles : 1272 - 1422 (1. publ. ed.). Woodbridge: Boydell. p. 21. ISBN 9780851159133.