Quadruple reed

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A quadruple reed is a type of reed by means of which the sound is originated in various wind instruments. The term "quadruple reed" comes from the fact that there are four pieces of dried palm leaf vibrating against each other, in pairs. A quadruple reed, such as the Thai pinai, operates in a similar way as the double reed and produces a timbre similar to the oboe.[1] The Arabic pii chawaa is, "sometimes described as having a double reed though this is actually folded yet again, creating four layers of reed and thus requiring considerable lung power to play".[2]

Instruments which use quadruple reeds[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anderson, William M. and Shehan Campbell, Patricia; eds. (2011). Multicultural Perspectives in Music Education, Volume 3, p.203. R&L Education. ISBN 9781607095477.
  2. ^ Wong, Deborah; ed. (2001). Sounding the Center: History and Aesthetics in Thai Buddhist Performance, Volume 1, p.303, n.66. University of Chicago. ISBN 9780226905853.
  3. ^ Wong, ed. (2001), p.104.
  4. ^ Miller, Terry and Williams, Sean (2011). The Garland Handbook of Southeast Asian Music, p.195. "Quadruple reed instrument, carved of wood with a bulbous shape." Routledge. ISBN 9781135901554.
  5. ^ (1991). Balungan, p.3. American Gamelan Institute.
  6. ^ Paetzold, Uwe U. and Mason, Paul H.; eds. (2016). The Fighting Art of Pencak Silat and its Music: From Southeast Asian Village to Global Movement, p.399. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-30875-6.
  7. ^ Osnes, Beth (2010). The Shadow Puppet Theatre of Malaysia: A Study of Wayang Kulit with Performance Scripts and Puppet Designs, p.79. "This quadruple reed instrument provides the only melody for the orchestra and is quite difficult to master, as circular breathing is employed to create a continuous note free from any interruptions for breaths." McFarland. ISBN 9780786457922.
  8. ^ Katherine Brisbane, Ravi Chaturvedi, Ramendu Majumdar, Chua Soo Pong, and Minoru Tanokura; eds. (2005). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: Volume 5: Asia/Pacific, unpaginated. Routledge. ISBN 9781134929771.
  9. ^ André de Quadros; ed. (2000). Many seeds, different flowers: the music education legacy of Carl Orff, p.43. "Four little tongues (reeds) of dried palm leaf are fastened to a brass tube with thread, and the reeds are placed completely in the mouth, with the tongue place under the reeds to control the opening." CIRCME. ISBN 9781740520010.
  10. ^ Nettl, Bruno (1998). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia: the Indian subcontinent, p.958. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780824049461.