Quality, cost, delivery

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Quality, cost, delivery (QCD), sometimes expanded to QCDMS (Quality, Cost, Delivery, Morale, Safety),[1] is a management approach originally developed to help companies within the British automobile sector. QCD analysis is used to assess different components of the production process. It also provides accurate feedback in the form of facts and figures that help senior managers make logical and beneficial decisions. What is more is that by using the gathered data it is much easier for organizations to prioritize their future goals.[2]

The reason why QCD is such a popular approach is because it allows people to break down one big thing into many smaller ones, which helps organize and prioritize their efforts and, psychologically, prevents the feeling of being overwhelmed.[3]

It is important to remember that QCD is a three-dimensional approach. If there is a problem with even one dimension, the others will inevitably suffer as well. One dimension cannot be sacrificed for the sake of the other two.[4]

Benefits of QCD[edit]

QCD offers a straightforward method of measuring processes while being applicable to both simple and complicated business processes. It also represents a basis for comparing businesses. For example, a business measuring supplier delivery performance may easily compare its findings against other businesses' performance.

QCDF[edit]

Flexibility is often included as a measure to QCD resulting in Quality, Cost, Delivery and Flexibility (QCDF). Flexibility relates to the capacity to adapt to changes / modifications . The modifications could be in a)input quality b) output quality c) product specifications d) delivery schedules.

Quality[edit]

Quality is the ability of a product or service to meet and exceed customer expectations. Customers' requirements determine the quality goals. It is almost always listed first, presumably because poor quality often results in bad business. Quality is the result of the efficiency of the entire production process formed of men, material, and machinery.

Even though quality is now seen as a competitive advantage, US business organizations in the 1970s tended to focus more on cost and productivity. That approach led to a major share of the US market being captured by Japanese business organizations, which onces again proves that in order to be successful an organization has to focus on all three QCD dimensions together.[5]

It was not until the late 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s that the factor “quality” drastically shifted and became a strategic approach created by Harvard professor David Garvin.[6] This approach focuses on preventing any mistakes and, also, puts a great emphasis on customer satisfaction.[7]

Quality basis[edit]

Gavin lists eight dimensions of quality:[8][9]

  • Performance

Performance is a product’s primary operating characteristics. For example, for a stereo those characteristics would include sound quality, surround sound, and wifi connectivity.

  • Conformance

Conformance refers to the degree to which a certain product meets the customer’s expectations.

  • Special features

Those are any additional features of a product or service. In other words, extras. An example of an extra could be free meals on an airplane, or free drinks at a museum visit. And for a TV, for example, it can be split screen, internet access, embedded apps etc.

  • Aesthetics

Aesthetics refer to a product’s looks, sound, feel, smell, or taste. When it comes to aesthetics, complete customer satisfaction is simply impossible as it is very subjective. For example, one group of customers may like the smell of a certain perfume while other may find it completely repelling.

  • Durability

The durability of a product is how long the product lasts before it has to be replaced. Durability can be improved by the usage of long-life materials or improved technology processes in manufacturing. Some products are expected to be more durable than others. Those often include home appliances and automobiles for which durability is a primary characteristic of quality.

  • Reliability

Reliability refers to the time until a product breaks down and has to be repaired, but not replaced. This feature is very important for products that have expensive maintenance.

  • Serviceability

"Serviceability is defined by speed, courtesy, competence and ease of repair." [8] Customers usually want products that are relatively quickly and easily serviceable.[10]

  • Perceived quality

The perceived quality may be affected by the high price or the good aesthetics of a product.

Product components[edit]

The quality of a product depends almost entirely on the quality of the supplied materials. One cannot produce a high-quality end product from low-quality components. Suppliers and manufacturers must be willing to work together in order to reduce and eliminate errors and defects, and achieve higher quality end products. SMEs should discuss with their suppliers how quality improvements can affect the overall performance of the supply chain. A properly implemented quality procedure can reduce testing, scrap, rework, etc. This could result in a reduction of production costs.[11]

Consequences of poor quality[edit]

  • Business loss

Poor quality often results in unsatisfied customers which leads to business loss. In an environment where the customer can easily switch to a competitor, producing poor-quality products can be fatal to an organization.

  • Productivity

Poor-quality products must often be reworked or scrapped entirely, which reduces the amount of usable output.

Costs[edit]

The biggest cost in most business organizations is the manufacturing cost. Production has a direct responsibility when it comes to controlling and reducing manufacturing cost.[4]

There are four basic types of manufacturing costs:[13]

  • Raw materials
  • Direct labour
  • Variable overhead – production costs that increase or decrease depending on the quantity produced. For example, electricity is a variable overhead. If a company increases production, it will also increase the usage of equipment, which will result in a higher electricity bill.
  • Fixed overhead

Those are the production cost that stay the same even if the quantity produced increases or decreases. Those costs include:

  1. Salaries for employees that do not work directly on the production line (e.g. security guards, safety inspectors, etc.).
  2. Depreciation costs
  3. Occupancy costs – property taxes, building insurance, etc.

Cost reduction[edit]

Businesses have been under the pressure to drive down costs in order to be more competitive for many years. There are many books and articles nowadays that suggest different ways of reducing costs, some of which are as follows:

Delivery[edit]

Logistics are an essential part in providing good customer service:[17][18]

Logistics customer service can be separated into three elements (before, during and after delivery of the product):

  • Pre-transaction elements
  • Transaction elements
  • Post-transaction elements

Increasing profitability with QCD[edit]

There are seven measures used to increase profitability:[19]

  • Not right first time (NRFT) [20]

Not getting things right the first time means wasted resources, effort and time. This all leads to excessive costs for the company and poor-quality, high-priced products for the customer. NRFT measures the quality of a product and is expressed in “number of defective parts per million”. The number of defective products is divided by the total quantity of finished products. This figure is then multiplied by 10^6 to get the number of defective parts per million.[2]

NRFT can be measured internally (defective parts identified within the production process) or externally (defective parts identified outside the production process (e.g. by the supplier or the customer).[21]

NRFT
  • Delivery schedule achievement (DSA)

DSA analyses how well a supplier delivers what the customer wants and when they want it. The goal is to achieve 100% on-time delivery without any special deliveries or overtime payments, which only increase the delivery cost. DSA measures the actual delivery performance against the planned delivery schedule.[2] Failed deliveries include:

  1. "Not on time" deliveries – both late and early.
  2. "Incorrect quantity deliveries".
  3. Both "not on time" and "incorrect quantity deliveries".[21]
Calculating DSA
  • People productivity (PP)

PP is measured by the time it takes (in staff hours) to produce a good-quality product. Obtaining high PP is only possible when:

  1. Most employees' work adds value to the process.
  2. Non-value added work is reduced as much as possible.
  3. Waste is completely eliminated .[21]
People productivity
  • Stock turns (ST)

The ST ratio shows how quickly a company turns raw materials into finished, ready-to-be-sold products. The quicker the better. A low ST means that the money is tied up in stock, and the company has fewer funds to invest in other parts of its business.[2]

Calculating Stock Turns
  • Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)

The OEE shows how well a company uses its equipment and staff.

OEE is calculated on the base of three elements:

  1. Availability – compares the planned and the actual time of the process run. For example, if a machine is planned to run 100 hours a week, but in reality runs only 50, then the availability is 50%.[2]
  2. Performance – compares the ideal output and the actual output. For example, if a certain process is planned to take 10 minutes, but actually takes 20, then the productivity is 50%.[2]
  3. Quality – to show the quality of a product, a company has to compare the number of good parts produced with the total parts produced. If it produces 100 parts per hour but only 50 of them are of saleable standard, then quality is running at 50%.[2]
Calculating overall equipment effectiveness
  • Value added per person (VAPP)

VAPP shows how well people are used to turn raw materials into finished goods. In order to calculate VAPP, three things need to be taken into account:

  1. The sales value of a unit after production (output value).
  2. The raw material value of a unit before production (input value).
  3. The number of direct production process employees.[21]
Value added per person
  • Floor space utilisation (FSU) [22]

FSU measures the sales revenue generated by a square meter of factory floor space. Usually to achieve higher FSU the floor space has to be reduced. That means eliminating inventory and reducing the necessary space to a minimum.[21]

Floor space utilisation

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Imai, Masaaki (1997). Gemba Kaizen: A Commonsense, Low-Cost Approach to Management. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-07-136816-2. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "QCD – Quality, Cost and Delivery". Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  3. ^ "QCD / Quality, Cost, Delivery". Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Domingo, Rene T. "THE QCD APPROACH TO OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT". Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  5. ^ Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald; Lin, Ken-Hou (August 2011). "Income Dynamics, Economic Rents, and the Financialization of the U.S. Economy". American Sociological Review. American Sociological Association. 76 (4): 538–559. doi:10.1177/0003122411414827. 
  6. ^ Garvin, David A. (November 1987). "Competing on the Eight Dimensions of Quality". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "Operations management:Quality". Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  8. ^ a b "Operations Strategy". Retrieved 27 October 2015. 
  9. ^ Gupta, Sushil; Starr, Martin (2014). Production and operations management systems. [S.l.]: CRC Press. pp. 279–280. ISBN 978-1-4665-0733-3. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  10. ^ Gupta, Sushil; Starr, Martin (2014). Production and operations management systems. [S.l.]: CRC Press. p. 282. ISBN 978-1-4665-0733-3. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  11. ^ Council, Committee on Supply Chain Integration, Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research (2000). Surviving supply chain integration : strategies for small manufacturers. Washington, DC: National Acad.Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-309-06878-9. Retrieved 27 October 2015. 
  12. ^ Gupta, Sushil; Starr, Martin (2014). Production and operations management systems. [S.l.]: CRC Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-4665-0733-3. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  13. ^ Shim, Jae K. Shim, Joel G. Siegel, Allison I. (2012). Budgeting basics and beyond (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. pp. 191–202. doi:10.1002/9781118387023.ch9. ISBN 978-1-118-38702-3. Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  14. ^ Berk, Joseph (2010). Cost reduction and optimization for manufacturing and industrial companies. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley. pp. 117–124. doi:10.1002/9780470643815.ch13. ISBN 978-0-470-64381-5. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  15. ^ Alves, José Roberto Xavier; Alves, João Murta (21 April 2015). "Production management model integrating the principles of lean manufacturing and sustainability supported by the cultural transformation of a company". International Journal of Production Research. 53 (17): 5320. doi:10.1080/00207543.2015.1033032. 2.3 The system of lean manufacturing. 
  16. ^ Bragg, Steven M. (2011). "5S ANALYSIS". The controller's function the work of the managerial accountant (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. pp. 423–424. doi:10.1002/9781118268377.ch22. ISBN 978-1-118-26837-7. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  17. ^ Baker, Alan Rushton, Phil Croucher, Peter (2014). The handbook of logistics & distribution management (5th ed.). London: KoganPage. p. 35. ISBN 0-7494-6627-8. Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  18. ^ Voortman, Craig (2004). Global logistics management. Cape Town: Juta Academic. pp. 23–26. ISBN 0-7021-6641-3. 
  19. ^ Osman, Ibrahim; Anouze,, Abdel Latef; editors, Ali Emrouznejad, (2014). Strategic performance management and measurement using data envelopment analysis. pp. 132–133. ISBN 1-4666-4474-5. Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  20. ^ Morgan, Colin; Murgatroyd, Stephen J. (1994). Total quality management in the public sector : an international perspective ([4th ]reprint. ed.). Buckingham, En: Open University Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-335-19102-4. Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c d e "QCD: measuring manufacturing performance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2005. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  22. ^ LARSON, T. NICK; MARCH, HEATHER; KUSIAK, ANDREW (April 1997). "A heuristic approach to warehouse layout with class-based storage". IIE Transactions. 29 (4): 337–348. doi:10.1080/07408179708966339.