Most matter is either solid or gaseous (at low densities) near absolute zero. However, for the cases of helium-4 and its isotope helium-3, there is a pressure range where they can remain liquid down to absolute zero because the amplitude of the quantum fluctuations experienced by the helium atoms is larger than the inter-atomic distances.
In the case of solid quantum fluids, it is only a fraction of its electrons or protons that behave like a “fluid”. One prominent example is that of superconductivity where quasi-particles made up of pairs of electrons and a phonon act as bosons which are then capable of collapsing into the ground state to establish a supercurrent with a resistivity near zero.
- Bose Einstein Condensate
- International Congress of Quantum Chemistry
- Liquid helium
- Macroscopic quantum phenomena
- The International Conference on Low Temperature Physics
- Topological order
- Lerner, Rita G. and Trigg, George L. (1990). Encyclopedia of Physics. VHC Publishers. ISBN 0-89573-752-3.
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