Quantum technology is an emerging field of physics and engineering, encompassing technologies that rely on the properties of quantum mechanics, especially quantum entanglement, quantum superposition, and quantum tunneling. Quantum computing, sensors, cryptography, simulation, measurement, and imaging are all examples of emerging quantum technologies. The development of quantum technology also heavily impacts established fields such as space exploration.
Quantum secure communication is a method that is expected to be 'quantum safe' in the advent of quantum computing systems that could break current cryptography systems using methods such as Shor's algorithm. These methods include quantum key distribution (QKD), a method of transmitting information using entangled light in a way that makes any interception of the transmission obvious to the user. Another method is the quantum random number generator, which is capable of producing truly random numbers unlike non-quantum algorithms that merely imitate randomness.
Quantum computers are expected to have a number of important uses in computing fields such as optimization and machine learning. They are perhaps best known for their expected ability to carry out Shor's algorithm, which can be used to factorize large numbers and is an important process in the securing of data transmissions.
Quantum simulators are types of quantum computers used to simulate a real world system and can be used to simulate chemical compounds or solve high energy physics problems. Quantum simulators are simpler to build as opposed to general purpose quantum computers because complete control over every component is not necessary. Current quantum simulators under development include ultracold atoms in optical lattices, trapped ions, arrays of superconducting qubits, and others.
Quantum sensors are expected to have a number of applications in a wide variety of fields including positioning systems, communication technology, electric and magnetic field sensors, gravimetry as well as geophysical areas of research such as civil engineering and seismology.
The field of quantum technology was first outlined in a 1997 book by Gerard J. Milburn, which was then followed by a 2003 article by Jonathan P. Dowling and Gerard J. Milburn, as well as a 2003 article by David Deutsch.
Many devices already available are fundamentally reliant on the effects of quantum mechanics. These include laser systems, transistors and semiconductor devices, as well as other devices such as MRI imagers. The UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) grouped these devices as 'quantum 1.0' to differentiate them from what it dubbed 'quantum 2.0', which it defined as a class of devices that actively create, manipulate, and read out quantum states of matter using the effects of superposition and entanglement.
In the realm of Quantum technology we are in the first couple years of its life. For each individual section of Quantum technology such as quantum computers, simulators, communications, sensors and metrology there is so much room for improvement according to Quantum in a nutshell. In the next couple years Quantum computers hope to process 50 qubits, as well as demonstrate quantum speed-up and outperforming classical computers. Quantum simulators have the capability to solve problems beyond supercomputer capacity. For more information visit Quantum technologies in a nut shell. According to quantum technology expert Paul Martin Quantum technology promises improvements in everyday gadgets such as navigation, timing systems, communication security, computers, and more accurate healthcare imaging.
From 2010 onwards, multiple governments have established programmes to explore quantum technologies, such as the UK National Quantum Technologies Programme, which created four quantum 'hubs', the Centre for Quantum Technologies in Singapore, and QuTech, a Dutch center to develop a topological quantum computer. In 2016, the European Union introduced the Quantum Technology Flagship, a €1 Billion, 10-year-long megaproject, similar in size to earlier European Future and Emerging Technologies Flagship projects.  In December 2018, the United States passed the National Quantum Initiative Act, which provides a US$1 billion annual budget for quantum research. China is building the world's largest quantum research facility with a planned investment of 76 billion Yuan (approx. €10 Billion). Indian government has also invested 8000 crore Rupees (approx. US$1.02 Billion) over 5-years to boost quantum technologies under its National Quantum Mission.
In the private sector, large companies have made multiple investments in quantum technologies. Organizations such as Google, D-wave systems, and University of California Santa Barbara have formed partnerships and investments to develop quantum technology.
|Country/Group||Name of Center/ Project||Government control (yes/no/partial)||Type of Quantum Technology Research||Established date||Funding|
|AUSTRALIA||Australian Research Council Centres of Excellence||Yes||Computing||2017||US$94 million|
|AUSTRALIA||Department of Defence’s Next Generation Technologies Fund||Yes||Integrated intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance
Enhanced human performance
Medical countermeasure products
Multi-disciplinary material sciences
Trusted autonomous systems
Directed energy capabilities
|AUSTRALIA||Sydney Quantum Academy||Partial||Quantum economy||December 7, 2020 ||US$15.0M|
|AUSTRALIA||Silicon Quantum Computing||Partial||Quantum computing||May 2017||US$83M|
|CANADA||Canadian Space Agency Quantum Encryption and Science Satellite||Partial||Quantum key distribution(QKD)||December 2017|
|CANADA||National Research Council of Canada’s Security and Disruptive Technologies Research Centre: Quantum Sensors and Security program||Partial||Longer-range emerging and disruptive technologies||2012||US$23M|
|CANADA||Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council/UK Research and Innovation||Partial||Quantum technology development||US$3.4M|
|CANADA||Canada’s National Quantum Strategy||Partial||The Strategy will guide investments along three pillars − quantum research, talent and commercialization − toward achieving three key missions, in quantum computers and software, communications and sensors.||2023||US$267M|
|CHINA||Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics||Yes||General||May 2015||US$10.0B|
|CHINA||Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS) project (the Micius satellite)||Yes||Quantum key distribution||May 2015|
|CHINA||Beijing–Shanghai Quantum Secure Communication Backbone||Yes||Quantum Communications||May 2015|
|CHINA||National Quantum Laboratory||Yes||Quantum metrology and building a quantum computer||May 2015 (opened in 2020)|
|EUROPEAN UNION||Quantum Technologies Flagship program||Yes||Quantum computing||2018||Expected budget of €1 billion|
|EUROPEAN UNION||Coordination and support action for Quantum Technology Education (QTEdu)||Yes||Education||2020|
|EUROPEAN UNION||QuantERA||Yes||Quantum technologies||2016||€89 million|
|EUROPEAN UNION||Open European Quantum Key Distribution (OpenQKD)||Yes||Quantum-based cryptography||Sept. 2, 2019 (ended Sept. 1, 2022) ||€17 974 246,25|
|EUROPEAN UNION||European Quantum Communication Infrastructure (EuroQCI)||Yes||Quantum communication infrastructure||June 2019||€90,000,000|
|FRANCE||National Strategy for Quantum Technologies||Yes||Quantum computing, quantum communications and quantum sensors ||January 21, 2021||US$1.8B|
|GERMANY||Quantum Technologies — From Basic Research to Market||Yes||Quantum technologies||September 26, 2018||€650M|
|GERMANY||Agenda Quantensysteme 2030||Yes||quantum computing, quantum simulation, quantum communication, quantum sensors, supporting technologies, public outreach||March 23, 2021.|
|GERMANY||Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft-IBM collaboration||Yes||Quantum computing||September, 2019||€40M|
|INDIA||National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications||Yes||Quantum communication, quantum simulation, quantum computation, Quantum sensing, and quantum metrology||2020||Rs 8000 Crore |
|ISRAEL||National Program for Quantum Science and Technology||Yes||National quantum development||2019||US$360|
|JAPAN.||Quantum Technology Innovation Strategy||Yes||Quantum technology||2020||US$470|
|JAPAN||Quantum Strategic Industry Alliance for Revolution (Q-STAR)||Yes||An industry council to promote quantum technologies||September 1, 2021|
|JAPAN||Quantum Leap Flagship Program||Yes||Superconducting quantum computer, quantum simulation, quantum computing, solid state quantum sensors, lasers||2018 ||US$200M|
|JAPAN||The Moonshot Research and Development Program (Goal 6)||Yes||Quantum computing||2019||US$963M for total program not just quantum|
|NETHERLANDS||National Agenda for Quantum Technology: Quantum Delta NL||Yes||Quantum computing,quantum communication, and quantum sensing ||2020 ||€615M|
|RUSSIA||Rosatom||Yes||Quantum technologies and research infrastructure ||2021 ||23 billion rubles|
|RUSSIA||RZD (Russian Railways)||Yes||Quantum Communications||October 2021||138M Russian rubles|
|SINGAPORE||Quantum Engineering Program||Yes||Quantum technology||2018||US$121.6M|
|SINGAPORE||Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT)||Yes||Quantum Technologies||2007||US$194.9M|
|SINGAPORE||SGInnovate- Quantum Technologies||Yes||Digital financing||2015|
|SOUTH KOREA||Quantum Computing Technology Development Project||Yes||Quantum technologies||2019||US$39.8M|
|UNITED KINGDOM||National Quantum Technologies Programme||Yes||Funding UK quantum technologies||2013||US$1B|
|UNITED KINGDOM||National Quantum Computing Centre||Yes||Quantum computing||Set to open in 2023||£93m|
|UNITED KINGDOM||Rigetti Computing||Partial||Quantum computing||2013||US$268m|
|UNITED STATES||Quantum Industry Consortium||Yes||General "quantum ecosystem" (quantum industry supply chain, federal R&D investment priorities, standards and regulation, industry interactions, etc.)||2018||US$1.25B|
|UNITED STATES||National Quantum Coordination Office||Yes||Quantum technology research and development||2019|
|UNITED STATES||The Department of Energy Office of Science||Yes||Quantum computing, quantum algorithms, quantum sensors, quantum processors, quantum networks and quantum simulation ||2019||US$900M (US$300M in FY 2023)|
|UNITED STATES||The National Science Foundation (Five Quantum Leap Challenges Institutes)||Yes||Quantum computing, quantum sensors, quantum processors, quantum biological sensing, and quantum simulation||2020||US$125M|
|UNITED STATES||National Quantum Initiative Act||Yes||Quantum information science and Quantum technology development||Dec. 21, 2018||US$1.275B|
|UNITED STATES||MonArk Quantum Foundry||Partial||Development of quantum materials and devices||August 17, 2021||US$19,990,000|
|UNITED STATES||Center for Quantum Networks||Partial||Quantum computing||2020||US$26 m|
|UNITED STATES||National Q-12 Education Partnership||Yes||Education||2020||US$1M|
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