Quanzhou dialect

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Quanzhou dialect
泉州话 / 泉州話 (Choân-chiu-ōe)
Native to People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines.
Region city of Quanzhou, Southern Fujian province
Native speakers
over 7 million (date missing)[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
Linguasphere 79-AAA-jdb
Hokkien Map.svg
     Quanzhou dialect

The Quanzhou dialect (simplified Chinese: 泉州话; traditional Chinese: 泉州話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Choân-chiu-ōe) also known as the Chin-chew dialect[1] or the Choanchew dialect[citation needed], is a Hokkien dialect that originally comes from Southern Fujian (in southeast China), in the area centered on the city of Quanzhou. The Quanzhou dialect has an intelligibility of over 90%[dubious ][citation needed] with other dialects of Hokkien such as Amoy and Zhangzhou. For this reason, the Quanzhou dialect is often simply called Hokkien or Min Nan.

Phonology[edit]

Initials[edit]

There are 14 phonemic initials, including the zero initial (not included below):[2]

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Stop plain /p/ /b/ /t/ /k/ /g/
aspirated // // //
Affricate plain /ts/
aspirated /tsʰ/
Fricative /s/ /h/
Lateral /l/

When the rhyme is nasalized, the three voiced phonemes /b/, /l/ and /g/ are realized as the nasal stops [m], [n] and [ŋ], respectively.[2]

The inventory of initial consonants in the Quanzhou dialect is identical to the Amoy dialect and almost identical to the Zhangzhou dialect. The Quanzhou dialect is missing the phoneme /dz/ found in the Zhangzhou dialect due to a merger of /dz/ into /l/,[3] which has already been observed by Rev. Carstairs Douglas in the late 19th century.[1] The distinction between /dz/ () and /l/ () was still made in the early 19th century, as seen in Huìyīn Miàowù (彙音妙悟) by Huang Qian (黃謙).[3]

Rimes[edit]

There are 87 rimes:[2][3]

Rimes without finals (18)[edit]

/a/ /ɔ/ /o/ /ə/ /e/ /ɯ/ /ai/ /au/
/i/ /ia/ /io/ /iu/ /iau/
/u/ /ua/ /ue/ /ui/ /uai/

Rimes with nasal finals (17)[edit]

// /am/ /əm/ /an/ /ŋ̍/ /aŋ/ /ɔŋ/
/im/ /iam/ /in/ /ian/ /iŋ/ /iaŋ/ /iɔŋ/
/un/ /uan/ /uaŋ/

Nasalized rimes without finals (11)[edit]

/ã/ /ɔ̃/ // /ãi/
/ĩ/ /iã/ /iũ/ /iãu/
/uã/ /uĩ/ /uãi/

Checked rimes (41)[edit]

/ap/ /at/ /ak/ /ɔk/ /aʔ/ /ɔʔ/ /oʔ/ /əʔ/ /eʔ/ /ɯʔ/ /auʔ/ /m̩ʔ/ /ŋ̍ʔ/ /ãʔ/ /ɔ̃ʔ/ /ẽʔ/ /ãiʔ/ /ãuʔ/
/ip/ /iap/ /it/ /iat/ /iak/ /iɔk/ /iʔ/ /iaʔ/ /ioʔ/ /iauʔ/ /iuʔ/ /ĩʔ/ /iãʔ/ /iũʔ/ /iãuʔ/
/ut/ /uat/ /uʔ/ /uaʔ/ /ueʔ/ /uiʔ/ /uĩʔ/ /uãiʔ/

Tones[edit]

For single syllables, there are seven tones:[2][3]

Name Tone letter Description
yin level (阴平; 陰平) ˧˧ (33) mid level
yang level (阳平; 陽平) ˨˦ (24) rising
yin rising (阴上; 陰上) ˥˥˦ (554) high level
yang rising (阳上; 陽上) ˨˨ (22) low level
departing (去声; 去聲) ˦˩ (41) falling
yin entering (阴入; 陰入) ˥ (5) high
yang entering (阳入; 陽入) ˨˦ (24) rising

In addition to these tones, there is also a neutral tone.[2]

Tone sandhi[edit]

As with other dialects of Hokkien, the tone sandhi rules are applied to every syllable but the final syllable in an utterance. The following is a summary of the rules:[2]

  • The yin level (33) and yang rising (22) tones do not undergo tone sandhi.
  • The yang level and entering tones (24) are pronounced as the yang rising tone (22).
  • The yin rising tone (554) is pronounced as the yang level tone (24).
  • The departing tone (41) depends on the voicing of the initial consonant in Middle Chinese:
    • If the Middle Chinese initial consonant is voiceless, it is pronounced as the yin rising tone (554).
    • If the Middle Chinese initial consonant is voiced, it is pronounced as the yang rising tone (22).
  • The yin entering (5) depends on the final consonant:
    • If the final consonant is /p/, /t/ or /k/, it is pronounced as the yang level tone (24).
    • If the final consonant is /ʔ/, it does not undergo tone sandhi.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Douglas, Rev. Carstairs (1873). Chinese-English Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy, with the Principal Variations of the Chang-chew and Chin-chew dialects. London: Trübner & Co. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Huang, Shaoping; Ji, Xinrong, eds. (2000). 方言. 泉州市志 [Quanzhou Annals] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Society Science Publishing House. ISBN 7-5004-2700-X. 
  3. ^ a b c d Zhou, Changji, ed. (2006). 闽南方言大词典 (in Chinese). Fuzhou: Fujian People's Publishing House. ISBN 7-211-03896-9. 

External links[edit]