Quartermaster General of the United States Army
|Quartermaster General of the United States Army|
|Formation||June 16, 1775|
|First holder||MG Thomas Mifflin|
The Quartermaster General of the United States Army is a general officer who is responsible for the Quartermaster Corps, the Quartermaster branch of the U.S. Army. The Quartermaster General does not command Quartermaster units, but is primarily focused on training, doctrine and professional development of Quartermaster soldiers. The Quartermaster General also serves as the Commanding General, U.S. Army Quartermaster Center and School, Fort Lee, Virginia and the traditional Quartermaster Corps. The office of the Quartermaster General was established by resolution of the Continental Congress on 16 June 1775, but the position was not filled until 14 August 1775. Perhaps the most famous Quartermaster General was Nathanael Greene, who was the third Quartermaster General, serving from March 1778 to August 1780. The first Quartermaster General to serve in the U.S. Army was Thomas Mifflin of Pennsylvania.
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The position of Quartermaster General originated in the Continental Army, under order of Congress. On 16 June 1775, 2 days after the birth of the Army, Congress ordered the creation of both a Quartermaster General and a Deputy Quartermaster General. During this period Quartermaster Generals would be act like chiefs of staff for the commanders of the Continental Army, acting as the prime supplier and businessmen for dealing with civilians, operated and repaired supply lines, which included the roads which they traveled upon, was responsible for transporting troops and furnished all the supplies needed to establish camps when the troops got there.
Upon the establishment of the position, Congress authorized George Washington to appoint the first Quartermaster General. He picked a man from amongst his aides-de-camp, Maj. Thomas Mifflin. Mifflin, an experienced merchant from Philadelphia, proved to be a prime choice, being reappointed several times to the position. They eventually promoted Mifflin to a Colonel in order to retain him in his position.
Fifteen officers held the office of quartermaster general in the United States Army in the nineteenth century. The first, John Wilkins Jr., was a major general. Two colonels, James Mullany and George Gibson, jointly held the office between April 29, 1816 and April 14, 1818. On May 8, 1818 Thomas Jessup became the Quartermaster General, and he remained in the position until 1860. As a combat veteran, Jessup understood the importance of support to front line soldiers and instituted many enduring practices and policies. Because of his reforms, historians often call Jessup the "father of the Quartermaster Corps". From 1860 to the end of the century, the quartermaster general office was held by officers who served in the American Civil War.
Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston held the position from June 28, 1860 until his resignation on April 22, 1861. Johnston was appointed a full general in the Confederate States Army on August 31, 1861. Adhering to the ideology of states' rights, quartermasters of each Confederate state exercised considerable autonomy from their national quartermaster general. Within their jurisdictions, these Confederate officers exercised powers equivalent to the Union quartermaster general. Georgia quartermaster general Ira Roe Foster is, perhaps, the best example of a Confederate quartermaster exercising considerable power over both production and supply within his state. Brigadier General Montgomery C. Meigs succeeded Johnston on May 15, 1861. Meigs was born in Augusta, Georgia but his family was from Philadelphia and he adhered to the Union during the Civil War. Meigs served throughout the war and retired on February 6, 1882. Contemporaries such as U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and many historians have given Meigs's work in keeping the Union Army adequately and timely supplied considerable credit for the Union victory.
From February 13, 1882 to February 23, 1882 Daniel H. Rucker was quartermaster general, an appointment intended to honor his many years of military service. At the end of his brief tenure, Rucker retired. Rufus Ingalls, a brevet brigadier general and quartermaster for all Union Army forces during the Siege of Petersburg succeeded Rucker. Ingalls also had a brief tenure in office, serving between February 23, 1883 and July 1, 1883, when he also retired. Samuel B. Holabird, who was chief quartermaster of the Union Department of the Gulf during much of the Civil War, succeeded Ingalls and served from July 1, 1883 to June 16, 1890. Richard Napoleon Batchelder, quartermaster for II Corps of the Union Army and a recipient of the Medal of Honor, succeeded Holabird. He held the office between June 26, 1890 and July 27, 1896.
Another brevet brigadier general who had served as quartermaster for II Corps, Charles G. Sawtelle, succeeded Batchelder. He served between August 19, 1896 and February 16, 1897. George H. Weeks, who served as quartermaster with the III Corps of the Union Army, held the office between February 6, 1897 and his retirement on February 3, 1898.
The last quartermaster general of the 19th century was Marshall I. Ludington, who assumed the office on February 3, 1898, three months before the Spanish–American War. Ludington had served as a division quartermaster for the Army of the Potomac. He was criticized for the general unpreparedness of the U.S. Army for the Spanish–American War but he had inherited the general state of unpreparedness of the army, which had been given meager funds and kept small during the long period of relative peace that followed the Civil War. Ludington succeeded in improving the supply situation of the U.S. Army to an adequate state in a matter of months after the start of the war. He was promoted to major general on April 12, 1903, and retired the next day.
Colonel Gwen Bingham became the Army's second female Quartermaster General when she assumed command of the Quartermaster Corps from Brigadier General Jesse Cross on November 23, 2010. Bingham was promoted to brigadier general in April 2011.
List of Army Quartermaster Generals
|Name||Photo||Term began||Term ended|
|1.||MG Thomas Mifflin||August 14, 1775||May 16, 1776|
|2.||COL Stephen Moylan||June 5, 1776||September 27, 1776|
|1.||MG Thomas Mifflin||October 1, 1776||November 17, 1777|
|3.||MG Nathanael Greene||March 2, 1778||August 5, 1780|
|4.||COL Timothy Pickering||August 5, 1780||July 25, 1785|
|5.||Samuel Hodgdon||March 4, 1791||April 19, 1792|
|6.||James O'Hara||April 19, 1792||May 1, 1796|
|7.||MG John Wilkins, Jr.||June 1, 1796||June 1, 1802|
|8.||BG Morgan Lewis||April 3, 1812||March 2, 1813|
|9.||BG Robert Swartwout||March 21, 1813||June 5, 1816|
|10.||COL James Mullany||April 29, 1816||April 14, 1818|
|11.||COL George Gibson||April 29, 1816||April 14, 1818|
|12.||BG Thomas S. Jesup||May 8, 1818||June 10, 1860|
|13.||BG Joseph E. Johnston||June 20, 1860||April 22, 1861|
|14.||BG Montgomery C. Meigs||May 15, 1861||February 6, 1882|
|15.||BG Daniel H. Rucker||February 13, 1882||February 23, 1882|
|16.||BG Rufus Ingalls||February 23, 1882||July 1, 1883|
|17.||BG Samuel B. Holabird||July 1, 1883||June 16, 1890|
|18.||BG Richard Batchelder||June 26, 1890||July 27, 1896|
|19.||BG Charles G. Sawtelle||August 19, 1896||February 16, 1897|
|20.||BG George H. Weeks||February 16, 1897||February 3, 1898|
|21.||BG Marshall I. Ludington||February 3, 1898||April 12, 1903|
|22.||BG Charles F. Humphrey||April 12, 1903||July 1, 1907|
|23.||MG James B. Aleshire||July 1, 1907||September 12, 1916|
|24.||MG Henry G. Sharpe||September 16, 1916||July 21, 1918|
|25.||MG Harry Lovejoy Rogers||July 22, 1918||August 27, 1922|
|26.||MG William H. Hart||August 28, 1922||January 2, 1926|
|27.||MG B. Frank Cheatham||January 3, 1926||January 17, 1930|
|28.||MG John L. DeWitt||February 3, 1930||February 3, 1934|
|29.||MG Louis H. Bash||February 3, 1934||March 31, 1936|
|30.||MG Henry Gibbins||April 1, 1936||March 31, 1940|
|31.||LTG Edmund B. Gregory||April 1, 1940||January 31, 1946|
|32.||MG Thomas B. Larkin||February 1, 1946||March 21, 1949|
|33.||MG Herman Feldman||March 21, 1949||September 28, 1951|
|34.||MG George A. Horkan||October 5, 1951||January 31, 1954|
|35.||MG Kester L. Hastings||February 5, 1954||March 31, 1957|
|36.||MG Andrew T. McNamara||June 12, 1957||June 12, 1961|
|37.||MG Webster Anderson||June 12, 1961||July 31, 1962|
|38.||MG Harry L. Dukes, Jr.||July 15, 1981||March 29, 1984|
|39.||MG Eugene L. Stillions, Jr.||March 29, 1984||June 4, 1987|
|40.||MG William T. McLean||June 15, 1987||July 14, 1989|
|41.||MG Paul J. Vanderploog||July 14, 1989||June 3, 1991|
|42.||BG John J. Cusick||July 24, 1991||August 3, 1993|
|43.||MG Robert K. Guest||August 3, 1993||June 21, 1996|
|44.||MG Henry T. Glisson||June 21, 1996||June 10, 1997|
|45.||MG James M. Wright||June 10, 1997||July 30, 1999|
|46.||MG Hawthorne L. Proctor||July 30, 1999||July 11, 2001|
|47.||MG Terry E. Juskowiak||July 11, 2001||May 16, 2003|
|48.||BG Scott G. West||May 16, 2003||August 11, 2005|
|49.||BG Mark A. Bellini||August 11, 2005||October 26, 2007|
|50.||BG Jesse R. Cross||October 26, 2007||November 22, 2010|
|51.||BG Gwen Bingham||November 22, 2010||August 30, 2012|
|52.||BG John E. O'Neil IV||June 14, 2013||June 9, 2014|
|53.||BG Ronald Kirklin||June 9, 2014||June 10, 2016|
|54.||BG Rodney D. Fogg||June 10, 2016||June 12, 2018|
|55.||BG Douglas M. McBride Jr||June 12, 2018||May 29, 2020|
|56.||COL Michelle K. Donahue||May 29, 2020||Present|
- Military supply
- Quartermaster Center and School
- Quartermaster Corps (United States Army)
- Quartermaster general
- All pages with titles beginning with Quartermaster
- Risch 30
- Risch 30-31
- "Notable Alumni: Hawthorne "Peet" Proctor '77." Notable Alumni. Alumni Association. Central Michigan University, no date, accessed 2013-06-16; "Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Hawthorne L. 'Peet' Proctor Joins Turn Key Office Solutions." Press release. Turn Key Office Solutions. March 6, 2006.
- Perry, Amy. "Lee Welcomes First Female Quartermaster General." Army.mil. November 24, 2010. Accessed 2013-06-16.
- Slayton, Jeremy. "Bingham to Receive Promotion to Brigadier General." Richmond Times-Dispatch. April 22, 2011. Accessed 2013-06-16.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-23. Retrieved 2008-10-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) List of Quartermaster Generals of the United States Army
- Bell, Terrance (June 2, 2020). "Col. Michelle Donahue becomes 56th Quartermaster General". U.S. Army. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
- Risch, Erna (1981). Supplying Washington's Army. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History.