National Assembly of Quebec

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Assemblée nationale du Québec
National Assembly of Quebec (English)
41st Quebec Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Founded December 31, 1968 (1968-12-31)
Preceded by Legislative Assembly of Quebec
Leadership
J. Michel Doyon
Since 24 September 2015
Jacques Chagnon, PLQ
Since 5 April 2011
Philippe Couillard, PLQ
Since 23 April 2014
Jean-Marc Fournier, PLQ
Since 23 April 2014
Jean-François Lisée, PQ
Since 7 October 2016
Opposition House Leader
Pascal Bérubé, PQ
Since 13 October 2016
Structure
Seats 125 members of Assembly
National Assembly of Quebec - Party Layout Chart Nov. 2016.svg
Political groups

Governing Party

Opposition Parties

Elections
First-past-the-post
Last election
April 7, 2014
Next election
October 1, 2018 or earlier
Meeting place
Salle Assemblee nationale Quebec.jpg
Parliament Building, Quebec City, Quebec
Website
www.assnat.qc.ca

The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the legislative body of the Province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs (Members of the National Assembly; French: députés). The Queen in Right of Quebec, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec[1] and the National Assembly compose the Legislature of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other Westminster-style parliamentary systems.

The National Assembly was formerly the lower house of Quebec's legislature and was then called the Legislative Assembly of Quebec. In 1968, the upper house, the Legislative Council, was abolished and the remaining house was renamed.

The current President of the National Assembly (equivalent to speaker in other legislatures) is Liberal MNA Jacques Chagnon.

History[edit]

The Legislative Assembly was created in Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791. It was abolished from 1841 to 1867 under the 1840 Act of Union which merged Upper Canada and Lower Canada into a single colony named the Province of Canada.

The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly the British North America Act), which created Canada, split the Province of Canada into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario. The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada was thus restored as the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec.

The original Quebec legislature was bicameral, consisting of the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly.

In 1968, Bill 90 was passed by the government of Premier Jean-Jacques Bertrand, abolishing the Legislative Council and renaming the Legislative Assembly the "National Assembly", in line with the more strident nationalism of the Quiet Revolution. Before 1968, there had been various unsuccessful attempts at abolishing the Legislative Council, which was analogous to the Senate of Canada.

In 1978, television cameras were brought in for the first time to televise parliamentary debates. The colour of the walls was changed to suit the needs of television and the salon vert (green hall) became the salon bleu (blue hall).

Parliament Building[edit]

Constructed between 1877 and 1886, the Parliament Building features the Second Empire architectural style[2] that was popular for prestigious buildings both in Europe (especially France where the style originated) and the United States during the latter 19th century. Although somewhat more sober in appearance and lacking a towering central belfry, Quebec City's Parliament Building bears a definite likeness to the Philadelphia City Hall, another Second Empire edifice in North America which was built during the same period. Even though the building's symmetrical layout with a frontal clock tower in the middle is typical of legislative institutions of British heritage, the architectural style is believed to be unique among parliament buildings found in other Canadian provincial capitals.[citation needed] Its facade presents a pantheon representing significant events and people of the history of Quebec.

The Fontaine de Tourny east of the Parliament Building

Additional buildings were added next to the Parliament Buildings:

  • Édifice André-Laurendeau was added from 1935 to 1937 to house the Ministry of Transport.
  • Édifice Honoré-Mercier was added from 1922 to 1925 to house the Ministries of the Treasury (Finances), the Attorney General and the Secretary General of the National Assembly.
  • Édifice Jean-Antoine-Panet was added from 1931 to 1932 for the Ministry of Agriculture.
  • Édifice Pamphile-Le May added from 1910 to 1915 for the Library of the National Assembly, various other government offices and for the Executive Council.

Elections[edit]

General elections are held every five years or less. Any person holding Canadian citizenship and who has resided in Quebec for at least six months qualifies to be on the electoral list.

Normally, the leader of the political party with the largest number of elected candidates is asked by the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec to form the government as premier. (In French, it is rendered as premier ministre. The term "prime minister" is commonly used by the government as a literal translation of the French term. In Canada's other provinces, whose heads of government are referred to in English as "premier", the title is similarly rendered "premier ministre" in French, too. The term literally means "First Minister," a term in Canada when referred to plural, "First Ministers," refers collectively to the Provincial Premiers and the Prime Minister of Canada).

Quebec's territory is divided into 125 electoral districts (ridings). In each riding, the candidate who receives the most votes is elected and becomes a Member of the National Assembly (MNA). This is known as the first-past-the-post voting system. It tends to produce strong disparities in the number of seats won compared to the popular vote, perhaps best exemplified by the 1966, 1970, 1973, and 1998 elections.

Quebec elections have also tended to be volatile since the 1970s, producing a large turnover in Assembly seats. Consequently, existing political parties often lose more than half their seats with the rise of new or opposition political parties. For instance, the 1970 and 1973 saw the demise of the Union Nationale and rise of the Parti Québécois which managed to take power in 1976. The 1985 and 1994 elections saw the Liberals gain and lose power in landslide elections.

Members[edit]

Current Standing[edit]

Cabinet ministers are in bold, party leaders are in italic and the president of the National Assembly is marked with a †.

Name Party Riding
  Bourgeois, GuyGuy Bourgeois Liberal Abitibi-Est
  Gendron, FrançoisFrançois Gendron Parti Québécois Abitibi-Ouest
  St-Pierre, ChristineChristine St-Pierre Liberal Acadie
  Thériault, LiseLise Thériault Liberal Anjou–Louis-Riel
  St-Denis, YvesYves St-Denis Liberal Argenteuil
  Lefebvre, ÉricÉric Lefebvre CAQ Arthabaska
  Spénard, AndréAndré Spénard CAQ Beauce-Nord
  Busque, PaulPaul Busque Liberal Beauce-Sud
  Leclair, GuyGuy Leclair Parti Québécois Beauharnois
  Vien, DominiqueDominique Vien Liberal Bellechasse
  Villeneuve, AndréAndré Villeneuve Parti Québécois Berthier
  Cousineau, ClaudeClaude Cousineau Parti Québécois Bertrand
  Laframboise, MarioMario Laframboise CAQ Blainville
  Roy, SylvainSylvain Roy Parti Québécois Bonaventure
  Jolin-Barrette, SimonSimon Jolin-Barrette CAQ Borduas
  de Santis, RitaRita de Santis Liberal Bourassa-Sauvé
  Kotto, MakaMaka Kotto Parti Québécois Bourget
  Paradis, PierrePierre Paradis Liberal Brome-Missisquoi
  Independent (since January 26, 2017)
  Roberge, Jean-FrançoisJean-François Roberge CAQ Chambly
  Auger, Pierre-MichelPierre-Michel Auger Liberal Champlain
  Carrière, MarcMarc Carrière Liberal Chapleau
  Blais, FrançoisFrançois Blais Liberal Charlesbourg
  Simard, CarolineCaroline Simard Liberal Charlevoix–Côte-de-Beaupré
  Moreau, PierrePierre Moreau Liberal Châteauguay
  Tremblay, VéronyqueVéronyque Tremblay Liberal Chauveau
  Jean, MireilleMireille Jean Parti Québécois Chicoutimi
  Ouellette, GuyGuy Ouellette Liberal Chomedey
  Picard, MarcMarc Picard CAQ Chutes-de-la-Chaudière
  Morin, NorbertNorbert Morin Liberal Côte-du-Sud
  Montpetit, MarieMarie Montpetit Liberal Crémazie
  Birnbaum, DavidDavid Birnbaum Liberal D'Arcy-McGee
  Charette, BenoitBenoit Charette CAQ Deux-Montagnes
  Schneeberger, SébastienSébastien Schneeberger CAQ Drummond–Bois-Francs
  Simard, SergeSerge Simard Liberal Dubuc
  Richard, LorraineLorraine Richard Parti Québécois Duplessis
  Sauvé, MoniqueMonique Sauvé Liberal Fabre
  Lelièvre, GaétanGaétan Lelièvre Parti Québécois Gaspé
  Independent (since May 15, 2017)
  Vallée, StéphanieStéphanie Vallée Liberal Gatineau
  Nadeau-Dubois, GabrielGabriel Nadeau-Dubois Québec solidaire Gouin
  Bonnardel, FrançoisFrançois Bonnardel CAQ Granby
  Surprenant, ClaudeClaude Surprenant CAQ Groulx
  Independent (since January 24, 2017)
  Poirier, CaroleCarole Poirier Parti Québécois Hochelaga-Maisonneuve
  Gaudreault, MaryseMaryse Gaudreault Libéral Hull
  Billette, StéphaneStéphane Billette Libéral Huntingdon
  Samson, ClaireClaire Samson CAQ Iberville
  Chevarie, GermainGermain Chevarie Liberal Îles-de-la-Madeleine
  Kelley, GeoffreyGeoffrey Kelley Liberal Jacques-Cartier
  Drolet, AndréAndré Drolet Liberal Jean-Lesage
  Rotiroti, FilomenaFilomena Rotiroti Liberal Jeanne-Mance–Viger
  Proulx, SébastienSébastien Proulx Liberal Jean-Talon
  Lamontagne, AndréAndré Lamontagne CAQ Johnson
  Hivon, VéroniqueVéronique Hivon Parti Québécois Joliette
  Gaudreault, SylvainSylvain Gaudreault Parti Québécois Jonquière
  Pagé, SylvainSylvain Pagé Parti Québécois Labelle
  Cloutier, AlexandreAlexandre Cloutier Parti Québécois Lac-Saint-Jean
  Tanguay, MarcMarc Tanguay Liberal LaFontaine
  Caire, ÉricÉric Caire CAQ La Peltrie
  Barrette, GaétanGaétan Barrette Liberal La Pinière
  Ménard, NicoleNicole Ménard Liberal Laporte
  Merlini, RichardRichard Merlini Liberal La Prairie
  Legault, FrançoisFrançois Legault CAQ L'Assomption
  Sklavounos, GerryGerry Sklavounos Liberal Laurier-Dorion
  Independent (since October 20, 2016)
  Polo, SaulSaul Polo Liberal Laval-des-Rapides
  Boulet, JulieJulie Boulet Liberal Laviolette
  Paradis, FrançoisFrançois Paradis CAQ Lévis
  Lessard, LaurentLaurent Lessard Liberal Lotbinière-Frontenac
  vacant Louis-Hébert
  Poëti, RobertRobert Poëti Liberal Marguerite-Bourgeoys
  Fournier, CatherineCatherine Fournier Parti Québécois Marie-Victorin
  Ouimet, FrançoisFrançois Ouimet Liberal Marquette
  Plante, MarcMarc Plante Liberal Maskinongé
  Lemay, MathieuMathieu Lemay CAQ Masson
  Bérubé, PascalPascal Bérubé Parti Québécois Matane-Matapédia
  Bolduc, GhislainGhislain Bolduc Liberal Mégantic
  Khadir, AmirAmir Khadir Québec solidaire Mercier
  Charbonneau, FrancineFrancine Charbonneau Liberal Mille-Îles
  D'Amours, SylvieSylvie D'Amours CAQ Mirabel
  Roy, NathalieNathalie Roy CAQ Montarville
  Bernier, RaymondRaymond Bernier Liberal Montmorency
  Arcand, PierrePierre Arcand Liberal Mont-Royal
  Coiteux, MartinMartin Coiteux Liberal Nelligan
  Martel, DonaldDonald Martel CAQ Nicolet-Bécancour
  Weil, KathleenKathleen Weil Liberal Notre-Dame-de-Grâce
  Reid, PierrePierre Reid Liberal Orford
  David, HélèneHélène David Liberal Outremont
  Iracà, AlexandreAlexandre Iracà Liberal Papineau
  Léger, NicoleNicole Léger Parti Québécois Pointe-aux-Trembles
  Fortin, AndréAndré Fortin Liberal Pontiac
  Matte, MichelMichel Matte Liberal Portneuf
  Ouellet, MartinMartin Ouellet Parti Québécois René-Lévesque
  Lavallée, LiseLise Lavallée CAQ Repentigny
  Rochon, SylvainSylvain Rochon Parti Québécois Richelieu
  Vallières, KarineKarine Vallières Liberal Richmond
  LeBel, HaroldHarold LeBel Parti Québécois Rimouski
  D'Amour, JeanJean D'Amour Liberal Rivière-du-Loup–Témiscouata
  Leitão, CarlosCarlos Leitão Liberal Robert-Baldwin
  Couillard, PhilippePhilippe Couillard Liberal Roberval
  Lisée, Jean-FrançoisJean-François Lisée Parti Québécois Rosemont
  Marceau, NicolasNicolas Marceau Parti Québécois Rousseau
  Blanchette, LucLuc Blanchette Liberal Rouyn-Noranda–Témiscamingue
  Hardy, GuyGuy Hardy Liberal Saint-François
  Anglade, DominiqueDominique Anglade Liberal Saint-Henri–Sainte-Anne
  Soucy, ChantalChantal Soucy CAQ Saint-Hyacinthe
  Turcotte, DaveDave Turcotte Parti Québécois Saint-Jean
  Bourcier, MarcMarc Bourcier Parti Québécois Saint-Jérôme
  Fournier, Jean-MarcJean-Marc Fournier Liberal Saint-Laurent
  Massé, ManonManon Massé Québec solidaire Sainte-Marie–Saint-Jacques
  Giguère, PierrePierre Giguère Liberal Saint-Maurice
  Habel, JeanJean Habel Liberal Sainte-Rose
  Therrien, AlainAlain Therrien Parti Québécois Sanguinet
  Fortin, LucLuc Fortin Liberal Sherbrooke
  Charlebois, LucieLucie Charlebois Liberal Soulanges
  Lamarre, DianeDiane Lamarre Parti Québécois Taillon
  Maltais, AgnèsAgnès Maltais Parti Québécois Taschereau
  Traversy, MathieuMathieu Traversy Parti Québécois Terrebonne
  Girard, Jean-DenisJean-Denis Girard Liberal Trois-Rivières
  Boucher, JeanJean Boucher Liberal Ungava
  Ouellet, MartineMartine Ouellet Parti Québécois Vachon
  Independent (since February 5, 2017)
  Huot, PatrickPatrick Huot Liberal Vanier-Les Rivières
  Nichols, Marie-ClaudeMarie-Claude Nichols Liberal Vaudreuil
  Bergeron, StéphaneStéphane Bergeron Parti Québécois Verchères
  Melançon, IsabelleIsabelle Melançon Liberal Verdun
  Heurtel, DavidDavid Heurtel Liberal Viau
  Rousselle, JeanJean Rousselle Liberal Vimont
  Chagnon, JacquesJacques Chagnon Liberal Westmount–Saint-Louis

Seating Plan[edit]

Fournier Jean Ouellet Villeneuve Ouellet Traversy Kotto Turcotte Roy D'Amours Lemay Lavallée Lamontagne Surprenant Lefebvre
Cousineau Pagé Gaudreault Therrien Cloutier Poirier Rochon Richard Leclair Schneeberger Laframboise Roberge Samson Soucy
Gendron Lelièvre Léger Marceau Hivon LISÉE Bérubé Maltais Lamarre Bourcier Charette Martel Roy Spénard Sauvé Khadir
Bergeron LeBel Caire LEGAULT Bonnardel Paradis Busque Massé
Picard Tremblay
Jolin-Barrette St-Denis
Chagnon
Chevarie Habel
Matte Giguère Plante
S. Simard A. Fortin Polo
Barrette Lessard Vallée Kelley Huot Ouellette Bourgeois Montpetit
Ouimet Charbonneau Blais Paradis Thériault COUILLARD Fournier Leitão Anglade Coiteux David Proulx D'Amour Iracà Boucher Merlini
Bolduc Reid St-Pierre L. Fortin Billette Vien Arcand Heurtel Sklavounos Charlebois Blanchette Morin Rousselle Birnbaum Hardy
Gaudreault Nichols Bernier De Santis Weil Ménard Tanguay Boulet Rotiroti Carrière Poeti Girard Drolet Vallières Auger C. Simard

Members of the National Assembly (MNAs) swear two oaths: one to the Canadian monarch as Quebec’s head of state, and a second one to the people of Quebec. Previous Parti Québécois premier René Lévesque added the second oath.[3]

Most recent election[edit]

e • d Summary of the April 7, 2014, National Assembly of Quebec election results[4]
Party[5] Party leader[5] Candidates[4] Seats Popular vote
2012 Dissol. 2014 Change  % Number  % Change (pp)
Liberal Philippe Couillard 125 50 49 70 +21 56.00 1,757,071 41.52 +10.32
Parti Québécois Pauline Marois 124 54 54 30 -24 24.00 1,074,120 25.38 -6.57
Coalition Avenir Québec François Legault 122 19 18 22 +4 17.60 975,607 23.05 -4.00
Québec solidaire Françoise David, Andrés Fontecilla 124 2 2 3 +1 2.40 323,124 7.63 +1.60
Option nationale Sol Zanetti 116 30,697 0.73 -1.16
Green Alex Tyrrell 44 23,163 0.55 -0.44
Conservative Adrien Pouliot 59 16,429 0.39 +0.21
  Independent 11 2 15,361 0.36 +0.09
Parti nul Renaud Blais 24 7,539 0.18 +0.12
Bloc Pot Hugô St-Onge 14 2,690 0.06 +0.05
Marxist–Leninist Pierre Chénier 24 2,016 0.05 ±0.00
Parti équitable Patricia Domingos 5 1,645 0.04 +0.04
Parti des sans Parti Frank Malenfant 5 1,291 0.03 -0.09††
Mon pays le Québec Claude Dupré 6 * * 521 0.01 *
Autonomist Team Guy Boivin 5 400 0.01 -0.04
Unité Nationale Paul Biron 3 241 0.01 -0.02
Quebec – Democratic Revolution Robert Genesse 1 163 0.00 -0.01
Parti indépendantiste Michel Lepage 1 126 0.00 -0.03
Quebec Citizens' Union Marc-André Lacroix 1 58 0.00 -0.05
Total 814 125 125 125 0 100.00 4,232,262 100.00
Valid ballots 4,232,262 98.54 -0.24
Rejected ballots 62,793 1.46 +0.24
Voter turnout 4,295,055 71.44 -3.16
Registered electors 6,012,440

Notes:

The party designates David and Fontecilla as co-spokespeople. The party's power is held by the general meetings of the members and a board of 16 directors; the de jure leader recognized by the Chief Electoral Officer of Quebec (DGE) is Pierre-Paul St-Onge.[5]
†† Party contested the 2012 election under the name Coalition pour la constituante.
* Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election.

Changes during the 41st Quebec Legislature[edit]

Number of members
per party by date
2014 2015 2016 2017
Apr 7 Aug 15 Sep 29 Oct 20 Feb 26 Mar 9 Apr 7 Jun 8 Aug 21 Aug 24 Aug 26 Sep 3 Sep 22 Oct 22 Nov 9 Apr 11 May 2 Jun 13 Jul 31 Aug 19 Oct 20 Dec 5 Jan 19 Jan 24 Jan 26 Feb 5 Apr 27 May 16 May 29
Liberal 70 69 71 70 69 68 71 70 69 70 69 68
Parti Québécois 30 29 30 29 28 29 30 29 28 30 29 28
Coalition Avenir Québec 22 21 22 21 20 21 20
Québec solidaire 3 2 3
Independent 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
  Total members 125 124 123 124 123 124 123 125 124 123 122 121 120 124 125 124 123 122 121 125 124 123 124
Vacant 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 1
  Government majority 15 16 17 16 15 14 15 17 16 15 16 15 16 18 17 18 19 20 19 18 15 16 15 14 13

Proceedings[edit]

One of the members of the National Assembly is chosen as the President of the Assembly (a post called Speaker in most other Westminster System assemblies) by the Premier with the support of the Leader of the Opposition. The President of the Assembly is the arbiter of the parliamentary debates between the members of the government and the members of the Opposition. In order for a member to address a member of the other side, he or she has to speak through the President of the Assembly. The President is usually a member of the governing party, although there is no requirement for this.

The proceedings of the National Assembly are broadcast across Quebec on the cable television network Canal de l'Assemblée nationale.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific
  1. ^ An Act respecting the National Assembly, CQLR 1982, c. A-23.1, s. 2 .
  2. ^ Useful Information - National Assembly of Québec. Assnat.qc.ca (2012-10-29). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  3. ^ http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/government+Quebecers+Couillard+says/9750667/story.html
  4. ^ a b "General elections". DGE. Retrieved May 7, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c "Political parties". DGE. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
Bibliography
  • Assemblé nationale du Québec (2000). What is the National Assembly?, Québec: Assemblée nationale, 58 p. (ISBN 2-550-30165-X)
  • Deschênes, Gaston (1983). The Assemblée nationale: Its Organization and Parliamentary Procedure, Québec: Assemblée nationale, 53 p. (ISBN 2551047595) [1st ed. in 1977]

External links[edit]