Queen Anne's Revenge

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Coordinates: 34°41′44″N 76°41′20″W / 34.69556°N 76.68889°W / 34.69556; -76.68889

Queen Anne's Revenge.JPG
Illustration of Queen Anne's Revenge published in 1736
Career (UK) Kingdom of Great Britain
Name: HMS Concord[1]
Launched: 1710
Captured: by France in 1711
Career (France) Kingdom of France
Name: La Concorde de Nantes
Captured: By Benjamin Hornigold in 1717, placed under the command of Blackbeard
Career (Pirates) Blackbeard's flag
Name: Queen Anne's Revenge
Fate: Ran aground in 1718 near Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina
General characteristics
Class and type: Frigate
Tons burthen: 300 bm
Length: 31.4 m (103 ft)
Beam: 7.1 m (24.6 ft)
Complement: 125
Armament: 40 cannon[not verified in body]
Queen Anne's Revenge
Nearest city Atlantic Beach, North Carolina
Area less than one acre
Built 1710
Governing body State
NRHP Reference # 04000148[2]
Added to NRHP March 9, 2004

Queen Anne's Revenge was a frigate, most famously used as a flagship by the pirate Blackbeard (Edward Teach). She had been launched by the Royal Navy in 1710, and captured by France in 1711. She was used as a slave ship by the French, and was captured by pirates in 1717. Blackbeard used the ship for less than a year,[3] but captured numerous prizes using her.

In 1718 Blackbeard ran the ship aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in the present-day Carteret County.[3] Her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In 1996 a private firm discovered the remains of a vessel likely to be Queen Anne's Revenge, which has been added to the US National Register of Historic Places.

History[edit]

The 300-ton vessel, originally named Concord, was a frigate built in England in 1710.[1] She was captured by the French one year later. The ship was modified to hold more cargo, including slaves, and renamed La Concorde de Nantes. Sailing as a slave ship, she was captured by the pirate Captain Benjamin Hornigold on November 28, 1717, near the island of Martinique. Hornigold turned her over to one of his men, Edward Teach (later known as Blackbeard), and made him her captain.

Blackbeard made La Concorde into his flagship, adding cannon and renaming her Queen Anne's Revenge. The name may come from the War of the Spanish Succession, known in the Americas as Queen Anne's War, in which Blackbeard had served in the Royal Navy, or possibly from sympathy for Queen Anne, the last Stuart monarch.[4] Blackbeard sailed this ship from the west coast of Africa to the Caribbean, attacking British, Dutch, and Portuguese merchant ships along the way.

Shortly after blockading Charleston harbor in May 1718, and refusing to accept the Governor's offer of a pardon, Blackbeard ran Queen Anne's Revenge aground while entering Beaufort Inlet. He disbanded his flotilla and escaped by transferring supplies onto a smaller ship, Adventure. He stranded several crew members on a small island nearby, where they were later rescued by Captain Stede Bonnet. Some[5] suggest Blackbeard deliberately grounded the ship as an excuse to disperse the crew. Shortly afterward, Blackbeard did surrender and accepted a royal pardon for himself and his remaining crewmen from Governor Charles Eden at Bath, North Carolina. However, he eventually returned to piracy and was killed in combat in November 1718.[1]

Discovery and archaeological excavation of shipwreck[edit]

Intersal Inc., a private research firm, discovered the wreck believed to be Queen Anne’s Revenge (QAR) on November 21, 1996.[6] It was located by Intersal's director of operations, Mike Daniel, who used historical research provided by Intersal's president, Phil Masters[7][8] and maritime archaeologist David Moore.[9] The shipwreck lies in 28 feet (8.5m) of water about one mile (1.6 km) offshore of Fort Macon State Park (34°41′44″N 76°41′20″W), Atlantic Beach, North Carolina. Thirty-one cannon have been identified to date and more than 250,000 artifacts have been recovered.[10] The cannon are of different origins such as; Swedish, English and possibly French, and of different sizes as would be expected with a colonial pirate crew.[1]

Recognizing the significance of the Queen Anne's Revenge, the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources (NCDCR), Intersal, and Maritime Research Institute (“MRI”) entered into a memorandum of agreement in 1998.[11] Intersal agreed to forego entitlement to any coins and precious metals recovered from QAR in order that all QAR artifacts remain as one intact collection, and in order for NCDCR to determine the ultimate disposition of the artifacts. In return, Intersal was granted media, replica, and other rights related to Blackbeard’s Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project;[12] MRI was granted joint QAR artifact touring rights with NCDCR. NCDCR, Intersal, and Rick Allen of Nautilus Productions signed a new collaborative agreement[13] on October 24, 2013 connected to QAR commercial, replica, and promotional opportunities for the benefit of QAR. The State of North Carolina owns QAR since the wreck lies in state waters (within the 3 mile limit).

For one week in 2000 and 2001, live underwater video of the project was webcast to the Internet as a part of the QAR DiveLive[14] educational program that reached thousands of children around the world.[15] Created and co-produced by Nautilus Productions and Marine Grafics, this project enabled students to talk to scientists and learn about methods and technologies utilized by the underwater archaeology team.[16][17]

In November 2006 and 2007, more artifacts were discovered at the site and brought to the surface. The additional artifacts appear to support the claim that the wreck is that of Queen Anne's Revenge. Among current evidence to support this theory is that the cannon were found loaded. In addition, there were more cannon than would be expected for a ship of this size, and the cannon were of different makes. Depth markings on the part of the stern that was recovered point to it having been made according to the French foot measurements.[18]

By the end of 2007, approximately 1/3 of the wreck was fully excavated. Artifacts are undergoing conservation. The North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources set up the website[19] Queen Anne's Revenge to build on intense public interest in the finds. Artifacts recovered in 2008 include loose ceramic and pewter fragments, lead strainer fragments, a nesting weight, cannon apron, ballast stones, a sword guard and a coin.[20]

Goals during the 2010 field season included; staging of one of the ship’s largest main deck cannons from to the large artifact holding area on site, taking corrosion readings from anchors and cannon undergoing in situ corrosion treatment, attaching aluminum-alloy anodes to the remaining anchors and cannon so as to begin their in situ corrosion treatment and continuing site excavations.[21]

In 2011, the 1.4-tonne (3,100 lb) anchor from the ship was brought to the surface along with a range of makeshift weaponry including langrage or canister shot.[22][23]

On August 29, 2011, the National Geographic Society reported that the State of North Carolina had confirmed the shipwreck as the Queen Anne's Revenge, renouncing the official scientific skepticism that had been previously maintained because of a lack of conclusive evidence.[24]

On June 21, 2013, the National Geographic Society reported recovery of cannon from Queen Anne's Revenge.[25]

On October 28, 2013, archaeologists recovered five more cannon from the wreck.[26] Three of these guns have been identified as 6-pounder iron cannon manufactured at Ehrendals works in Södermanland, Sweden, in 1713. Thomas Roth, the Head of Sweden's Armament Museum Research Department, derived the origin of the iron cannon by a mark on the cannon tubes.[27]

The 23rd of 31 cannon identified on the Queen Anne's Revenge wreck site was recovered on Friday, October 24, 2014. The newest gun is approximately 56" long, weighs over 300 lbs and may be a sister to a Swedish gun that was previously recovered. Nine cannonballs, bar shot halves, an iron bolt and a grenado were also recovered during the 2014 field season. [28]

On August 18, 2015 the State of North Carolina passed a new law laying questionable claim to "all photographs, video recordings, or other documentary materials of a derelict vessel or shipwreck or its contents, relics, artifacts, or historic materials in the custody of any agency of North Carolina government or its subdivisions."[29]

National Register of Historic Places[edit]

Queen Anne's Revenge was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. The reference number is 04000148. It is listed as owned by the state of North Carolina and near Morehead City.[30] The wreck site is designated 31CR314 by the state of North Carolina.[31]

In popular culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d D. Moore. (1997) "A General History of Blackbeard the Pirate, the Queen Anne's Revenge and the Adventure". In Tributaries, Volume VII, 1997. pp. 31–35. (North Carolina Maritime History Council)
  2. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09. 
  3. ^ a b Brian Handwerk (2005-07-12). ""Blackbeard's Ship" Yields New Clues to Pirate Mystery". National Geographic. Retrieved 2011-05-27. 
  4. ^ republicofpirates.net
  5. ^ [David Cordingly, Life Among The Pirates, Abacus, London 1996.]
  6. ^ "QAR Discovered". lat3440.com. Intersal, Inc. Retrieved 30 August 2015. 
  7. ^ "In Shipwreck Linked to Pirate, State Sees a Tourism Treasure". New York Times. 
  8. ^ http://www.history.ncdcr.gov/centennial/features/qar.htm
  9. ^ Gray, Nancy (February 1998). "Maps and microfilm: tools of a Blackbeard sleuth". The ECU Report. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 
  10. ^ http://www.islandgazette.net/news-server1/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9534:250000-pieces-
  11. ^ "Queen Anne's Revenge Fact Sheet" (PDF). qaronline.org. 
  12. ^ "Blackbeard's Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project". Nautilus Productions. 
  13. ^ "Mediated Settlement Agreement". Scribd.com. 
  14. ^ http://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/ref/collection/p249901coll22/id/695248
  15. ^ C Southerly and J Gillman-Bryan. (2003). "Diving on the Queen Anne's Revenge". In: SF Norton (ed). Diving for Science...2003. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (22nd Annual Scientific Diving Symposium). Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  16. ^ "Apple, QuickTime help with underwater diving trip". Macworld. 
  17. ^ "Blackbeard's Glowing Shipwreck". P3 Update. 
  18. ^ "Secrets of the Dead: Blackbeard's Lost Ship". pbs.org. 
  19. ^ qaronline.org: The Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project - Archaeological Investigations of Blackbeard's Flagship.
  20. ^ Welsh, Wendy. "2008 Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Field Summary" (PDF). qaronline.org. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  21. ^ Southerly, Chris. "Queen Anne’s Revenge Shipwreck Project - 2010 Field Expedition" (PDF). qaronline.org. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  22. ^ "Blackbeard's Queen Anne's Revenge wreck reveals secrets of the real Pirate of the Caribbean". The Daily Telegraph, UK. May 29, 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2011. 
  23. ^ BBC news report
  24. ^ Drye, Willie (August 29, 2011). "Blackbeard's Ship Confirmed off North Carolina". Daily News. National Geographic. Retrieved August 29, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Archaeologists Recover Two More Cannons From Blackbeard’s Ship". National Geographic. June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Archaeologists recover 5 cannons from wreck of Blackbeard's ship". Fox News. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  27. ^ "Kapten Svartskägg sköt svenskt". NyTeknik. November 4, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2015. 
  28. ^ "Pirate Blackbeard's Newly Recovered Cannon to be Shared with Public". Popular Archaeology. October 31, 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  29. ^ "HB 184" (PDF). ncleg. 
  30. ^ "National Register of Historical Places - NORTH CAROLINA (NC), Carteret County". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-02-07. 
  31. ^ "The Shipwreck". qaronline.org. 
  32. ^ [1] Queen Anne's Revenge CD
  33. ^ PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN
    ON STRANGER TIDES - Production Notes...CinemaReview.com Movie Reviews, Movie Contents, Moviegoer Opinions and Much More!
  34. ^ [2] The Queen Anne’s Revenge Sets Sail!

External links[edit]